This Dutch surname of TUYNMAN was a locational name 'the dweller at the town' from residence therein; originally an enclosure, a farmstead, a farm with all its outbuildings. Dutchmen who have surnames from towns, cities or districts, are mostly distinguished by the prefix VAN. In the United States the use of capital and initial letters and spaces is optional with the particular family. The Dutch language is most closely related to Low German, and its surnames have been influenced both by German and French naming practices. The preposition 'van' is found especially with habitation names, and the 'de' mainly with nicknames. Compared to other countries, Dutch heraldry is notably simpler, some of the shields bearing only a single charge. Generally speaking one helmet, one shield and one crest has been used, quartering is uncommon and mottoes are rare.The name was taken into Ireland by early settlers, where it was derived from a personal name to the Gaelic O'Tomhrair. This family of the Cenel Eoghain possessed territory on the banks of the Foyle, and later moved into County Kerry. The name has always been numerous in Ulster, particularly now in counties Armagh and Derry. Other spellings of the name include TOWNE, TOON, TOONE, TUNE and TOWNES. Early records of the name mention Hugh Tunere, 1242. Andrew le Toner was documented in County Suffolk, in the year 1327. Most of the European surnames in countries such as England, Scotland and France were formed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The process had started somewhat earlier and had continued in some places into the 19th century, but the norm is that in the tenth and eleventh centuries people did not have surnames, whereas by the fifteenth century most of the population had acquired a second name. Between the 11th and 15th centuries it became customary for surnames to be assumed in Europe, but were not commonplace in England or Scotland before the Norman Conquest of 1066. They are to be found in the Domesday Book of 1086. Those of gentler blood assumed surnames at this time, but it was not until the reign of Edward II (1307-1327) that second names became general practice for all people.
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