During the Middle Ages surnames were first used in order to distinguish between numbers of people bearing the same christian name. As taxation, under William The Conqueror, who invaded England in 1066, became the law, documentation became essential, and names were chosen from a man's trade, his father's name, some personal physical characteristic, or from his place of residence. In the case of the name WINYARD it was a locational name meaning 'one who lived or worked in a vineyard'. Wine growing was formerly more common in England than it is now. The name was originally rendered in the Old English form WIN (wine) + GEARD (yard, enclosure). The earliest of the name on record appears to be Sarra de WINIARD, who was recorded in 1212 in County Berkshire, and Juliana de la WINGARDE, was documented in Somerset in the year 1327. Surnames derived from placenames are divided into two broad categories; topographic names and habitation names. Topographic names are derived from general descriptive references to someone who lived near a physical feature such as an oak tree, a hill, a stream or a church. Habitation names are derived from pre-existing names denoting towns, villages and farmsteads. Other classes of local names include those derived from the names of rivers, individual houses with signs on them, regions and whole countries. Later instances of the name include Edwin de WINYARD of Yorkshire, who was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. The name is also spelt WYNYARD, WINGARD, WINNARD and WINGAR. In the Middle Ages heraldry came into use as a practical matter. It originated in the devices used to distinguish the armoured warriors in tournament and war, and was also placed on seals as marks of identity. As far as records show, true heraldry began in the middle of the 12th century, and appeared almost simultaneously in several countries of Western Europe. The associated coat of arms is recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Ulster King of Arms in 1884. The lion depicted in the arms is the noblest of all wild beasts which is made to be the emblem of strength and valour, and is on that account the most frequently borne in Coat-Armour.
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