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Scottish Clans and Their Tartans


'Nowhere beats the heart so kindly As beneath the tartan plaid." AYTOUN.
























13. CUMIN.















27. GRANT.

28. GUNN.



31. KERR. .
















































79. MUNRO.





84. ROB ROY.

85. ROSE.

86. Ross.

87. SCOTT.


89. SKENE.








0. Ctom ff ioi or Jfae'caiu.

7. Clan KuHoM o/ Loekaber.

8. JfextonaUj o/ Iftppoc*.

28. Stewart*.

. Macgrepori. 36.

10. 11. 1 J.
15. Menorcky Campbtll 14.

16. C(an 0nac*y or


28. Maeaulayt.

29. C/nn /M?iW (SotitA).

30. M'AUuter*. tl.CampbtlU.


HE Scottish Highlanders are the remnant of the great Celtic race which remained untouched by the Roman and Saxon invasions on the south, and the Danes on the east and west of the country, and they were the last to oppose with , perfect success the otherwise conquering arms of Rome.

When, in the year 81 of the Christian era, Agricola invaded North Britain, it was inhabited by twenty-one aboriginal tribes or clans.

The introduction of clanship and tartans seems to be beyond the reach of history, but Logan, in his Scottish Gael (vol. i., p. 230), gives the following extract from the charge and discharge of John, Bishop of Glasgow, Treasurer to King James III., 1471 :

"Ane elne and ane halve of Blue Tartane, to

lyne his gowne of cloth of gold . .
sparwort aboun his credill, price ane

elne 10s 2, 5s.

" Halve ane elne of doble Tartane, to lyne

ridin collars to her lady the Queen, price 8 shillins."

In the accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, in August 1538, are entries regarding a Highland dress for King James V., on the occasion of that monarch making a hunting excursion to the Highlands. The dress was made of vari-coloured tartan.

In more modern times the following references may be quoted. In 1640, General Leslie states that the Highlanders under his command were composed of men of the same name or clan; as to the Tartan, reference is made as to its price in the Acts of Parliament of Scotland in 1661. In the ornamental title to Bleau's Map of Scotland, published in 1654, two Highlanders are represented in striped clothes, one of them wearing the " Belted Plaid," consisting of a large and long piece of pi aiding, which was so folded and confined by a belt round the waist as to form a complete dress, plaid and kilt in one piece. This is sup- posed to be the origin of the now highly ornamental Highland dress.


Charles the Second, at his marriage in 1662, wore Royal Stuart tartan ribbons on his dress.

Tartan is not a Gaelic word ; the striped or spotted cloth under this name is called "Breacan," derived from breac, chequered. Various coloured cloths have, from a very early period, been worn by the several Highland Clans ; originally tartan was worn only by the natives inhabiting the Highlands, which not only excluded the Lowlands or Border counties on the south, but also the north-east of the country. The line of demarcation is laid down on the accompanying map, showing the districts inhabited by the various Clans.

In modern times many tartans have been invented and manufactured, named after the Border tribes of the Lowlands, such as Douglas, John- ston, Lindsay, Dundas, etc.; these, although not considered Clan Tartans, are also shown in this work.

On the 1st day of August 1747 (O.'S.), after the rising of 1745, an Act was passed forbidding the wearing of tartan, as any part of a High- land dress, under the penalty of six months' imprisonment for the first offence, and transportation beyond seas for seven years for the second.

No Highlander could receive the benefit of the Act of Indemnity without first taking the following dreadful oath :

" I, A. B., do swear, and as I shall answer to God at the great day of judgment, I have not, nor shall have, in my possession any gun, sword, pistol, or arm whatsoever, and never use tartan, plaid, or any part of the Highland garb ; and if I do so, may I be cursed in my undertakings, family, and property, may I never see my wife and children, father, mother, or relations, may I be killed in battle as a coward, and lie without Christian burial, in a strange land, far from the graves of my forefathers and kindred ; may all this come across me if I break my oath." Dr James Browne's History of the Highland Clans, 1859.

This severe and harsh Act, as might have been expected, was most unpopular, and, in consequence of the discontent created by it, it was in 1782 repealed through the influence of the gallant Duke of Montrose. When the last hope of the restoration of the Stewart dynasty was extinguished at Culloden, " Culloden ! which reeks with the blood of the brave," the influence of the Clans was greatly weakened, and by the making of military roads through the Highlands by General Wade, the face of the country and the habits of the people have been completely changed.

" Yet when time shall have drawn its veil over the past, as over the


present, when the last broadsword shall have been broken on the anvil, and the shreds of the last plaid been tossed by the winds upon the cairn, or bleached within the raven's nest, posterity may look back with regret to a people who have so marked the history, the poetry, and the achieve- ments of distant ages, and who, in the ranks of the British army, have stood foremost in the line of battle and given place to none."

Every now and then we hear an absurd story revived that the Feileadh beaa, the present Highland dress, was first introduced in 1728 by Kawlinson, or Parkinson, an Englishman, the superintendent of the lead mines at Tyndrum, who, finding his Highland labourers encumbered with their belted plaids, taught them to separate the plaid from the kilt and sew it in its present form. This opinion was first broached by an anonymous writer in the Scots Magazine in the year 1798, or seventy years after the event is said to have taken place. It is very strange that this individual was the only person who knew of such a thing, and that he should be so long in making it public !

There are too many descriptions and portraits of gentlemen in the Highland dress long anterior to 1728 to render this absurd story of any value. It is introduced here from a very learned article by Mr J. G. Mackay, of Portree, on " The Highland Garb," read by him before the Gaelic Society of Inverness in 1883.

It should be borne in mind that many Clans have from one to five various tartans, such as the common Clan Tartan, the Chiefs Tartan, worn only by himself and heir, the Dress Tartan, the Hunting Tartan, and Mourning Tartan. The ignorance of this fact leads to many disputes as to the correctness of a particular tartan, it being generally supposed that a clan had only one tartan.

The historical accounts of the various Clans are mostly extracted from the large quarto work, The Tartans of the Clans of Scotland, by the same publishers, edited by the late James Grant, author of The JRomance of War, and other popular works.

For others, the publishers have been indebted to Logan's Scottish Gael, Milan's Clans, and to D. M 'Isaac, Esq., of Oban, for several original histories, and the list of dyes used in staining the tartans. In the present edition several corrections have been received from Chiefs of Clans and others, and a list of Badges and War Cries have been introduced. In every case the tartans in the book have been taken thread by thread from the actual cloth, not from any previously printed work.


The items in the following list have been gleaned from various sources. Many of the dyes are still employed in the Highlands.



Do. Blue

Do. Brown (yellowish)



Do. (dark)


Do. (dark) Flesh Colour Grey Green



Do. (dark) Magenta Orange (dark) Purple

Do. Red Do. Do. Do.

Scarlet Violet Yellow







Do. (bright)

GAELIC. Riisg-Fearna Bun na Copaig Bun an t-Sheilisdeir Dearcan-Fraoich, le Aim Droman, le Aim Crotal Duileasg

Preas-dearc, le Aim Dearcan-Fraoich, le Cnomh-

an-domblais Crotal Geal Crotal Dubh Cairt-Sheilich Freumhaichean Sheilisdeir Bealaidh Rusg-Conuisg Lus-an fhucadair Fraoch, le Aim Bearnan-Bride Preas-Smeur Lus-na-fearnaich Crotal, Coinneach Crotal-uan-creag Crotal Geal Bun an Riiidh Leanartach Crotal Cloich-aoil Biolaire Roid

Freumh na Craoibh-Uinnshm Bun na Rainich Lus Chaluim-Chille Lus-an-fhucadair Crotal Fraoch, le Aim

Lus-na-fearnaich, le Sugh Chabar-feidh


Alder-tree bark.

Dock root.

Water-flag root.

Blueberry, with Alum.

Elder, with Alum.



Currant, with Alum.

Blueberry, with Gall Nuts.

White Lichen.

Dark Lichen.


Root of Yellow Water-flag.



Teasel, or Fuller's Thistle.

Heather, with Alum.




Lichen, Cupmoss.

Rock Lichen.

White Lichen.

Rue root.


Limestone Lichen.

Wild Cress.


Ash -tree root.

Bracken root.

St. John's Wort.



Common Heather, with

Alum. Sundew, with Ammonia.



CLANS. Buchanan Cameron Campbell Chisholm Colquhoun

Cumin Drummond

Fergusson, MacFarquhar, and Farquharson



Grant, MacAlpine, Mac- Gregor, MacKinnon, and MacQuarrie


Graham and MacLaren






MacDonald, MacDonell, MacAlister, Mac- Intyre, and MacNab




Dearc bhraoileag ; Darag Darag ; Dearca fithich Roid ; Garbhag an t-sleibhe Fearna ; Raineach Braoileag nan con; Call-


Lus Mhic Cuimin Lus an righ, or Lus mhic righ

Bhreatuinn ; Cuileann Eos - gre"ine ; Lus - nam - ban-


Bealaidh lubhar Giuthas

ladh-shlat, Eitheann Buaidh chraobh, nalaibhreas Aiteann ; Lus nan laoch

Machall monaidh; Craobh

ubhal fiadhain Roid ; Garbhag an t-sleibhe A'Muileag; Giuthas Fraoch

ENGLISH. Bilberry; Oak. Oak; Crowberry. Wild Myrtle ; Fir Club Moss. Alder; Fern. Dogberry; Hazel.

Cumin Plant.

Wild Thyme (the oldest);

Holly. Little Sunflower ; Foxglove.



Scotch Fir or Pine Tree.



Juniper ; Roseroot.

Red Hawthorn.

Dryas; Crab Apple Tree.

Wild Myrtle ; Fir Club Moss. Cranberry ; Scotch Fir. Common Heath.

Fraoch dearg Bell Heath.

A' Muileag; Oireag, foigh- Cranberry; Cloudberry, reag, or feireag

1 Aodach-suaicheantais means the national costume or dress complete, with the badge, etc.

2 The Gaelic in the lists of " Badges" and " War Cries" have been revised by Duncan Maclsaac, Esq., Oban. and some important items are now added to them.





MacKenzie, MacLean, Mac- Mil Ian, and Maclnnes



MacLennan, Logan

MacLeod and Ross



MacPhenon, Macintosh, MacDuff, MacBean, MacGillivray, David- son, MacQueen, and many others, as be- longing to Clan- chattan










Sutherland Urquhart


Luachair-bhog ; Bealaidh Cuileann

Faochagji Uinnsean Cuileann ; Grainseag dhubh Conasg Aiteanu Lus Albanach Machall monaidh Bocsa ; Lus nan craimsheag, braoileag

Garbhag an t-sle"ibhe

Fraoch nam Meinnearach

Garbhag nan Gleann

Calg-bhealaidh ; Aiteann

Sgitheach geal

Dubh Fhraoch ; Raineach

R6s-Mairi Fiadhaich


Darag ; Cluaran

Calg-bhealaidh; Canach or Canaichean

Lus Let h-an-t- Sam h raid h

ENGLISH. Bulrush ; Broom. Holly.

Little Periwinkle ; Ash Tree.

Holly ; Blackberry Heath.



Trailing Azalea.


Boxwood (this is said to be

the oldest badge) ; Red


Club Moss.

The Menzies Heath.

Common Club Moss.

Butcher's Broom ; Juniper.

Whitethorn, Hawthorn.

Fine-leaved Heath ; Fern.

Wild Rosemary.

Whin or Gorse.

Oak; also the Thistle, the present national badge. That of the Pictish kings was Rudh (rue), which is joined with the Thistle in the Collar of the Order.

Butcher's Broom ; Cotton Sedge.

Gillyflower, Wallflower.

l According to Logan. (Yinca Minor: an evergreen plant; not the abell-fish pwiwinklt a uggeatol b> Logan's Gaelic tenu.J





Buchanan Cameron

Campbell Farquharson Forbes Fraser

Do. (later) Gordon Grant

MacAlpine MacDonald

Do. (Clanranald) MacDonell (Glen- garry)

Do. (Keppoch) MacDougal MacFarlane MacGillivray MacGregor Macintosh






MacLennan, Logan


MacNeil MacPherson



Menzies Munro

Stewarts (Appin) Sutherland



" Chlanna nan con thigibh a so

's gheibh sibh feoil " "Cruachan" " Cam na Cuimhne " "Lonach" "A Mhor-fhaiche " "Caisteal Dunie" "A Gordon! A Gordon !" " Creag Elachaidh "

" Cuimhnich bas Ailpein " "Fraoch Eilean" " Dh' aindeoin co theireadh e " " Creagan-an-fhithich "

"Dia's Naomh Aindrea"

" Buaidh no Bas "






" Bratach bhan Chlann Aoidh "

"Tulach Ard"

"Cuimhnich bas Ailpein "

" Creag an Tuirc "

"Druim nan deur"

" Fraoch-Eilean "

" Buaidh no Bas "

"Creag Dhubh Chloinn Cha-

tain " "An t-Arm Breac Dearg "

"Dail Achadh 'n dk thear-

naidh "

" Geal 'us Dearg a suas " " Caisteal Foulis 'n a theine"

" Creag-an-Sgairbh "

" Ceann na drochaide bige "


An island in Loch Lomond. "Sons of the hounds come here

and get flesh." A mountain near Loch Awe. " Cairn of Remembrance." A mountain in Strathdon. "The Great Field." " Castle Downie."

"Stand Fast Craig Elachaidh,"

"The Rock of Alarm." "Remember the death of Alpin." "The Heathery Isle." ' ' Gainsay who dare. " "The Raven's Rock."

"God and St. Andrew."

" Victory or Death."

"The Loch of the Host."

Loch Moy.

"The Woody Height."

"The Loch of Threatening " (a lake

neartheseatof the Chieftain). A mountain near Loch Awe. ' ' The White Banner of MacKay. " A mountain in Kintail. " Remember the death of Alpin." "The Boar's Rock." "The Ridge of Tears." "Heather Island," Loch Awe,

Argyllshire. "Victory or Death." "The Black Craig of Clan

Chattan." "The army of the checkered

red " [tartan].

"The field of the two decliv- ities. "(?)

"Up with the White and Red." " Castle Foulis ablaze " (referring

probably to beacon or signal

lights). "The Cormorant's Rock" (on

wmch is built Castle Stalker). A bridge at Dunrobin.



about the year 1100, when ne transplanted tue . the family were mostly carried away or destroy* wards (3rd) Marquis of Huntly, burnt Brodie Ho of Brodie, living temp. King Alexander III., de

HIS name " (says Shaw in his " History of Moray ") " is manifestly local, taken from the lands of Brodie. I incline to think that they were originally of the ancient Moravienses, and were one of those loyal tribes to whom Malcolm IV. gave lands about the year 1160, when he transplanted the Moray rebels." The old writings of

ed when Lord Lewis Gordon, after- :ouse in 1645. From Malcolm, Thane descended Alexander Brodie of Brodie,

styled Lord Brodie as a senator of the College of Justice, born 25th July 1617, whose son and successor, James Brodie of Brodie, born 15th September 1637, married in 1659 Lady Mary Ker, daughter of William, third Earl of Lothian. He left nine daughters, but no son, and was succeeded by his cousin George Brodie, son of Joseph Brodie of Aslisk, and grandson of David Brodie of Brodie, brother of Lord Brodie. He married, in 1692, Emily, fifth daughter of his predecessor, and died in 1716. He left three sons and two daughters. James Brodie the eldest son and heir, died young, 1720, and was succeeded by hU brother Alexander, born Nth August 1697. He was appointed Lord Lyon of Scotland 1727, and died 17.".4. By his wife Mary Sleigh, he had a son Alexander, his heir, and one daughter, Emilia. Alexander Brodie of Brodie, born 29th May 1741, died in 1750, and was succeeded by his second cousin James Brodie, son of James Brodie of Spynie. This gentleman, Lord-Lieutenant of the County of Nairn, was born 31st August 1744, and married Lady Margaret Duff, youngest daughter of William, first Earl of Fife. This lady was burnt to death at Brodie House, 24th April 1786, and he died 17th January 1824, leaving two sons and three daughters. Their son James was drowned in his father's lifetime, leaving by Ann, his wife, daughter of Colonel Story of Ascot, two sons and five daughters. Their eldest son, William Brodie, Esq., of Brodie, in Morayshire, Lieutenant of Nainuhire, was born 2nd July 1799, succeeded his grandfather, January 1824, married, November 27, 1838, Elizabeth, third daughter of the late Colonel Hugh Baillie, M.P., of Red Castle, and had iMne: Hugh Fife Aahley, B.A., born 8th September 1840, and died 1S89, leaving Ian Ashley, now of Brodie.

The other branchea of the clan are Brodie of Lethen, and Brodie of Eastbourne, Sussex, and a

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BERT PE BRUS, the first on record of this race of heroes and patriots, a noble knight of Normandy, came into England with William the Conqueror. He was of Mich valour and so ranch confided in by William that after his victory over Harold, he sent him to subdue the northern parts of England. Before the end of the Conqueror's reign, Brus was owner of no less than ninety-four lordships in York- shire. He lefl a son, Robert, who founded and endowed a monastery at Gyslmrn. Soon after the accession of David I. to the throne of Scotland in 1124, he visited tkat monarch whom he had known at the Court of Henry I., and obtained from him the lordship of Annandale. For this princely donation Brus did homage to David. That monarch invading England in 1138, advanced to Northallerton, where an army was drawn up to oppose him. Bruce was sent by the English to negotiate with David, and made an eloquent address to that monarch to induce him to with- draw hU forces ; one of the King's attendants, however, cried "Thou art a false traitor Bruce," and he was dismissed from the Scottish camp renouncing his homage to the King of Scots, who was defeated in the Battle of the Standard (or Northallerton), 22nd August 1138. Robert died on llth May 1141, and was buried at Gysburn. His eldest son Adam's male line terminated in Peter de Brus of Skelton, who left two sons and four daughters. His second son Robert enjoyed Annandale by the gift of his father, and thus being liegeman to King David of Scots when he invaded England in 1188, was on his side at the Battle of the Standard, where he was taken by his own father who sent him prisoner to King Stephen, who ordered him to be delivered to his mother.

He had two sons, Robert and William ; Robert, the eldest, married in 1183, Isabel, natural laughter of King William the Lion, and died before 1191. William, his brother and heir, died in 1215, and was succeeded by his son Robert de Brus, who married Isabel, second daughter of David, Karl of Huntingdon, brother of William the Lion. He died in 1245. Their son, Robert de Bruce, was in 1254-55, Governor of the Castle of Carlisle ; in 1255 he was nominated one of the Regents of the Kingdom of Scotland, and guardian of Alexander III. and his Queen ; in 1204, with John Cumyn and John Baliol, he led a body of Scottish auxiliaries to assist King Henry HI. against his rebellious barons, and was taken prisoner at the battle of Lewis with that monarch. In 1284, with the other Magnates Scotise he joined in promising to accept Margaret of Norway as his Sovereign in the event of the demise of Alexander III. He sat in Parliament as Lord of Annandale in 1290, and on the death of Margaret the same year, entered his claim to the crown of Scotland, as the nearest heir of King Alexander III. King Edward I. overruled all the pleas of Bruce, and on the 17th November 1292 adjudged the Kingdom of Scotland to Baliol. Bruce retired leaving his claim to his on, the Earl of Carrick, and died in 1295, aged eighty-five. His eldest son, Robert de Brus, was lorn in 1245, and accompanied King Edward I. to Palestine in 1269. He accompanied Edward into Scotland Hgainut Baliol, and was present at the battle of Dnnbar, 28th April 1296. Edward had promised U raise Bruce to the throne in room of Baliol, but failed to carry out this design. Bruce retired to England remaining in obscurity, dying in 1304.

By Margaret, Countess of Carrick, his wife, he left a large family ; his eldest son, Robert de Brus, born llth July 1274, succeeded to his fathers title of Earl of Carrick ; he asserted his claim to the Scottish crown, and without any resources but in his own valour and the untried fidelity of a few partisans, ascended the throne of his ancestors, and was crowned at Scome, 27th March 1306. After many vicissitudes, the power of King Robert I. was finally cemented by his splendid and decisive victory at Bannockburn, 1314. He died at Cardross, in Dumbartonshire, on the 7th of Jane 132f, aged fifty-five ; he was interred in the Abbey Church of Dumfermline. His heart having been extracted and embalmed, was delivered to Sir James Douglas to be carried to Palestine and buried in Jerusalem. Douglas was killed fighting against the Moors in Spain, and the silver M^Ss^jn^M^i^ heart of Bruce, was brought back with the body of Douglas and buried in the

The nresent bead of one branch of the Brnces is Victor Alexander, ninth Earl of Elgin and lirteenth Earl of Kincardine. Braces are also Baronets of Stenhouse, 1629, and of Downhill, 1804.




War Cry :" C\a.r Innis" (An island in Lochlomond). Badge: Dearc bhraoileag (Bilberry); or Darag (Oak).

IOWARDS the middle of the 13th century, Gilbert, seneschal to the Earl of Lennox, obtained from him a part of the lands of Buchanan in Stirlingshire, and took his name from them.

Donald, sixth Earl of Lennox, renewed to Manrice of Buchanan the grant of what the former Earl had conferred upon his ancestor.

The king granted a charter of confirmation to his successor of the same name, to this effect, " Maurice of Bouchannane, son and heir of the late Maurice of Bouchannane of the land called Bouchannane, together with Sallachy, by these bounds from Kelyn to Aldmar, down to the water of Hanerch, and the land of Sallachy down to the pool of Lougchlomneid (sic), etc., with a court of life and limbs, to be held as often as he (the Earl) may incline ; " to be held by the delivery of a cheese out of each house in which a cheese is made on the said lands.

Through marriage with a daughter of Menteith of Rusky, his son, Walter of Buchanan, became connected with the royal house. The latter married the sole heiress of the ancient family of Leny. Their eldest son, Sir Alexander, distinguished himself, under Stuart, the Constable of France, and at the battle of Bauje-en-Anjon, in 1421, is said to have slain the Duke of Clarence. The war-cry of the clan, Clarineh, is said to come from this event ; bxit more probably from its rendezvous, Clarinnis, an isle in Loch Lomond. Sir Alexander was slain in the battle of Verneuil in 1424 ; his second brother Walter, stuxeeded to Buchanan, and his third to Leny.

Walter married Isabel (daughter of Murdoch, Duke of Albany), Countess of Lennox. Their eldest son, Patrick, married the heiress of Killearn and Auchreoch. Their youngest son, Thomas, founded the hou-e of Drumikil, whence, in the third generation, sprang the historian, George Buchanan.

Patrick's son, Walter, married a daughter of Lord Graham, and by her had a younger son, who became known in the time of James V. as the facetious " King of Kippen." Patrick, who fell at Flodden, by his wife, a daughter of Argyll, left two sons George, Sheriff of Dumbarton in 1561, and Walter, founder of the line of Spittal.

By Margaret Edmondston of Dnntreath, he had John, his heir, and by a second wife, Janet Cunninghame of Craigends, William, founder of the now extinct line of Auchmar.

The principal line became extinct in 1682, when the representation was claimed by Buchanan of Auchmar, whose line perished in 1816.

The Lairds of Buchanan built the ancient peel of that name. The mill-town of Buchanan is near the parish church. The family lands lay in Menteith and the Lennox, near Lochs Katrine and Lomond, and are now possessed by the Duke of Montrose. The present chief is John Buchanan Hamilton of Leny. A Buchanan was created a Baronet in 1878.



War Cry;-"Chlanna nan con thigibh a so 's gheibh sibh feoil" ("Sons of the

hounds come here and get flesh").

Clan Pip* Music: Gathering "Ceann na drochaide moire" ("The head of the high

bridge"). March "Piobaireachd Dhonuill Duibh " ("Pibroch of Donald Dubh").

Badge :- Dearca fithlch (Crowberry) ; or Darag (Oak).

HE firet member of this family was Ewen Cameron, son of Ewen, thirteenth Chief of 1 Ixjchiel, by his second wife, Marjory Macintosh. The family were known locally as Ulioclid Eoghainn'ic Eoghainn, or "the children of Ewen, the son of Ewen."

Donald Cameron, the second I^ird of Erracht, whose residence was a kind of farm-house, near Corpach in Inverness-shire, was born shortly before the insurrec- tion of 1715 ; "for we are told," says MacKenxie, in his history of Die Clan Cameron, " that he was quite an infant when his father joined the Earl of Mar, to fight at the battle of Sheriflinuir, in which he was slain."

Thirty years later, Donald joined Prince Charles, and, under Locheil, was second in command of the Camerons at the muster in Glenfinnas, as Cameron of Faxsifern, who was actually the second, by his position in the tribe, had not, as yet, come out.

The latter wa Ewen, son of John, the Tani#ter t a younger brother of the great Locheil, and his wife was Lucy Campbell of Barcaldane, whose father succeeded to the estate of Glenure, on the death of her uncle, who was shot at the furry of Ballachulish, in Appin, by Allan Breac > Stewart, otherwise known aa Vic Jan Vic Ala*tera. crime for which the Laird of Ardsheil was judicially murdered by the Duke of Argyll, at the Castle of Inverary.

After the battle of Culloden, Donald Cameron of Erracht was a homeless wanderer among the mountains for three years. He married Marjory, daughter of MacLean of Driinnin in Morven, and had four children, the eldest of whom was afterwards the famous Sir Alan Cameron, and the youngest, a daughter, who married Cameron of Scamadale, and had a son, Lieutenant Alexander Cameron, who commanded the 79th Highlanders at Waterloo, during the last three hours of the engagement.

The eldest son of Donald, Sir Alan Cameron of Erracht, K.C.B., was known as old da, mar tha, from always addressing his soldiers in their native Gaelic. Having caused offence, by his attentions to the young and attractive widow of Cameron, chieftain of a branch of the clan, known as Mac lie Onaich, he was challenged by another Cameron, known as Fear Alhorsheirlicli. The duel took place on a bank of the IxxSby, and Alan, having been wounded by bis adversary, became infuriated, and dealt the latter a blow on the head with his claymore which killed him. He was compiled to seek safety in flight, and he subsequently wnnt to Mull. Through his uncle's influence, he became clerk in the customs at Greenock ; but, disliking desk-work, he went to America and joined the old S4th or Royal Highland Emigrants, and was present at the defence of Quebec against the insurgent general, Arnold. He was taken prisoner, and immured for two years in the common prison of Philadelphia. He was placed on half-pay, as Lieutenant of Tarleton's Dragoons.

Housed by the alarms and perils of 1793, on the 17th of August in that year, he received letter* of service empowering him to raise a regiment of Highlanders ; this battalion was formed at the cole expense of Mr Cameron and his officers, eleven of whom were gentlemen of the clan.

The corps, numbered as the 79th or Cameron Highlanders, mustered 1000 strong, and Alan Cameron was gazetted as lieutenant-colonel, commandant. As such, he led it through the severe campaigns of 1794-1)5 id Flanders till it embarked for the West Indies. Two years at Martinique reduced it* strength so greatly that, in 1797, the battalion was broken up and 210 joined the Black Watch.

Colonel Cameron and his officers repaired to the Highlands, and in 1798, soon raised a second 79th regiment, which mustered at Inverness, 780 strong. It served in the expedition to the Helder in 1791. In 1800, Alan Cameron embarked with his Highlanders for Ferrol, and then joined Aber- crombie in Egypt. In 1804, he formed a second battalion, 800 strong ; he served in Zealand, under Ixird Cathcart ; in the campaign of Corunna, and eubsequei. tly afforded Wellington material aid at the capture of Oporto, and won a gold medal.

On the 25th of July 1810, .sir Alan was appointed a major-general ; in 1819, a lieutenant-general, and H..C.B. He lived to an advanced age, and was doomed to see hia family drop around him ; his eldest son, Pliilip, when leading a charge at Fuentes d'Onor ; his nephew and orphan grandson, of *in the West Indies. He died at Fulham on the 9th of March 1828.

>f his immediate kindred, he left only one son, Lieutenant-Colonel Nathaniel Cameron, fourth

of Erracht, who, until the close of the war (when the corps was disbanded), commanded the 2nd

fctulion of the Cameron Highlanders, and followed to the grave the remains of his veteran parent.

Lieutenant-Colonel Cameron married Lastitia Pryce, only daughter of the Rev. John Curry, and

T tte*L aiT'ci, 6l< L ?t Nathaniel) fifth of Erracht > married Charlotte, daughter of Loftus



1 1 I







War Cry:-"Chlanna nan con thigibh a so 's gheibh sibh feoil" ("Sons of the

hounds come here and get flesh")

Clan Pip Music: Gathering -"Ceann na drochaide moire" ("The head of the high

bridge"). March "Piobaireachd Dhonuill Duibh" ("Pibroch of Donald Dubh").

Badge: Darag (Oak); or Dearca fithich (Crowberry).

I V the best Celtic authorities, the Camerons are supposed to have been of the same origin as the Clan Chattan. At first there were three branches of them the Camerons of Glenevis, the Camerons of Strone, and the MacMartins of Letterfinlay, all separated from the Clan Chattan by the end of the 14th century, probably after the famous battle of the North Inch at Perth.

The Locheil family are supposed to belong to the Strone branch, "and," says Robertson " it is likely they declared themselves independent of the Clan Chattan, and this they have ever since maintained."

A tradition mentions that Allan, surnamed MacOchtry, was chief of the Came- rona in the reign of Robert II. ; butsome years before his accession to the throne, we read of the name, in 1346, when a Sir Koger Cameron was killed at the battle of Durham. Donald Dbuled the clan at the bloody battle of Harlaw in 1411, when the Lord of the Isles was defeated by the Scottish Lowland troops, under the Earl of Mar.

It would appear that, though the Letterfinlay branch of the tribe were the oldest and adhered to the Clan Chattan, yet the Locheil family obtained the following of the clan from the time their independence was declared.

In 1426, one of the name, John Cameron, Provost of Lincluden, became Bishop of Glasgow. He was also Lord Privy Seal. He was a native of Kilmalie.

In the early part of the same century, MacLean, who recovered Coll and conquered Barra, obtained, it is said, from James II., a gift of the territory of the Camerons, forfeited for some offence against the state, probably in connection with the murder of James I. " MacLean therefore went with an armed force to seize his new possessions, and, I know not for what reason, took his wife with him. The Camerons rose in defence of their chief, and a battle was fought at the head of Loch Ness, near the place where Fort Augustus now stands, in which Locheil obtained the victory, and MacLean with his followers was defeated and destroyed. The lady fell into the hands of the conquerors, an- 1 being found pregnant, was placed in the custody of Maclonich, one of a family branched from the Camerons, with orders if she brought forth a boy to destroy him, if a girl to spare her. Maclonich's wife had a girl about the same time at which Lady MacLean brought forth a boy, and Maclonich ontrived that the children should be changed. MacLean, being preserved from death, in time re- covered his original patrimony ; and, in gratitude to his friend, made his castle a place of refuge to any of the clan that should think himself in danger ; and, as a proof of reciprocal confidence took upon himself and his posterity the care of educating the heir of Maclonich."

In 1501, the name of Thomas Cameron, a notary, appears in some of the family papers of the Ix>rds Montgomery (Eglinton Memorials, vol. ii.), and three years later, we find Ewen, son of Allan, Captain of the Clan Cameron binding himself, by the faith and truth in his body, to George, Earl of Huntly, to be "his leill, trew, ane fald, man and bervand," and with his kin and allies, to take l-ai t with the earl in all his just actions and quarrels against all men. This was in May 1543 (Spatd. Club. Minced.). The following year saw Huntly in arms, fighting the battle of Blairleine, when, despite this bond, the Camerons were arrayed against him. Soon after he captured the chief, together with Ronald Mac Donald of Keppoch, both of whom were declared guilty of high treason and beheaded at Elgin.

In 1547, the successor of Ewen (son of Allan), Ewen Macconeill, signed a bond of man-rent to the Earl of Huntly at Inverness, in which he is designated Laird of Locheil, and affixed his signa- ture as " Ewin Donaldson, with his hand at the pen, led by Maister John Camroun " (Ibid., \<>1. i v.). During the reign of Mary, John Cameron, minister of Dunoon, was famous for hi* learning and probity.

Another eminent native of Kilmali, was the famous Sir Ewen Cameron of Locheil, who was born in 1629, and
At the head of hia clan, Sir Ewen is said to have made no less than thirty-five armed forays into the territories of his enemie*.

In the Civil Wars, the Cmnerons were ever loyal to the House of Stuart ; and, in 1745, their chief, popularly known tut " the gentle Locheil," wa the same who said, with loving ardour, to Prince Charles, "Come weal, come woe, I'll follow thee !" He died in 1748, and his great-great- grandson is Donald Cameron of Locheil, born 1835. His steel Highland pistols, found on the fatal Id of CuUoden, and marked with his initials, are now preserved in the Museum of Antiquities at Edinburgh.



War Cry ; " Cruachan " (A mountain near Loch Awe). Clan Pipe Music: March "Baile lonaraora" ("The Campbells are Coming").

Lament "Cumha 'Mharcuis" ("The Marquis' Lament"). Badge:-Ro\d (Wild Myrtle); or Qarbhag an t-sleibhe (Fir Club Moss).

[flE Campbell Clan, the moat powerful in Scotland, rose upon the ruins <>f the Mac Donalds, and their whole policy for ages, says a writer, was to supplant and ruin that race. The county of Argyll was for ages, and is still to a Tery considerable extent, inhabited by this great clan, whose duty it was to rally round the MacCailean Mhor, as their chief was designated ; and many branches of the tribe were war-like and titled barons, who were bound to assist him in his feuds, without inquiring into

Sir Colin Mor Campbell, dominutde Lochaice, was knighted in 1230 by Alexander III., "and from him," says Douglas, "the head of the family of Argyll is called MacCailean Mhor, in the Highlands to this day. By the time of Robert I.," he adds, " the clan had become so numerous, that, unless locally designated, it was not easy to distinguish them, and many of the name basely swore fealty to Edward of England." In Robertson's Index of Mining Charttrt, by Robert I., there are two to Duncan and Dougal Campbell, of "sundry lands in Argyll ;" one to the latter of the Isle of Torsa, in Nether Lorn. " The Ant crown charter of the Argyll, or MacCailean Mhor branch of the name," says James Roberteon, "for lands in Argyleshire, was one by King Robert Bruce to his nephew, Sir Colin, whose name is therein written Cambet it is for the lands of Ardsonnachan, and dated at Arbroath 10th February 1816 ;" and the clan gradually increased in power, till, by conquest and marriage, it became the most influential in the kingdom.

Daring the minority of David II., Sir Colin Campbell of Lochawe stormed the Castle of Dunoon from the English, and was made governor thereof. His grandson, also Sir Colin, reduced the Western Highlands to the Royal Authority, and, according to Martin's Genealogical Collections, was the immediate progenitor of the families of Ardkinglass, Ardentinie, Dunoon, Carrick, Skipness, Blytheswood, etc.

The first of the family ennobled was Sir Duncan who assumed the designation of Argyll, and was raised to the Peerage in 1445, by James II., as Lord Campbell. His grandson, Colin, second Lord Campbell, was ambassador to England, 1471-74, and was created Earl of Argyll in 1480.

Archibald, second Earl of Argyll, led the vanguard at Flodden, and lost his life with his royal master ; Arehibald, fourth Earl, opposed strenuously the proposed marriage of Qneen Mary to Edward VI., "as derogatory to the honour of his country," and distinguished himself by his valour at Pinkie in 1547.

Archibald, seventh Earl, fought at Glenlevat in 1594 : suppressed the MacGregors in 1603, and the Mac Donalds, in the Western Isles in 1614.

Ilia son, Sir Colin M6r Campbell, commanded the Scots Foot Guards from 1641 till 1050, when the regiment was cut to pieces at the battle of Worcester, and like his father, he lost his head in 1685, a victim of misrule rather than misjudgment. His son Archibald, tenth Earl, after the Revolution, was Colonel of the Horse Scots Guards, and in 1701 was created Duke of Argyll, Marquis of Kintyre and Lome, Earl of Campbell and Cowal, Viscount Lochow and Glenyla, Lord Inverary, Mull, Mor- vn and Tirie, by a patent, dated at Kensington, 23rd June.

Hi* son, John, second Duke, became a field-marshal, and was one of the best soldiers of his time, and deserved the character given of him by Pope, as

" Argyll ! the state's whole thunder born to wield,

And shake alike the senate and the lield."

He signalised himself at the battle of Ramilies and Oudenard, and the sieges of Lisle, Ghent, and IJrngett. He commanded in Spain in 1710, and five years after, he fought, for the last time in the drawn battle of Sheriffmuir. He had the Dukedom of Greenwich, which died with him in 1743, when the Scottish titles went to his brother Archibald, third Duke, who served under Marlborough, at the head of the 36th Foot, was Governor of Dumbarton, and High Treasurer of Scotland. He died in 1761, and was laid in Kilmun, the burial-place of his family. Iking without issue, the title devolved on bis cousin, General John Campbell of Maraore (second son of Archibald, ninth Earl), whoe line is now represented by the present family. The fighting force of the Campbells was esti- mated at 5000 claymores in 1745.

John, fourth Duke, was the eldest son of the above-named John Campbell of Maraore. He died in 1770, and was succeeded by his son John, fifth Duke, who died in 17'.0. lie left two sons, George, i Duke (rf. 1839), and John, seventh Duke, who died in 1847, leaving George, eighth Duke (died OCX whose eldest son John, married Princess Louise in 1871, and is the ninth and present Duke.

The 42nd, or " Black Watch " tartan, page 23, om the authority of Lord Archibald Campbell, is identical with the Campbell clan tartan.



War Cry: "Cruachan" (A mountain near Loch Awe).

Clan Pipe Music : March "Bodaich nam brigisean" ("The carles with the breaks")- Badge, --Ro\d (Wild Myrtle); or Garbhag an t-sleibhe (Fir Club Moss).

(UNCAN OF LOCHOW, who was, as stated, created a Lord of Parliament in 1445, by James II., had two sons Archibald, ancestor of the house of Argyll, and Colin, who travelled much in foreign countries, and became a knight of Rhodes. From his father, he obtained the lands of Glenorchy, which was at one time the patrimony of the MacGregors, who were gradually driTen out of it by their rivals, the Campbells. But, so far back as the time of David II., there was a crown charter to " Margaret Glenurchy, and John Campbell her spouse, of the lands of Glenurchy."

On a rocky point at the east end of Lochawe, are to be seen the fine ruins of the castle of Kilchurn, said to have been built by the lady of this first Laird of Glenorchy, and concerning which a pretty legend is told. lie married Margaret Stewart (and two other ladies, subsequently), and had a son, Sir Duncan, his successor, who fell at Flodden.

Sir Colin Campbell, seventh of the house of Glenorchy, was joined with the Earls of Morton, Gowrie, and others in establishing the policy of the Church and Government in 1573 ; and, in 1580, he built the old Castle of Balloch, so called from a Gaelic word said to mean the outlet of a loch, and now named Tay mouth. By marriage into the family of Toshach, his fourth son, Archibald, obtained the estate of Monzie, but died without heirs, and his daughter, Beatrix, became ancestress of the Campbells of Lawers and London.

Sir Duncan, eighth of Glenorchy, in 1617, was made Keeper of the Forests of Mamlorn, Finglen- more, and others, and was made a Baronet of Nova Scotia in 1625. His second son became Sir Robert Campbell of Glenfalloch, and his third, Archibald, became ancestor of the families of Menzie, Loch Ian, and Finab. Sir Duncan, who was known as Donacha Dubh no, Curraichd, or Black Duncan of the Cowl, was a patron of Jameson, the Scottish Vandyke, and was eminent for his taste in building and planting (Black Book of Taymouth). He died in 1631.

Sir Colin, his son and successor, married Juliana Campbell, daughter of the Earl of Loudoun, and outrivalled him in his taste for elegant things, and employed a German painter to paint " thretty brods of the Kings of Scotland, Great Britain, France, and Ireland," and other portraits for the hall of Balloch, "for the soum of one thousand pounds " (Ibid). Dying in 1640, he was succeeded by his brother

Sir Robert Campbell, previously of Glenfalloch, who married Isobel, daughter of Sir Lachlan Macintosh, chief of the Clan Chattan.

Sir John Campbell, twelfth of Glenorchy, grandson of Sir Robert, was a man of great capacity, and was deemed an able statesman in his time ; but he was destitute of all scruple. He was loyal to Charles IL, and was created Earl of Caithness in 1677, by a quibble, or trickery, to be related elsewhere, and, empowered by the Scottish Privy Council, he marched to take possession of the patrimony of the Sinclairs, with whom, in 1679, he fought the bloody battle of Altimarlach. Over this usurpation, a sense of justice prevailed, and, to pacify him, in 1681, he was created Earl of Breadalbane and Holland, with the precedency of 1677. He was in great favour with King James VII., was bitterly opposed to the Union, and it is said he was on the point of joining the Earl of Mar in 1715. He died in his eighty-first year in 1717.

John, second Earl of Breadalbane, was a representative peer, 1736-52, and John, third Earl, was, in his earlier years, Master of the Horse to the Princess Royal in 1718, and Envoy Extraordinary at the Court of Denmark in 1720. He died in 1782, without issue, when the Earldom went to his distent cousin^John, great-grundspn of Colin, third son of the above-named Sir Robert Campbell,

luess of Breadalbane in 1831, and died hout issue in 1K62, the Earldom went

, at of William Campbell, fifth son of the above-named

Robert Thw sixth Earl died in 1871, and was succeeded by his son Gavin, seventh Earl, who was created Marquess of Breadalbane in 1885.

utant cousin John, great-grandson of Colin, third son of the previously of Glenfalloch. This fourth Earl was created Marqu in 1834, leaving a son John, second Marquis, but he dying withe to his cousin John of Glenfalloch, a descendant of William Cam




War Cry: "Cruachan" (A mountain near Loch Awe). Badge: Roid (Wild Myrtle); or Garbhag an t-sleibhe (Fir Club Moss).

to set her aside, and, with the aid of a kinsman, the precentor of Ross, they brought forward some curious evidence to prove her illegitimate. But the little Muriel was not unfriended. Her estates held of the crown, thus the King bestowed her ward and marriage upon the Earl of Argyll, a powerful guardian, who, in her twelfth year, bestowed her as a bride, on his third son, John, in 1510 a marriage that had many advantages, and perhaps no other alliance in Scotland could have enabled the young heiress to hold her own among rough and hostile neighbours.

He was "a Campbell of the old stamp," says the Book of Me Thanes of Cawdor, " seeking incessantly to increase his possessions and extend hisinfluence. His treaties with cousins of his own clan, with the Mac Leans, MacDonalds, and MacNeills show both his policy and his acknowledged power ! . . . His possessions in Argyll were large and increasing. He seems already to have pretended some right to Isla."

The grim keep of Cawdor, with its turrets and rambling outworks, is one of the most remark- able baronial edifices in Scotland, and among some sculpture, on a stone, dated 1510 the year of Muriel's marriage is carved a fox smoking a short tobacco pipe, seventy-five years before Sir Walter Raleigh introduced smoking into England.

From 1524 till 1546, the year of his death, Sir John Campbell resided permanently at Cawdor. Lady Muriel survived him long, and also their son Archibald. She died in 1573, resigning her thane- dom in favour of her grandson, John, who married Mary Keith, the daughter of an opulent, noble, and honourable family, the Earl Marischal's. The Reformation brought him the accession of the priory lands of Ardchattan.

Lady Cawdor, being a sister of the Countess of Argyll, on the death of the Earl in 1584, Sir John Campbell was one of the six persons named to manage the Earldom during the young peer's minority, and schemed with Campbell of Lochnell to seize itnd keep the boy's person by force, for his own aggrandisement.

The Cawdor family did not figure much in Scottish history ; but, as Campbells, being obnoxious to Montrose, after the battle of Auldearn, he desired their lands to be ravaged as Spalding records.

John Campbell of Cawdor, M.P., son and heir of Sir Alexander Campbell, married Mary, daughter and co-heir of Lewis Pryse, Esq., and died in 1777. Pryse Campbell, his son and heir, also inherited Stackpole Court, Pembrokeshire, represented Nairn in Parliament, and was a Lord of the Treasury in 1766.

Hi son, John, was elevated to the Peerage of Great Britain, 1796, by the title of Lord Cawdor of Castlemartin ; and his son, John Frederick the second Baron, was created Earl Cawdor and Vis- count Emlyn on the 5th October 1827.

Apart from its associations with MacBeth, Cawdor Castle has some little mysteries of its own. In one of the dungeons stands a hawthorn tree, round which the walls were built. " Freshness to Cawdor'* Hawthorn Tree ! " is a family toast, and there is a legend connected with it, too long for insertion here, but given in Carruther's Uiyhlaiul Knte-Book.

The first Earl died in 1860, and was succeeded by his son John, second Earl, born in 1817, who died 1898, and was succeeded by his eldest son, the present Earl, born in 1847.



War Cry: "Cruachan" (A mountain near Loch Awe). Badge:- Roid (Wild Myrtle); or Garbhag an t sleibhe (Fir Club Moss).

'HE first of the present honse of Loudoun was Sir Duncan Campbell, grandson of Sir Colin Campbell, ancestor of the Duke of Argyll. He married Susanna, daughter and heiress of Sir Reginald Crawford of Loudoun, High-Sheriff of Ayr, who fell in battle for his country in 1303, and was the grand-nephew of the mother of the great Sir William Wallace. By a charter, granted by Robert I. in 1381, Loudoun was converted into a free barony, with the lands of Stevenston (Robertson's Index).

Sir Duncan was the son of Sir Donald Campbell, who, from the same King Robert, obtained a charter of the Red Castle, and was second son of Cailean-Mhor (Sir Colin) of the honse of Lochow. By the heiress of Loudoun, he had a son Sir Andrew Campbell, who was taken prisoner with David II., at the battle of Durham, and was kept as such, in England, till 1357.

Sir Hugh of Loudoun, his son, was one of those appointed to meet King James I. at Durban), in 1423 ; and his grandson, Sir George, became a hostage for the King's ransom, and accompanied the unhappy Princess Margaret to France, in 1436, when she became the wife of the future Louis XI.

Two Sir George Campbells of Loudoun succeeded, and the first of these was ancestor of the Campbells of Killoch.

Sir Matthew Campbell, seventeenth of the house of Loudoun (traced in the ancient line), was a faithful subject to Queen Mary, and fought for her at Langside. His second son, Matthew, settled in Livonia, and became ancestor of the famous Baron Loudoun, commander of the Imperial armies in the close of the last century.

Sir Hugh Campbell of Loudoun like all his predecessors, was High-Sheriff of Ayr, and possessed a vast estate, as charters, dated between 1580 and 1600, show. In 1601, he was created Lord Camp- bell of Loudoun by James VI. His renunciation to flew, Earl of Eglinton, " f the gift of the earl's marriage, 14th August 1604," appears in the Eglinton Memorials, vol. ii. He married Margaret. Gordon of the house of Lochinvar. His son, John, Master of Loudoun, died before him, leaving a daughter, Margaret, who succeeded to all the honours of Loudoun, in 1622, and married her name- sake, Sir Sohn Campbell of La wers, a descendant of the first Baron of Glenorchy, and who was so esteemed by Charles I. that, in 1633, he created him Lord Farrinyeane and Mauchline, and Earl of Loudoun. and, eight yean after, he was Lord High Chancellor of Scotland. His grandson, James Campbell, Colonel of the Scots Greys, fell, a major-general, at the battle of Fontenoy, in 1745.

Hugh, third Earl of Loudoun, elder brother of the General, joined King William at the Revolu- tion, and was a Commissioner for the Union in 1707. He died in 1731.

John, fourth Earl, his son, attained the highest military honours. He became Colonel of the 80th foot, Governor of Virginia and of Edinburgh Castle. In 1745 he was active in the Government service, and in that year raised a regiment of Highlanders, consisting of twelve companies, which covered itself with distinction in the war of Flanders, fighting against Saze and Lowendhal, but was disbanded at Perth in 1748. The Earl was appointed Commander of the forces in America in 1756 ; two years subsequent, he was Commander in Portugal, and, in 1770, was appointed Colonel of the Scot* Foot Guards. He died a general in 1782, and unmarried.

The title thus reverted to his cousin, Major-General James Mure-Campbell, son of the General named above who fell at Fontenoy, who married Flora, eldest daughter of MacLeod of Rasay, by whom he had one child, Flora Mure-Campbell, who became Countess of Londoun, and married, in 1804, General, the Earl of Moira, Commander-in-Chief in Scotland, afterwards Governor-General of India, and who, in 1816, was created Marquis of Hastings. This lady was the mother of the lamented Lady Flora Hastings, a poetess of considerable merit, who was born at Edinburgh in 1806, and whose somewhat inhumane treatment at Court, in 1839, the year of her death, caused some excitement. The Countess Flora was succeeded by her son George, seventh Earl of Loudoun and second Marquis of Hastings, who died 1844. His two sons, the third and fourth marquises, who were also Earls of Loudoun, died in 1851 and 1868 respectively, both without issue, and the Earldom of Loudoun then went to their sister, Edith Maud, who married a Mr Clifton, afterwards Lord Donington, with whom she assumed the name and arms of Abney Hastings.

The Countess died in 1874, and was succeeded by her son Charles, eleventh Earl.




Clan Pipe Music: Lament "Cumha do dh' Uilleam Siseal" ("Lament for William Chisholm").

Badge: Fearna (Alder); or Raineach (Fern).

HE chieftain of this tribe is not of original Celtic descent, though, curious to say, the whole tribe are the descendants of a pure Gaelic race, and their stronghold was Erchless Castle in Strathglass, amid superb mountain scenery. It stands a little below the confluence of the Glass and the Farrar, "and still belongs," says Miss Sinclair, "to the descendants of that old chief, who said there were but three persons in the world entitled to be called ' The 'The King, The Pope, and The Chisholm. The place is beauty personified. The castle is a venerable whitewashed old tower, so entirely siirrounded by a wreath of hills that the glen seems scooped out on purpose to hold the house and park."

In the time of David II., Robert Chisholm, knight, witnessed a crown charter at Perth in the thirty-ninth year of the King's reign, 1369 ; and there is a charter, by Robert II., to the Earl of Buchan of Lochletter, Inchbrennys, etc., Inverness- shire, by the resignation of Robert Cheshelm (sic) ; and under the Regency of the Duke of Albany there was an indenture between Margaret of Eccles and Thomas of Chisholm, her son and heir, dividing between them certain lands of which they were heirs-portioners, in Forfarshire, Perthshire, Inverness, and Aberdeenshhe. It is dated at Kinrossie, 25th April 1403 (Robertson's " Index"). The name occurs very seldom in Scottish history.

Three of the clan were in succession Bishops of Dunblane. In I486, Bishop James Chisholm, chaplain to James III., resigned the Ste in favour of his brother William in 1527, a most irreverend prelate, who wasted the revenues of it on his natural children, particularly Sir James Chisholm of Cromlix. His nephew, William Chisholm, became Bishop of Dunblane in 1564, after being co- adjutor in 1561. He was much employed in political affairs at foreign courts, and ultimately with- drew to France, where he was made Bishop of Vaison (Beatson's " Index.")

In lf>79, John Chisholm was Comptroller of the Artillery, and John Acheson became caution for him, that " he would behave himself as a goml and loyal subject, under pain of 1000 (Reg. of Council).

James Chitsholm of Cromlix (son of the Bishop) was Master of the Household to James VI., though in 1429, Colin, Earl of Argyll, was appointed Master heritably, a dignity reserved at the Union.

In 1581, Walter Chisholm of that Ilk is referred to in the " violations of the assurances of peace between the Scotts and Elliots" (Ibid).

In the " Roll of the Landislordis and Baillies," under date 1587, printed in the "Transaction* of the lona Club," the name of Chisholm of Comer appears. A note to the " Geography of the Clans" therein states that "Alexander Chisholm of Stnithglass was alive in 1578," and that "John C'hUholru of Comer is mentioned, anno 1613."

In 1598 the name of William, the ex-Bishop of Dunblane, appears in history again, when he must have been in extreme old age.

"It would seem that in 1608 James, Lord Balmerino, the Scottish Secretary of State was challenged in England, says Balfour, "concerning some letter written by him in 1598, by the king's orders, to Pope Clement VIII., to obtain a cardinal's hat for Chisholm, a Scotts man, then Bishop of Weasone, in France, brother to the Laird of Crouneriggas, in Perthshire, in which letter he styles the I'ope 'Beatissiiu* Pater,' and other such phrases, which almost wronged the king's honour" (" Annales").

In the liei>ort on the Clans, furnished to Government by Duncan Forbes, he enters the surname thus :

" Chitholms. Their chief is Chisholm of Strathghiss, in Gaelic called 'Chisallich.' His lands re held of the Crown, and he can bring out 200 men."

In 1777, Alexander Chisholm of Chisholm entailed his estates in Inverness and Ross-shire ; and to this day the picturesque old fortalice of Krchless is still in existence.

Alexander Chisholm's great-grandson, Roderick, died in 1887, the last "Chisholm."




'HE Sreacan nan Cltirich, or Tartan of the clergy, a mixture of black, dark blue, with light blue or white stripes, is referred to by Logan in his " Scottish Gael."

" Down to a very recent period," says Mr Smith of Mauchline, "this pattern was generally used by the clergy in the Highlands for their weekday habiliments, and even now the secular mantle or plaid of the priesthood in the North is not unfreqnently made of this or similar kinds of stuff.'

It is also included in the lists of Tartans sold at the present time. "In those times," says Logan, "when the Highlanders went armed both to kirk and market, the gentlemen took their gillie-mor or swordbearer with them. Even the clergymen armed themselves, in compliance with the national custom. The Rev. Donald Macleod of Skye, who lived about forty years ago, remembered his great-grandfather, who was also a clergyman, going to church with his two- handed sword and his servant, who walked behind with his bow and case of arrows." A Gaelic song, he adds, alludes to thia practice, where it is said

"John is girt with his sword at sermon."




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Badge: Braoileag nan con (Dogberry) J or Calltuinn (Hazel).

(HK ancestor of surname of Colquhoun was Humphry Kirkpatrick, in wliose favour Mitlduin Earl of Lennox, grants charter of the hinds of Coichoun in the reign of Alexander II. The first who assumed the surname of Coichoun was Ingram, the abve Humphry's successor, being so designed in a charter of Luss by Maleolm, Earl of Lennox, to Malcolm, Laird of Lusa, confirming John, Laird of Lav, his charter to his son of those lands in the beginning of the reign of King Robert I.

It would appear at one time that there were three brandies of this family- Colqu- honn of that Ilk, a second of Kilpatrick, and a third of Luss. With regard to the Kilpatrick line, it appears that in the reign of Alexander II., Umphredus de Kil- patrick obtained a grant of the lands and barony of Colquhoun in Dumbartonshire, on which occasion he assumed the name and arms ol Colquhoun. But there were others of the name in those early times ; under David II. Gilbert Culquhen, a herald, was forfeited, and lands of Barinneheurie were bestowed on Isabel of Athole. In the same reign a charter was given to Malcolm Culcbone of Cask.

Ingram, Humphry, Sir Robert, and Sir Humphry, all Colquhouns of that Ilk and Luss, succeeded each other, till we come to Sir John, who was governor of Dumbarton Castle daring the minority of James II. He was lured into an ambush by Lauchlan MacLean and other Islesmen, and slain with 1-20 of his men. His son, Malcolm, predeceased him, and left a son, who succeeded as Sir John Col- quhoun, and married a daughter of Lord Boyd. He was a man of ability, and was Comptroller of the Exchequer from 1405 to 1469. He received a grant of the lands of Roseneath. The Castle of Uunglass, the ruins of which abut on the Clyde, and is now the property of Buchanan of Anchintorlie, belonged also to the Colquhouns. In 1474 Sir John was Great Chamberlain of Scotland, and was a commissioner for that futile scheme a marriage between the Crown Prince of Scotland and Cecily, daughter of Edward IV. In 1477 he was appointed governor for life of Dumbarton Castle, and in the following year was slain by a cannon ball during that siege in which the famous " Mons Meg "

He was succeeded by his son, Sir Humphry, who died in 1493, and was succeeded in turn by his son, Sir John, who was knighted by James IV., and obtained, under the Great Seal, grants of several lands and baronies in Dumbartonshire. He died in 1535.

In that year, Patrick and Adam Colquhoun, brothers of the Laird of Luss were tried for the slaughter of William Stirling of Glorat (Pit. Crim. Trials).

Sir Humphry Colquhoun, twelfth Laird of Luss, acquired the Heritable Coronership of Dumbar- tonshire in 1583. He married Jean, daughter of the Earl of Glencairn, by whom lie had no family. He fought the bloody battle of Gleufruin against the MacGregors in 1602, in which he was defeated with the loss of 200 men, including several gentlemen and burgesses of Dumbarton ; and was after- wards killed in his own Castle of Benachra "by the MacFarlanes, through the influence of a certain nobleman whom he had disobliged." He was succeeded by his brother Sir Alexander, whose son, Sir John Colquhoun, in the year of Glenf ruin, obtained a charter of the ten pound lands of Donnerbuck.

In April 1008 he wrote to James VI. that he had been urged by the Privy Council " to submit with the Macfarlanes" his brother's slaughter, and all other slaughters, "murtheris, heirschips, theiftis, riefs, and oppressions," fire-raising, destruction of houses and woods, etc., and that he had obtained a decree to the amount of " Ixxij thousand poindis" Scots against them (Scot. Journ. Antiq.). He was made a Baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles I. in 1625. He endured many hardships during the English invasion of Scotland, and was mulcted in the sum of 2000 sterling by Cromwell, a large sum in those days.

Sir Humphry Colquhoun, seventeenth Laird of Luss, was a member of the Union Parliament, and married a daughter of Houston of that Ilk ; by whom he had only a daughter, Anne, who, in 1702, married James Grant of Pluscardine, second son of Grant of that Ilk ; and being resolved that the young couple should succeed him in his whole estate and honours, in 1704 he resigned his baronetcy to the Crown, and obtained a new grant, to himself in life-rent, to his daughter and son-in-law in fee, providing that their heirs should adopt the name and arms of Colquhoun, and that the estates of Grant and Ltiss should never be conjoined. In the Loch Lomond Expedition against Rob Roy, Sir Humphry was joined by James Grant, with fifty of his surname, "all stately fellows with short hose and belted plaids," says Ray, " each with a well-fixed gun on his shoulder, a handsome target with a sharp-pointed steel in the centre of it, a claymore by his side, and a pistol or two, with a knife and dirk in his belt." Sir Humphry died in 1715.

Jamee Grant succeeded as Sir James Colquhoun ; but his elder brother dying without issue in 1719 he succeeded to the estates of Grant, and resuming that name, was succeeded in the estate of Luss by his second son, Sir Ludovick Grant, who, on the death of his elder brother, unmarried, also suc- ceeded to the estates of Grant, and that of Luss went to his younger brother, James, who was created a Baronet in 1786, and, dying the same year, was succeeded by his son, Sir James, great-grandfutlier of the present Sir James, fifth Baronet of Colquhoun and Luss.




Badgc:-Lus Mhic Cuimin (Cumin Plant).

HE country of this once powerful clan was Badenoch, in the south-east district of Inverness-shirewild, mountainous, now poorly inhabited, and presenting wide stretches of bleak moorland. For 250 years, from 1080 to 1330, they flourished in strength, and then began to decline.

Though some deduce them from Normandy, they would seem to have come from Northumberland ; and, according to the Chronicle of Melrose, the first one of the name who figures prominently was slain with Malcolm III. at Alnwick in 1093, leaving two sons, John and William. From John all tue Cumins in Scotland are said to be descended. In 1142 William was preferred to the See of Durham by the Empress Maud.

Sir John, the Bed Cumin (or Comyn), was the first who was designed Lord of Badenoch, and was ambassador from Alexander II. to Louis IX. of France in 1240. His son John, called the Black Lord of Badenoch, was inferior to no subject in Scotland for wealth and power ; and was one of those who vowed to support Queen Margaret, daughter of Alexander III., in her title to the crown, against all mortals ; but, as one of the six regents, he agreed to her marriage with the eldest son of Edward 1. in 1290, and on her death became a somewhat unscrupulous competitor for the crown of Scotland "as the son and heir of John, who was son of Richard, son of William, son of Hextilda, daughter and heiress of Gothrick, son and heir of Donald, King of Scotland.

Prior to this, another Cumin, designed Lord of Tynedale, had married the heiress of Fergus, last of the old Earls of Buchan, and in her right became Earl of Buchan in 1220.

Edward, in pursuance of his nefarious schemes against Scotland, favoured the rival claims of John Baliol, which did not prevent the Lord of Badenoch from swearing fealty to the foe in 1292 (Rymer) Five years after he died a prisoner in England, leaving by his wife, daughter of John, and sister of King John Baliol, a son, who became Lord of Badenoch, called in turn the Red Cumin, an artful, ambitious dissembler. A panderer to the King of England, he was on the point of betraying Robert Bruce to the latter, and how he perished under the daggers of Bruce and Kirkpatrick, in the church of Dumfries, on the 10th of February 130(5, is well known to every reader of history. He was the last Lord of Badenoch of the surname of Cumin.

The line of the Earl of Buchan continued to flourish. Earl William, first of the title, founded the Abbey of Deer, now in ruing. He was Great Justiciary of Scotland in 1220 under Alexander II., by whom his brother Walter wa* created Earl of Menteith on his marriage to the heiress of that family, with whom he acquired a vast estate.

Alexander, third Earl of Buchan, was Justiciary for Scotland, and with his clansman, the Lord of Badenoch, was one of the regent* appointed on the death of Alexander III. He founded a hospital at Turriff in 1272 for thirteen poor men of Buchan, and another in the Parish of Foveran.

John, fourth Earl of Buchan, his son, was High Constable of Scotland, and one of the arbiters on the part of Baliol.

The slaughter of the Red Cumin by Bruce inspired the whole clan with a desire to avenge Ms death. They opposed the King, who defeated them at Barra in 1308, and pursued them as far as Fyvie. The Earl was outlawed, and his forfeited estates were bestowed on the Keiths, Hays, and Douglasses, whose good swords had helped to win the battle of Bannockburn. His only son married a daughter of the Earl of Pembroke, and died without heirs ; but Jordanus Cumin, a kinsman of his, who got the lands of Inverallochy from Earl Alexander, became, it is said, ancestors of the Cumins of Culter, who, says Sir Robert Douglas, got a charter of these lands from James III. in 1477. In 1335 a number of the Cumin clan were slain in the feudal battle of Culblean, in Glenmuick, where a stone now marks the spot.

This old race is now represented by the Gordon-Cummings, Baronets of Gordonstoun, through the Cu mm ings of Altyre, who Bucceeded to the name and arms of Gordon by intermarriage.



13. CUMIN.



Clan Pipe Music: Salute "Failte Thighearna Thulaich " ("Tulloch's Salute")

Badge: Bocsa, or Craobh aighban (Boxwood); or Lus nan craimsheag, braoileag (Red Whortleberry).

JHERE seems to lie no traditional knowledge of the individual from whom the patro- nymic of this clan is derived. He bore a scriptural name, and "the offspring of David" became numerous and powerful in Badenocb, where their possessions lay. They distinguished themselves throughout the fourteenth century by the protracted and sanguinary feuds which they maintained with such bravery and determination that they were almost exterminated before they could be effectually suppressed. The Clan Chattan was engaged in a war respecting the lands of Glenluie and Loch- arcaig with the Camerons, who came down to Badenoch, about 1296, in great force. They were met at Invernahaven, by the Macintoshes, MacPhersons, and MacDhais, who drew up in battle array to oppose the further progress of the enemy. A dispute now arose between the MacPhersons and the Davidsons as to which clan should lead the right wing. Macintosh, who had the chief command, was appealed to and awarded the point of honour to the Davidsons. Cluny, the disappointed chief, immediately withdrew his men, and the Clan Chattan thus weakened was defeated. It is said that Macintosh sent a bard to the camp of the MacPhersons, who recited a poem in which it was insinuated that they left the field from cowardice, not from a sense of honour. The MacPhersons immediately attacked the Camerons who were defeated with great slaughter. The Camerons being thus reduced, the MacDhais and MacPhersons commenced hostilities on their own account. The former had lost their chief, Lachlan, and seven (or nine) sons at this battle of Invernahaven, and felt indignant that the award of pre- cedency should be disregarded ; both parties were so implacable that the Earls of Crawford and Dunbar were sent by royal commission to quell it. As it was impossible to reconcile them, it was arranged that thirty men on each side should be selected, armed with swords only, to decide their claims. His Majesty Robert lit. in person being umpire. This led to the battle of the North Inch of Perth, fought in 1396, so vividly described by Sir Walter Scott in the "Fair Maid of Perth." One of the MacPhersons was absent, but his place was filled by a volunteer, Henry, the blacksmith of the wynd. The result was that twenty-nine Davidsons were killed, the survivor saving himself by swimming across the Tay. Harry, with ten desperately wounded Macphersons, remained masters of the field. Since this epoch in the history of the clan, it has been almost lost sight of. The beautiful estate of Tulloch in Ross-shire, is the residence of the chief, who is hereditary keeper of the Royal Castle of Dingwall.




HERE are many legends of the origin of this powerful family, but the first recorded ia William of Douglas, the name being derived from the wild pastoral dale he pos- sessed. He appears as a witness to charters by the King and the Bishop of Glasgow between 1175 and 1213. He was either the brother or the brother-in-law of Sir Freskin of Murray, and had six sons, of whom Archibald, or Erkenbald, was his heir, and Brice rose to be Bishop of Moray. Archibald is a witness to charters between 1190 and 1232, and was knighted. Sir William of Douglas, apparently the son of Sir Archibald, figures in records from 1240 to 1273. His second son, distin- guished in family traditions as William the Hardy, spoiled the monks of Mehose, and deforced the King's officers in the execution of a judgment in favour of his

. _ mother. He ioined Wallace in the rising against the English in 1297. He possessed

lands in one English and seven Scottish counties. His son, the Good Sir James, is known as the greatest captain of Bruce in the long war of independence. "The Black Douglas," as he was called, was victor in fifty-seven fights, his name became a terror to the border country. In 1330, when on his way to Jerusalem, there to deposit the heart of his royal friend Bruce, he was killed fighting against the Moors in Andalusia. His son William fell at Halidon Hill, and the next Lord of Douglas, Hugh, brother of Lord James, and a canon of Glasgow, made over the great estates of the family in 1342 to his nephew Sir William. The Douglases had, since the time of William the Hardy, held the title of Lords of Douglas ; but in 1357, Sir William, who had fought at Poitiers, was made Earl of Douglas, and by marriage became Earl of Mar. In 1371 he disputed the succession of the Scottish crown with Robert II., claiming as a descendant of the Baliols and Comyns. He died in 1384. His son James, second Earl of Douglas and Mar, the conqueror of Hotspur, fell at Otterburn in 1388, and as he left no legitimate issue, the direct male line of William the Hardy and the Good Sir James now came to an end. His aunt had married for her second husband one of her brother's esquires, James of Sandilands, and through her Lord Torphichen, whose barony was a creation of Queen Mary in 1564, is now the heir general and representative at common law of the House of Douglas.

William of Douglas was father of Sir Archibald Douglas, who had two sons ; from the younger, Sir Andrew, descended the Earls of Morton, Viscount Belhaven, and Baron Penrhyn ; and the elder, Sir William, was the father of another Sir William, who had three sons: (1) the Good Sir James, from whom descended the third (illegitimate), fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth Earls of Douglas, first and second Dukes of Touraine, Earl of Ormond ; (2) Hugh ; (3) Archibald, who was the father of William, first Earl of Douglas, who was father of James, second Earl. This second Earl had two natural sons : (a) William, from whom descended the Dukes of Qiieensberry and Dover, Earls of March, Ruglin, and Solway, etc. ; (6) Archibald, from whom descended Douglas of Caver*. William, the first Earl of Douglas, had also a natural son, George, Earl of Angus, from whom descended the Dukes of Douglas, Hamilton, Brandon, and Chatellerault, Marquesses of Douglas, Earlu of Selkirk, Ormond, Forfar, Dumbarton, and Barons Glenbervie, etc.

! I






Clan Pipe Music:- March "Spaldsearachd Dhiuc Pheairt" ( " Duke of Perth's March"). Badge . -Lus an righ, or Lus mhic righ Bhreatuinn (Wild Thyme) ; or Cuileann (Holly).

ARIOU3 genealogists state that the traditional origin of the Dnnnmonds is taken from Maurice, son of George, a younger son of Andrew, King of Hungary, who is said to have accompanied Edgar Atheling, the rightful heir to the English throne ; but the ship in which the latter with his mother Agatha and his sisters Margaret and Chris- tian were embarked in, to sail back to Hungary, was overtaken by a storm, and wrecked at the place on the Forth, now called St. Margaret's Hope, in honour of the eldest princess, who became the Queen of Malcolm III., from whom Maurice obtained a grant of the lands of Drummond, or Drymen, in Stirlingshire, the estate, from whence his family took their name.

Queen Margaret, says Douglas, gave him one of her maids of honour in marriage, and that from their son Malcolm all the Drummonds in Scotland are descended.

There is every probability that at an early stage of their history the Drummonds had reached opulence and influence, as Malcolm Beg, so called from his low stature, sixth of the family, married Ada, daughter of Malduin, Earl of Lennox, by Beatrice, daughter of Walter, the Lord High Steward.

Two of his grandsons became the prisoners of Edward I., and the eldest, Sir John, had, undei com- pulsion, to swear fealty to the latter, and serve in his army against France : but his eldest son, Sir Malcolm Drnmmond, who married a daughter of Graham of Kincardine, was loyal to Bruce, and after Bannockburn received from him certain lands in Perthshire.

His grandson, Sir John, married Mary Montifex, who brought him Cargill, Stobhall, and other places. He had a bitter feud with the Menteithsof Ruskie, in which his kinsman, Bryce Drummond, was slain in 1330, and in pursuance of which he was accused of having slain three of the Menteiths, in compensation for which he was compelled to resign Roseneath. After this he retired to his lady's eat of Stobhall. Their daughter Annabella became Queen of Robert III.

Near the seat of Lord Ancaster in Muthil, still stand the ruins of the stronghold of this ancient nice.

" How the Drummonds parted with the lands of Drymen has been forgotten," says Nimmo. Bal- frone had been bestowed upon Thomas, a younger brother of the chief, who gave the patronage of the church then to the Abbey of Inchaffry, before 1305. "The Barony of Drummond, which still goes by that name, had before 1488 belonged to the first Earl of Lennox, and when this nobleman had, in 14S9, attempted to revenge the death of James III., he lost the barony by forfeiture. It was ten years after bestowed upon the first Lord Drummond, who, though ennobled by James, had joined the insurgents. It remained in the Drummond or Perth family 130 years, when in 1030 John, 'second Earl of Perth, sold it to William, Earl of Menteith."

John, first Lord Drummond, died in 1519, and was succeeded by his son David, second Lord, who died 1571, leaving two sons, Patrick, third Lord, and James, created Lord Maderty, ancestor of the Viscounts Strathallan. Patrick, third Lord Drummond, had two sons, James, fourth Lord, who was created Earl of Perth, 1(505, and 'dying in 1611, was succeeded by his brother John, second Earl, who was succeeded in his turn in 1662 by his son James, third Earl. This Earl left two sons, Jaroe*, fourth Earl of Perth, and John, created Earl of Melfort, 168C>.

James, fourth Earl of Perth, was Lord Chancellor of Scotland, and followed the fortunes of the Stuart*, being created by James "VII." Duke of Perth, K.G. He died at St. Germains in 171(5, and was interred in the Scottish College at Paris. His eldest son, James, second titular Duke, was out in the rising of 1715 and was attainted. He died 1720, being succeeded by his sons James and John, third and fourth titular Dukes, who both died unmarried. The fifth and sixth titular Dukes were younger sons of the first. The Earldom of Perth then went to the Melfort branch of the family (see above). John, first Earl of Melfort, follownl the fortunes of the Stuarts, and was created Duke of Melfort by Louis XIV. of France. He died 1715. and was succeeded by his son John, second Duke, who died 1754, His son James, thir.1 Duke, had three sons- James, fourth Duke, Charles Edward, fifth Duke, and Leon, who was father of George Drummond, who was restored by Queen Victoria to the Scottish honours of his family as fourteenth Earl of Perth and sixth Earl of Melfort in 1863. He died in 1902, being succeeded in the Melfort titles by his daughter, Lady Mari.s IJrummond, and in the Perth titles by his distant kinsman, William, eleventh Viscount Strathallan, the descendant of James, Lord Maderty, second son of the second Baron Drnmmond.




ERLE DE DUNDAS was living in the time of King William the Lion. His direct descendant in the fifteenth century was James Dundas, who was twice married. By his first marriage he had Sir Archibald, and Duncan, ancestor of the Dundases of Newliston. By his second marriage he had Alexander of Fingask. The abovg- named Sir Archibald died about 1494, leaving a son, Sir William, who was father of Sir James, and also of William, ancestor of the Dundases of Duddingston and Manour. This Sir James Dundas of Dundas was twice married. By his first marriage he had Sir Walter, and by his second marriage he had Sir James, ancestor of the Dundases of Arniston. The eldest son, Sir Walter, had three sons (1) George, whose direct descendant is Adam Duncan Dundas of Inchgarvie House, the present head of the family ; (2) William, ancestor of the Dundasea of Blair ; and (3) Walter, ancestor of the Dundases of Magdalens. We will now give an account of the Arniston branch of the family. The above-named Sir James was the father of another Sir James, who was twice married. By his second marriage he had a son, James, whose great-grandson was created a Baronet, 1821, and is now represented by Sir Sydney Dundas of Dunira, third Baronet. By his first marriage he had Robert, father of another Robert, Lord President of the Court of Session, who was twice married. By his second marriage he had Henry, created Viscount Melville 1802, whose present representative is Henry, fifth Viscount. By his first marriage the Lord President had a son, Robert, who also became Lord President, and who was father of Robert, who became Lord Chief Baron of the Court of Exchequer. His grandson is the present Sir Robert Dundas of Arniston, created a baronet 1898. We now return to the Dundases of Fingask. Alexander, first of Fingask, was father of another Alexander who fell at Flodden, 1513, whose direct descendant in the sixth degree was Thomas Dundas, who had two sons, Thomas and Lawrence of Kerse. The last-named Thomas had also two sons (1) Thomas, whose great-grandson is the present Thomas George Dundas of Carron Hall and Fingask, and (2) Charles, created Lord Amesbury, 1832. The above-named Lawrence of Kerse was created a Baronet, 1762, and was father of Sir Thomas, created Baron Dundas of Aske, 1794. His son Lawrence, second Baron, was created Earl of Zetland, 1838, and his grandson is Lawrence, third Earl, who was created Marquis of Zetland in 1S92.




HE Elliots were an important family in the south of Scotland. The chief of the clan was of Redheuch, and some other branches of the family were designed as of Larri- ston, Braidlie, Horsliehill, Arkleton, and Stobs. Of the last-named branch came Gilbert Elliot of Stobs, who died leaving several sons. William, the eldest, was ancestor of the Baronets of Stobs ; also of John Elliot, M.D., Physician to the Prince of Wales, who was created a Baronet, 1778, but died unmarried 1786 ; and also of the celebrated General George Augustus Elliot, who successfully defended Gibraltar for three years (1779-83) against the whole power of France and Spain. General Elliot was created Lord Heath field, Baron Gibraltar, 1787, but the title became extinct on the death of his son Francis, second Baron, 1813. Gavin Elliot of Midlem Mill, fourth son of tb above-named Gilbert Elliot of Stobs, was father of Gilbert Elliot, Lord Justice Clerk, created a Baronet 1700, whose great grandson Gilbert, after having been Governor-General of India, was created Earl of Minto, 1813. The present and fourth Earl is liis great-grandson. There is also an English family of Eliots belonging to Devon and Corn- wall. Of thin family Edward Graggs Eliot was created Baron Eliot of St. Germans, 17S4, and his on John waa created Earl of St. Germans, 1815. The present Earl is the fifth.




R ROBERT ERSKINE, Chamberlain of Scotland, 1350-57, married first, Beatrix, daughter of Sir Alexander Lindsay of Crawford, and widow of Archibald Douglas, by whom he had two sons, Thomas, his heir, and Malcolm, ancestor of the Erskines of Kinnonll. Sir Robert married, secondly, Christian, widow of Sir Edward Keith, and daughter of Sir John Menteith by Elyne, daughter of Gratney, seventh Earl of Mar. Sir Robert's eldest son by first marriage, Thomas, married Janet Keith, daughter of his step-mother by her first husband, and had issue, Robert, created Lord Erskine, and John, ancestor of the Erskines of Dun. The great-grandson of Robert, Lord Erskine, i.e. Robert, fourth Lord, was killed at the battle of Flodden, and was succeeded by his son James as fifth Lord, who married and left two sons; the younger, Sir Alexander Erskine of Gogar, had a son, Thomas, created Earl of Kellie, whose line became extinct on the death of Metbven, tenth Earl, 1829 ; the elder son, John, sixth Lord Erskine, was in 1565 created Earl of Mar, or was restored as seventeenth Earl of Mar by Queen Mary. He died in 1572 and was succeeded by his son John as eighteenth or second Earl. This nobleman was twice married, and his great-great-grandson (by his first marriage) John, twenty-second or sixth Earl, is well known in connection with the Scottish rising of 1715. His descendant John Francis Miller, twenty-fifth or ninth Earl, successfully claimed the earldom of Kellie on the extinction of the junior branch of the family referred to above, but dying without issue, 186(5, his cousin, Walter Coningsby, succeeded as twelfth Earl of Kellie, and also claimed the earldom of Mar, but his claim was resisted by John Francis Erskine Goodeve, the nephew of the last (twenty-fifth or ninth) Earl. In 1875 the House of Lords decided that Walter Henry, thirteenth Earl of Kellie (son of the twelfth Earl), had made out his claim to the earldom of Mar, dated i:>(5.*). He died in 1888, and his son Walter John is now twelfth Earl of Mar and fourteenth Earl of Kellie. Doubts have arisen about the verdict of 1875, the House of Lords in 1885 passed an Act by which the ancient dignity of Mar of 1404 or earlier, became vested in John Francis Erskine Goodeve Erbkine, the other claimant mentioned above, who thus became twenty-sixth Earl of Mar. Having now completed the account of the descendants of the first marriage of John, eighteenth or second Earl of Mar, we turn to his second marriage by which he had a number of sons ; (1) .lames, thu eldest, was created Earl of Buchan, and this title ended in his descendants on the death of William, eighth Earl, ltii>5. (2) Henry, the second son, was the father of James, Lord Cardross, and lii.s descendant the fourth Ix>rd became ninth Earl of Buehan. From the twelfth Earl the present Earl descends, and from the brother of the twelfth Earl come the Lords Erskine. (3) Charles, the third son, was the father of another Charles, created a Baronet, whose descendant, the sixth Baronet, inherited the Earldom of Rosslyn from his maternal grandfather, Alexander Wedderburn, Lord Chancellor of England, and his descendants still enjoy this title.

19. ER8KINE.



War Cry; "Carn na cuimhne" ("Cairn of Remembrance."). Badge: Ros-greine (Little Sunflower); or Lus-nam-ban-sith (Foxglove).

I HE origin and descent of this tribe are given thus in Buchanan's Rite of the Clans:

" Farquharson, a numerous clan on the banks of the Dee, who trace their origin from the German Catti, or Clan Chattan. MacDutf, Thane of Fife, their Phylarch, had an ancestor named Sheagh or Shaw Mac Duff, second son of Constantine, third Earl of Fife. This Sheagh was captain under Malcolm IV. in the expedition against the Murrays in the province of Moray in 1163. For his valour Malcolm made him Governor of Inverness, and gave him the lands of Peaty and Brachley, with the forest of Stratherin, which belonged to the rebels. The country people gave him the name of Macintosh, or Thanes-son, which continued to his progeny, yet some of them claimed the name of Shaw. One of them was Shaw of Rothiemurchus, whose offspring settled in Strathdee, and were named Farquharson."

From Farquhard Shaw, he adds, are descended the Farquharsons of Invercauld, Inverey, Monaltrie, etc. The former of these is the chief of his name.

Findlay Mor Farqharson of Invercauld, bearer of the Royal Standard, was slain at Pinkie in 1547. By his wife Beatrix Gordon he left a son, John, who carried on the line of the family ; and from his brother David of Monaltrie's three sons, the families of Allanacoich, Inverey, and Finzean are descended.

In 1641 Farquharson of Invercauld (who bore a prominent part in the Scottish civil wars of the period), was ordered by Parliament to levy a body of armed men to secure Angus and the Mearns, etc. (Balf. Anna/en), and four years after he was serving at the head of his clan in the battles of Mont rose. His kinsman, James of Inverey, in 1649, for having failed to attend a summons of the Committee of Estates in 1647, was fined 4000 (Scots 7), and in his seventy-third year was thrown into the Tolbooth of Edinburgh, where he was kept " till, afraid to perish in so horrible a den, he at length succeeded in attracting some charitable attention from the Estates."

In 1696 John Farquharson entailed his estate of Invercauld and other lands in the shire of Aberdeen. The fighting force of the clan in 1745 was estimated at 500 men by Forbes of Culloden, who says their Gaelic patronymic is lanla. In that year Monaltrie was "out" with his chief, and in a letter of Jxml Lewis Gordon is referred to as commanding "The Aboyne Batallion." In 1704 their strength was 700 men.

In 1748 the Laird of Invercauld gave the Government a ninety-nine years' lease of the Castle of Braeroar as a military station ; but it has long since ceased to be occupied by troops.

" No place that I have seen in Scotland, "says Dr Stoddart, " is more characteristically adapted to the residence of a Highland chief than Invercauld. It stands on a rising ground not far removed from the bank of the Dee, which glides silently and majestically through the valley ; all around are vast birch woods and firs, of which Mr Farquharson has planted incredible numbers."

The Laird of 1748 died in 1750, and was succeeded by his son James, who died in 1806, and left a daughter, Catharine, who married Captain James Ross, R.N., who took the name of Farquharson. Their great-grandson i the present Alexander Farquharson of Invercauld.




Badge: Ros-greine (Little Sunflower); or Lus-nam-ban-s!th (Foxglove).

FIE name and clan of Fergusson have, singular to say, been more distinguished in times of peace than those of war and tumult, though many of the clan abode in Glenshee.

Among the earlier occurrences of the name, under David II., is a charter by Thomas, Earl of Mar, to Eugene Fergusson of the lands of Uchterterene, in Gromar ; and in 1508, when Jol.n Fergusson of Stravith, with Sir William Scott of Balwearie and others, witnessed a bond of Manrent.

At the Reformation, when a distribution of Preachers was made in 1560, David Fergusson was appointed to Dumfermline ; and in 1582, with Erskine of Dun and others, he formed one of a deputation to James VI. concerning the grievances of the Church. Four years previously there had been a complaint against him and others in a case of disputed jurisdiction between the Kirk and the civil power. In 15S7 Fergusson of Craigdarroch (or Craigdarnoch), apparently the oldest line of the family, with Sir John Gordon of Lochinvar and others, was summoned before the Council for having been in rebellion against the King, and fined 3000 merks.

In 1649 " John Fergusson of Cragdare " (darroch) was Commissioner in Parliament for Dumfries- fchire (Act Par I. Scot.).

Two of the clan, one known as " Robert the Plotter," and his brother, a General, came promi- nently forward in the early part of the 17th century. They were sons of the Laird of Badyfarow, near Inverury. Robert went to London as an Independent minister, and took an active part in many conspiracies, among others, the famous Ryehouse Plot ; but he escaped detection once by hiding in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh, and he joined in every scheme against Charles II. and James VII. At the Revolution he was rewarded for his rogueries by an appointment in the Excise ; and being dissatisfied, he took to plotting against William III., and wrote against his Government with great effect, but always contrived to elude punishment. Among his publications were a Vindication of the Colony at Darien, a History of the Revolution, etc. He died in 1714.

His brother James Fergnsson, a Major-General of 1705, served with distinction under Marl- borough, and is mentioned with honour in the Blenheim Despatches. He led the attack on the village. His descendants still possess lands at Kimmundy, in Aberdeenshire. Another of the name, William Fergusson, was an eminent painter in still life. He travelled in Italy and France, and died in 1690.

Sir John Fergusson of Kilkerran held extensive estates in Ayrshire in the time of Charles I. His son John was made a Baronet in 1703, according to Burke, and his grandson was Lord Kilkerran. Sir Adam, third Baronet, claimed the Earldom of Glencairn, but failed to make good his title. The Fergnasons, Baronets of Farm, Tyrone, went there from Scotland 280 years ago.

James Fergusson, the eminent self-taught philosopher, born in 1710 ; Adam Fergusson, LL.D , the great historian and moral philosopher, born in 1724 ; Robert Fergusson, the unfortunate poet, born in 1750; James Fergusson, the architect, born in 1808; and Sir William Fergusson, Bart., F.R.S., born in the same year, have all cast a lustre on this clan and surname.

" Annie Laurie," of Maxwellton, so famed in Scottish song, became the wife of Fergusson of Craigdarroch ; and their descendant, Robert Cutlar Fergusson, the accomplished scholar, figures in Burns' well-known poem, "The Whistle."

Brigadier General Fergust-on bore a distinguished part at the capture of the Cape of Good Hope ; he commanded the Highland Brigade, consisting of the 71st, 72nd, and 93rd Regiments, and led the charge which put the enemy to flight.

Sir Adam Fergnsson, third Baronet, died in 1813, and was succeeded by his nephew, James, fourth Baronet, who died in 1838. He was succeeded by his son Charles, fifth Baronet, who died in 184y, leaving the Right Honourable Sir James Fergusaon, sixth Baronet, G. C.S.I., K.C.M.G. etc.



21. FERGU880N.


War Cry: "Lonach" (A mountain in Strath Don).

Clan Pipe Music. -March "Cath Qhlinn Euralnn" ("The Battle of Glen Eurann"). Badge: Bealaidh (Broom).

OXCERNING the origin of this clan, John of Forbes, the first upon record, seems to have been a man of importance in the time of William the Lion, and was (says MacFarlane) the father of Fergus, from whom the clan are descended. His name appears in a charter of Alexander, Earl of Buchan, dated 1236. His son Alexander, a man of high valour, lost his life when defending the Castle of Urquhart against Edward I., who, with his usual barbarity, put the entire garrison to the sword in 1303 ; but he left a son, also Alexander, who fell at the battle of Dupplin in i:i32.

The posthumous son of the latter, Sir John Forbes of that Ilk, was a man of eminence in the days of Robert II. and Robert III. He had four sons by Elizabeth Kennedy of Dunure, and from the three younger, sprang the Forbesses of Pitsligo, Culloden, Waterton, and Foveran. By Robert III. he was made Justiciary of Aberdeenshire, and died in 1406. His eldest son, Sir Alexander of that Ilk, joined the constable Buchan in France at the head of 100 Horse and 40 Pikeman ; and, after serving with honour in the war against Henry V., was raised to the Peerage by James I. as Baron Forbes about 1442. In 1426 he obtained bond ot Manrent from Ogston of that Ilk, to attend him with three armed horsemen against all mortals, the King excepted. He married Elizabeth, daughter of the Earl of Angus by the Princess Margaret, daughter of Robert III., and died in 1448, leaving two sons, James the Master of Forbes, and John, who became Provost of St. Giles at Edinburgh.

James, second Lord Forbes, married a daughter of the first Earl Marischal, and had three sons- William, the third Lord, Duncan, ancestor of the Forbesses of Corsindse and Monymusk, and Patrick, ancestor of the Forbesses, Baronets of Craigievar, now Lord Sempill, and also of the Earls of Grahard.

Alexander, fourth Lord Forbes, was in arms with his clan to revenge the murder of James III., but after the defeat at Tillymoss he submitted to James IV. John, sixth Lord, stood high in the favour of James V., from whom he got many charters. He had a feud with the citizens of Aberdeen, who withheld a sort of blackmail, a yearly tun of wine for the fishings of the Don. A fight ensued in 1526 in the streets. It lasted twenty-four hours, and many were slain. His descendant, Alexander, tenth Lord, was a General under Gustavus Adolphus, and Colonel of Scottish Infantry in 1648, and is now represented by Horace, nineteenth Lord Forbes.

The Lords Pitsligo were descended from William, second son of Sir John Forbes of that Ilk, in the time of Robert II. Alexander, fourth Lord, was attainted after Culloden, and living long secretly in one of his own gate lodges, died in 1762. Three families now clain the title.

The Forbesses, Baronets of Craigievar, a branch of the old House, sprang from Patrick Forbes of Corse, armour-bearer to James III. ; and the Stuart-Forbesses of Pitsligo, Baronets, from Duncan *f Corsindfe, second son of James, second Lord Forbes. The Edinglassie Forbesses are also a branch of the parent stock.

The Forbesses of Tolqnhoun, a very old branch, acquired that estate in 14-JO, and were progenitors of the Lairds of Culloden. Sir Alexander Forbes of Tolquhoun commanded a troop of cavalry in the Scots army at Worcester ; and when the King's horse was shot, mounted him on his own, put his buff coat and a bloody scarf about him, and saw him safe out of the field. The fortunes of this house were probably consumed in the fever of the Darien Scheme (like many other good old Scottish families), in which Alexander Forbes of Tolquhoun appears to have embarked beyond his means, the stock he held (500) having been judicially attached.

Sir William Forbes, eighth Baronet of Craigievor, in 1884 succeeded his kinswoman as Lord BempilL




'HE history of this celebrated regiment is as follows :

In 1729 the Government entertained the idea of making use of the Highlanders as a means of protecting the country which was then in an unsettled state, and to this end six companies were formed ; three companies consisted of 100 men each and other three of 75 men each. The first three companies were commanded by Lord Lovat, Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochnell, and Colonel Grant of Ballindalloch. The three smaller companies by Colonel Alexander Campbell of Finab, John Campbell of Carrick, and George Munro of Culcairn as Captain Lieutenants ; to distinguish them from Royal troops they wore tartans of a dark colour from which they derived the name "Black Watch;" the men were all of respectable families, many of them being sons of gentlemen. Their duties consisted in carrying out the "Disarming Act " and preventing depredations ; for this purpose they were quartered in small detachments in various parts of the country, chiefly in the more troubled districts of the Highlands, where the Jacobite clans of Cameron, Stuart, MacDonald, and Murray, rendered their presence necessary to prevent a sudden rising, the various companies acting independently of each other. In 1740 the Government determined to add to their number, which was raised to 1000 men who mustered for the first time near Taybridge, Perthshire.

Up to this period each company was dressed in tartans selected by its commander, but as the companies were now to form one regiment, it was necessary to have a uniform dress. The first Colonel, Lord Crawford, being a Lowlander, and having no tartan of his own, a new tartan different from any other was manufactured for the whole regiment. This ultimately became the well-known 42nd or Black Watch ; the tartan is composed of various shades of black, green, and blue.

From the colour of the uniform of the regular troops, they were called red soldiers (SaigMearan Dearg) ; the Highlanders from their sombre dress, the Black Watch (Freiceadan Dubh). Mr Cameron in his " Military History," in writing of this regiment, thus eulogises the Highland soldiers. *' The Highlanders of Scotland have been conspicuous for the possession of every military virtue which adorns the character of the hero who has adopted the profession of arms. Naturally patient and brave, and innured to hardship in their youth, in the hilly districts of a northern climate, these warlike mountaineers have always proved themselves a race of lion-like champions, valiant in the field, faithful, constant, generous in the hour of victory, and endued with calm perseverance under trial and disaster." The Black Watch, since its formation, has taken a brilliant part in nearly every war its country has been engaged in and has fought with honour in every quarter of the globe. The more important engagements include Egypt, Corunna, Fuentes d'Onor, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, Toulouse, Peninsula, Waterloo, Alma, Sevastopol, Lucknow, Ashanti, Egypt, 1882-84, Tel-el- Kebir, Nile, 1884-85, Kirbekan. On its colours it bears the names of " Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, Toulouse, and Peninsula."




War Cry:-" A Mhor-fhaiche" ("The Great Field"); and later "Caisteal Dunie* ("Castle Downie").

Clan Pipe Music: Lament "Cumha Mhic Shimidh" (" Lo vat's Lament"). March "Spaldsearachd Mhic Shimidh" ("Lovat's March").

Badge: lubhar (Yew).

[HE Erasers are not of original Gaelic descent, but their name yields to few in Scotland for antiquity, and the time of their settling there is uncertain, though MacKenzie and Martin say they are descended from Pierre Frasier, who came to Scotland in 790. Be that as it may, people of the surname had considerable possessions in the south of Scotland after the death of Malcolm III.

Gilbert of Fraser is witness of a charter to the Monastery of Cohlstreain in the reign of Alexander L, anno 1109. Simon Fraser made many donations to the religious at Kelso in the time of David I. In the time of William the Lion, Bernard Fraser made a donation to Newbattle Abbey, anno 1178; and in the time of Alexander II. we read of Gilbert Fraser, vice comes de Traquhair, Bernard Fraser of Diem, and Thomas Fraser, 1226 et 1230. But it is difficult to connect these Frasers with each other, though doubtless they came of a common stock. Sir Simon Fraser of Oliver Castle held a high place among the Magnates Scotice in the troubles after the death of Alexander III. He won the three battles of Roslin in one day in 1303, and was basely put to death in London by Edward I. ; but his brother Alexander carried on the line of the family, and seems to have been the first Fraser who possessed estates in the Highlands. He \\as killed at the battle of Dupplin. His grandson fell at Halidon Hill in 1833, leaving a son Hugh, first designed of Lovat, and progenitor of the Frasers of Knock and Foyers.

Hugh, sixth of the family, and second of Lovat, was made a Baron by James I. about 1460 ; Thomas, second Lord, lost his son, the Master, at the battle of Flodden ; and Hugh, third Lord, was slain in a battle with the MacRonalds near Lochlochy in 1544, when they and the Frasers fought with such rancour that only ten men a-side survived. Hugh, ninth Lord of this line, dying without male issue, Simon Fraser, younger, of Beaufort began to style himself Master of Lovat, while his* father took possession of the estate and honours of the family ; but eventually, after many discredit- able acts, and having letters of fire and sword issued against the whole clan, Simon fled to France about 1698, while his father became Lord Lovat.

Simon eventually became eleventh Lord Lovat, and his character and fate in 1740 are prominent features in the civil war of that calamitous time. His title was attainted.

It was revived as a British peerage in 1837, when Thomas Fraser of Streichen and Lovat was created Lord Lovat, and became twenty-first chief in succession from Simon Fraser, though the title has been subject to some dispute.

Lord Lovat died in 1875, and was succeeded by his son Simon, who died in 1SS7, leaving Simon, present Lord Lovat.

The Frasers, Baronets of Ledclune, descend from Hugh, first Lord Lovat through Alexander, his second son, and are now represented by Sir Keith, fifth Baronet.

The Frasers of Saltonn are descended from William, second son of Sir Alexander Fraser of that Ilk, taken at the battle of Methven in 1308. William obtained from his father the Thanedom of Cowie and lands of Ashintully. He was slain at the battle of Durham in 1346. His son Alexander fought with valour at Otterburn in 1388. His grandson William, designed Dominus de Philorth, died in 1441.

Sir Alexander, fourth of this line, and Baron of Philorth, accompanied James, Earl of Douglas, to the great jubilee at Rome in 1450; and Alexander, fifth Baron of Philorth, was in arms for James III. at Sanchieburn. Sir Alexander, ninth of this family, raised a regiment for the King's service and fought at Worcester ; and on the death of his cousin, Lord Saltoun, without issue in 1O8, he was serve.! heir of line to George, Lord Abernetliy of Saltoun, his grandfather, and hid descendant Alexander is now eighteenth Lord Saltoun.

24. FRA8ER



Wat Cry; "A Gordon I A Gordon!"

Clan Pipe WM./C.- Salute "Failte nan Gordonach " ("The Gordon's Salute"). March "Spaidsearachd nan Gordonach" ("The Gordon's March").

Badge. ladh-shlat, Eitheann (Ivy).

HE first Gordon of whom there is any distinct trace is Richard of Gordon, said to be the grandson of a famous knight who slew some monstrous animal in the Mer.se in the time of Malcolm III.

That Richard was Lord of the Barony of Gordon in the Merse is undoubted as between 1150 and 1160 he granted from that estate a piece of land to Monks of St. Mary at Kelso, a grant confirmed by his son Thomas. Other Gordons figure in hi.s- tory about this time, apart from Bertram de Gordon, whose arrow in 1199 wounded Richard of England at Chalons.

Alicia IV. of the Gordon family, an heiress, married her cousin, Adam Gordon, who was a soldier among the 1000 auxiliaries whom Alexander III. sent with Louis of France to Palestine, where he was slain. From his grandson, Sir Adam, all the Gordons in Scotland are descended, says Douglas ; and the first appearance he makes in history was the assistance he gave Wallace in 1297 to recapture the Castle of VVigton, of which he was made Governor. For his many faithful services, Robert I., on the forfeiture of David, Earl of Athole, gave him a charter of the lands of Strathbogie (or Huntly). He was killed at Halidon Hill ; but his son, Sir Alexander, escaped the slaughter, and was the first designed of Huntly.

Sir Adam Gordon, in descent tenth of Gordon and Huntly, whose father was slain atOtterburn lost his life fighting for his country at the battle of Homildon in 1402, leaving only a daughter, who married a second son of Seton of that Ilk. Their eldest son, Alexander, assumed the name of Gordon, and, in consequence of his great public services to James I. and James II., he was in 14-15 created by the latter Earl of Huntly, and died some twenty years after at a very great age.

To trace all the great actions and deeds of the warlike line of Huntly would far exceed our space. Alexander, third Earl, fought at Flodden ; George, fourth Earl, was General of the forces on the Borders to oppose those of Henry VIII. under Norfolk, with whom he had many victorious encoun- ters ; but in an attempt to get the Queen out of the hands of the Earl of Moray, he was attacked by the MacKenzies, Munroes, Frasers, and Macintoshes at Corrichie, where he was slain in 1562.

George, sixth Earl of Huntly, whose father had been High Chancellor, with other Catholic nobles, was suspected of having a secret correspondence with the Spaniards, and troops were sent against them by James VI. in 1594. The latter were defeated, but Huntly was pardoned, appointed Lieutenant of the North, and created a Marquis in 1599.

George, the second Marquis, was Captain of the Scottish Guard of Louis XIII., and was so strongly attached to the cause of Charles I., that he was forfeited by the Scottish Parliament in 1645, and his property seized. He lost his head for his loyalty at Edinburgh in 1049. Four years before this his eldest son perished in the Royal cause at the battle of Alf ord. George, fourth Marquis, was created a Duke, 1684, and his noble defence of the Castle of Edinburgh for James VII. is a stirring event in Scottish history.

On the death of George, fifth Duke, in 1836, the title became extinct, but the Marquisate of

Huntly went to the Earl of Aboyne, lineally descended from Charles, fourth son of George, second

Marquis of Huntly, who was raised to the Peerage of Aboyne by Charles 1 1. for his many loyal services.

The fighting force of the clan, when in arms for King James in 1715, is given by General Wade

at 1000 claymore'*.

The Earls of Aberdeen, BO created in 1682, are descended from Patrick Gordon of Methlic (cousin of the Earl of Huntly), who fell at the battle of Arbroath in 1445. They were afterwards designed as the Lairds of Methlic and Haddo.

Ten gentlemen of this clan were created Baronets, viz., Gordon of Gordonstoun, Gordon of Clnny, and Gordon of LUmore in 1625 ; Gordon of Lochinvar, 1626 ; Gordon of Park, 1686 ; Gordon of Dalpholly, 1704 ; Gordon of Earlstoun. 1706 ; Gordon of Embo, 1631 ; Gordon of Halkin (by succession), 1813 ; Gordon of Niton, 1818.

Two regiment*, named the "Gordon Highlanders," have been raised from this clan. The first of these wae the old "81st," formed in 1777 by Hon. Colonel William Gordon, son of the Earl of Aberdeen, and disbanded in 1783. The second was the " 92nd," or Gordon Highlanders," raised by the Marquis of Hnntly in 1794 memorable for its high valour in every war since then. When the system of linked battalions was instituted, the old 75th and 92nd became the Gordon Highlanders, and it is the former who are the heroes of Dargai.




Clan Pipe Music: March "Raon-Ruairi " (" Killiecrankie"). Lament "Cumha Chlebhers" ("Claverhouse's Lament").

Badge: Buaidh chraobh, na laibhreas (Laurel).

EW families, says Sir Walter Scott, can boast of more historical renown than that of Graham. So much obscurity and fable involve the origin thereof, that even Sir Robert Douglas repeats the old story, that the Grahams are descended from a famous warrior who breached the Roman wall in 420, and won it the name of Graham's Dyke in the time of Fergus II.

William of Graham is one of the witnesses of David I., Holyrood Charter, circa 1143-47 the first authentic appearance of the name. He obtained the lands of Abercorn and Dalkeith. His grandson and lepresentative, David Graham, obtained from William the Lion, before 1214, certain lands near Montrose. David's son, of the same name, acquired under the succeeding monarch, by exchange of land be- longing to him in Galloway, from Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, the lands of Dundaff and Strathearn, and from the Earl of Lennox those of Strathblane and Mugdock. He was one of the guarantees of a treaty with Henry III. in 1244. His son, Sir David of Dundaif, married a daughter of the Earl of Strathearn, by whom he had three sons Sir Patrick, Sir John, and Sir David. The second was the " Richt Hand" of Wallace, in whose arms he died of his wounds after the battle of Falkirk. Sir Patrick had previously fallen at Dunbar, and when dying gave his sword to his son, and made him swear upon t*>fl blade that while he lived he would fight for Scotland. That sword is now in the possession of ' Duke of Montrose.

His grandson and representative, oir David, in a royal charter witnessed by him in 1360, is styled of Old Montrose. In that year his son Patrick, with many men of rank, appeared on the Forth, near Stirling, to adjust a bloody feud between the Drummonds and Menteiths. By his eldest son of a second marriage, Sir Patrick Graham of Elieston, he was the ancestor of the Earls of Menteith of the name of Graham.

His son, Sir William, Dominus de Graham et Kincardine, obtained from Robert, Duke of Albany, a charter containing an entail of Old Montrose. Patrick, his grandson, was one of the Lords of the Regency after the murder of James I., and was created Lord Graham by James II. about 1445. The third Lord was created Earl of Montrose by James IV. in 1504, and fell by the side of the latter at Flodden, 1513.

His great-grandson, John, third Earl (whose father, Lord Graham, had fallen at Pinkie), was Lord High Chancellor, and in 1598 Lord High Treasurer of the Kingdom.

James, fifth Earl and first Marquis of Montrose, born in 1612, by the splendour of his valour in the Royal cause, was, "The Great Moutrose." He perished on the scaffold in 1650; but for the memory of his services to the Crown, James, fourth Marquis of Montrose, was raised to a Dukedom by Queen Anne in 1707. We regret to add that he sold his Union vote for 1000.

Eighteen landed gentlemen, all the surname of Graham, officiated at the state funeral of the Great Marquis at Edinburgh in 1661.

The immediate ancestor of the Claverhouse Grahams was Sir William of Kincardine, who lived in the time of Robert III. David, brother of the first Viscount of Dundee, followed King James to France, and died in 1700.

The Grahams of Barco and Gartmore were made Baronets respectively in 1625 and 1665. The Border Graemes, who chiefly inhabited the Debatable Land, claimed their descent from Malise, Earl of Strathearn, otherwise Menteith.

James, the first Duke, died in 1742, and was succeeded by his son William, second Duke, great- grandfather of Douglas, fifth and present Duke of Montrose. Since the twelfth century the succes- sion in this family has been from father to son, the chiefship never going further astray than a brother succeeding a brother, or a grandson his grandfather ; and since the sixteenth century all the heads of the family (except the present) have married the daughters of peers.

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1 1

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jX ^






War Cry ."Stand Fast Craig Elaichaidh " ("The Rock of Alarm")

Clan Pipe Music :- March "Stad Creag Ealachaidh" ("Stand Fast Craigellachie").

Badge. Giuthas (Pine Tree).

iESPITE tlie alleged Norman descent given in the book of "The Chiefs of Grant," James Robertson, F.S.A., is of a different opinion. "The origin of this clan," he asserts, " whose territory has always chiefly been in Strathspey, is purely Gaelic. As to the chiefs being of French descent, it may be dismissed, as the clan themselves have always, from the most remote times, acknowledged they are of the same stock as the MacG regors. "

Sir Laurence and Robert, "dicti Graunt," appear in 1258 as witnesses to an agreement with Archibald, Bishop of Moray. The former was Sheriff of Inverness in the time of Alexander III. (1249-58), and by marriage with the heiress of Glen- charney acquired many lands, in short, the greater part of Strathspey.

John Grant of Inverallan and Robert Grant were taken prisoners at the battle of Dunbar in 1296, and in 1316 the former received a charter of the lands of Inver- allan, in which he was succeeded by his son Patrick of Stratherrick.

A Sir John Grant was taken prisoner at Halidon Hill in 1333, and in 1346 he obtained the keeping of the Castle of Darnaway. In 1366 " Johanna le Graunte" was witness to a charter in the Castle of Kildruinuiie. John Roy Grant was Sheriff of Inverness in 1434.

The first of the Grants of French ie was Duncan le Grant, 1434-85. He married Muriel, daughter of Malcolm, tenth chief of Macintosh.

John Grant of Freuchie and Grant, a strenuous supporter of James IV., married in 14S4 a daughter of Ogilvie of Deskford, and left three sons Jarnes, his successor, ancestor of the Earls of Seafield ; John, on whom he bestowed the Barony of Corrimony in 1509 ; and John Mhor (a natural son), to whom he gave Glenmorriston.

The approaching Reformation gave the Grants fresh opportunities of adding to their possessions. Thus, in 1J39, Jamea, third Laird of Freuchie, became Baillie of the Abbey of Kinloss, and in 1569 his son John obtained a gift of the Abbey.

Sir James Grant of that Ilk, and his son Ludovick, eighth Laird of Freuchie, adhered to William II. of Scotland, or Orange, and were with the clan in the fight at the Hanghs of Cromdale. In 1715 and 1745 he adhered to the House of Hanover, but Glenmorriston was "out" for the Stuarts, and fought in the whole campaign, which ended at Culloden. In 1715 the strength of the clan was 800 men, as given by General Wade ; in 174o, at 850 men. The marriage of Ludovick to Margaret, daughter of James, Earl of Seafield, brought that title into the family in the person of her grandson, Sir Lewis Alexander Grant, in 1811.

There are three Baronets of the surname Dalvey, 1688 ; Monymusk, 1705 : and Ballindalloch (a MacPherson), 1S3S.

A line, now extinct, were the Grants of Dunlugus, one of whom became Governor of Silesia. Patrick Grant of Dunlugus died there in 1759, and was succeeded by his brother John, Major of the Prussian Guards, and A.D.C. to the King.

After Culloden eighty-four of the Glenmorriston Grants, who laid down their arms in May, were transported to the Barbadoes, in violation of their terms of surrender, and sold as slaved. This branch wears a tartan different in sett from the rest of the clan.

A small obelisk at Corrimony marks the grave of the last Laird of that glen. He was au advocate, ami author of " The Origin of the Gael," " Essays on the Origin of Society," etc. It bears the following inscription :

" Here lies what was mortal of James Grant, Esq., the last of the Grants of Corrimony. Born 13th April 1743, died 12th September 1835."

Two regimenta were raised out of the clan" The Grant or Strathspey Fencibles " in 179::, and the old " 97th " or " Strathspey Regiment " in the following year. The first was dibbanded in 17'.'9 ; the other was, after serving as marines on board of Lord Howe's fleet, drafted into other Highland regiments in 17l'5.


^^^^^^^^^^^^c^ - .:N


27. GRANT.


Badge .--Aiteann (Juniper); or LUS nan laoch (Roseroot)

tlie origin of thi* fierce and turbulent tribe two accounts are given, in the Statis- tical Account of Kildonan it is stated they are descended from the Norse Kings of Man ; and that Guin, their progenitor, was the eldest son of the King of that island, by his wife Christina, Daughter of Farqnhar, Earl of Ross, who, according to Douglas, flourished in the reign of Alexander II. But Calder, in his " History of Caithness," assert* that their progenitor was Gunnias, or Gunn, brother of Sweynt- , a famous Freswick pirate, who had been banished from Orkney by Earl Harold the Wicked, and on arriving in Caithness, fixed his residence at Ulbster, where he rose to such wealth and power that in time he became known as "The Great Gunn of Ulbster."

In process of time his descendants became numerous, and were known as the Clan Gunn. and they and the Keiths bore a mutual hatred to each other, and were evet at feud from the following circumstances. Lachlan Gunn of Braemore had an only daughter, Helen, who was famous for her beauty , and the day of her marriage with her cousin Alexander was fixed ; but Dugald Keith, a retainer of Keith of Ackergill. whose advances she had repelled, surrounded her father's house with a body of armed Keiths, slew many of the Gunns, who were unprepared for an attack, and carried off the girl to Ackergill, where she became the victim of her abductor, and eventually threw herself from the summit of the tower.

Haid upon raid ensued now, and during one of these, in 1426, a desperate battle was fought between the two clans at Harpadale, eight miles from Thnreo, and in it the MacKays of Strathnaver, ld by AIUII.- Dhu Mackay, brother-in-law of the Lord of the Isles, bore a part against the Gunns. The conflict wa rancorous and bloody, but indecudve. In 1438 they bad another encounter on a greater scale on the Muir of Tannach, when victory fell to the Keiths.

George Gunn, chief of the chin in the middle of the century, lived with barbaric pomp in hi* Castle of Habery, at Clyth. From the office he held, Justiciary, he was known as Crouner Gunn. but by the Highlanders as Am Bnlisteach Mhor, from a great silver brooch that fastened his plaid. Weary of the fead, he and the chief of the Keiths agreed to meet with twelve horsemen -side at the Chapel of St. Tears and settle it amicably. This was in 1464. The Keiths came with twenty-four men, two on each horse, and attacked the Gunns, who were engaged in prayer; the latter fought desperately, and were cut to pieces. George Gunn was slain and stripped of his arms, armout. and brooch. Soon after, William MacKaiues, a kinsman of the Keiths, killed George of Ackereill and hi* son, with ten men, at Drummay, as they were travelling from Inverugie towards Caithness.

The Clan Gunn figure in 1581 in a case before the Council concerning the renewal of a Commis- sion in Justiciary in favour of the Earl of Caithness, then a minor.

In 1585 the hitter and the Earl of Sutherland had a fight with the Clan Gnnn, who, though inferior in force, bad the advantage of the hillside at Aldgowne, and used their bows so well that Henry Sinclair was slain with 120 men, and the rest put to flight. Subsequently the most of the clan emigrated to Sutherlandshire under William and Henry Gunn. From Henry are descended the Hendersons of Caithness.

One of the clan, Sir William Gunn, distinguished himself by his valour in the army of Gustavus Adolphuh. He was Lieutenant-Colonel of Sir Patrick Buthven's Dutch Regiment. In 1636, on the Plains of Weslock, he commanded the right wing of the Swedish Army under Sir John Banier, and by the skill with which he handled it, the Austrians were defeated with the loss of 5000 men, 30 piece* of cannon, and 160 standards. He was subsequently knighted by Charles I. for hi* bravery at the Brig of Uet.

28. QUNN.



HIS tartan, the pattern or set of which is given here, " was worn," says Mr Smith, " as one of the emblems of the Jacobites. We had it from a lady of rank, who has still in her possession a silk scarf (or plaid) of it, which was manufactured in 1712 for a lady who was a most zealous Jacobite." Her eldest son was "out" in 1715, known aa "Mar's Year," when the Rising, which had been too long delayed, took place.

"Many individuals of the highest rank," says a writer, " engaged in this insurrec- tion from motives the most honourable and disinterested ; but such was not the case with the nobleman whose name forms a sort of epoch in Scottish history. The Earl of Mar is represented as having been selfish and ambitious in the highest degree ; a* a politician he was without integrity ; as a commander he was destitute of skill ; and as a soldier, the sudden desertion of his army showed his want of courage. He devoted all his talents and influence to promote the detested Union his object being to ingratiate himself with Queen Anne and to obtain the sole administration of Scottish affairs ; yet when he was driven from the Court of King Geonge I., and had raised the standard of revolt at Braemar, on being waited on by a number of the Jacobite nobility and gentry, he wept over his own misconduct, and the guilty hand he had taken in eflecting 'the accursed Union.'"

Many secret signs and emblems were adopted by the Jacobites prior to the Rising of 1715, and this Jacobite tartan was one of them. Doubtless, it was adopted and worn as a symbol to others of secret political opinions, like the S (for Stuart) in the open work of the claymore -hilt, or the legend Ao Union on ita blade.




Badge. Red Hawthorn.

I SIR JOHN DE JOHNSTOUX, living 1290, had a son John, who was father of Gilbert, living 1360. Gilbert was father of Sir John de Johnstoun, who was succeeded by his BOD Sir John Johnston. The last-named had one son, Adam, and probably another, named Gilbert, of Gretna, who was ancestor of the Johnstons of Newbie, Mylnefield, and Galabank. There was also an illegitimate branch of the Gretna family, who were for some time Lords Ruthven. The above-named Adam John- ston was twice married. The name of his first wife is unknown, but he had at least one son by her, named John, ancestor of the Johnstones of Annandale, and probably another, named Matthew, ancestor of the Johnstones of Westerhall. Adam's second wife was Lady Janet Dunbar, widow of John, Lord Seton, and daughter of the Earl of March, and by her he had Sir Gilbert, ancestor of the Johnstones of Elphinstone. John, first of the Annandale family, was father of James, who was succeeded by his son Adam, who died, 1509, leaving a son, James, father of John, and also of James of Wamphray, whose male line became extinct about 1656. The elder son, John, had two sons ; the younger, Robert of Raecleucb, left descendants who died out about 1656 ; the elder, .James, left a son, John, who died 1586, and was succeeded by his son, Sir James, who was murdered by John, seventh Lord Maxwell, 1608. Sir James's son, James, was created Lord Johnstone, 16:;::, and Earl of Hartfell, 1648. The Earl was succeeded by his son James, created Earl of Annandale and Hartfell, 1661. The second Earl was succeeded by his son William, who was created Marquess of Annandale, 1701. He was twice married. By his first marriage he had James, second Marquess, who died without issue, 1729, and Henrietta, who married Charles, first Earl of Hopetoun ; she is now represented by the Hope Johnstones of Annandale. By his second marriage the first Marquess had George, third Marquess, who died insane, 1792. From Matthew, first of the Westerhall family, descended Sir James, who died 1699. He left two sons ; the elder, Sir John, was created a Barone*t, 1700, but dying without issue, the title went to the younger son, Sir William, who died leaving two sons, Sir James, third Baronet of Westerhall, and John, whose son Richard was created a Baronet, 17(O, whose grandson, Harcourt, third Baronet, was created Baron Derwent, 18S1. The third Baronet of Westerhall left six sons (1) Sir James, fourth Baronet, died unmarried, 1794 ; (2) Alexander, Lieut. - Ool., died unmarried, 1783 ; (3) Sir William, fifth Baronet, who died leaving a daughter, Henrietta, created Countess of Bath, 1805; (4) George, whose son, Sir John, became sixth Baronet, and was grandfather of the present Sir Frederic, eighth Baronet of Westerhall ; (5) John, ancestor of the Johnstones of Alva ; (6) Gideon, R.N. Sir Gilbert, first of the Elphinstone family, married Amy, heiress of Elphinstone. His descendant Samuel was created a Baronet, 1627, and his grandson, Sir James, third Baronet, is supposed to have died without issue. The north country Johnstons descend from Stephen Cherrie, who married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Sir Andrew Garioch, with whom he obtained a Barony of Johnston, which gave the name to his descendants. He is now represented by Sir William Johnston, ninth Baronet of Hilton and Caskieben. There were also Johnstons of Beirholm, Warriston, Sheens, etc.




OHN KERR of th Forest of Selkirk, living 1357, was the father of Henry, Sheriff of Roxburgh, whose son, Robert of Auldtounburn, was the father of Andrew of Auldtounburn. This Andrew Kerr had three sons; from the youngest, Thomas, came the Kerrs of Gateshaw ; and from the second, James, came the Kerrs of Linton. The eldest son, Andrew, was the father of Walter of Cessford, who had two sons ; from the younger, Mark, descended the Kerrs of Dolphingstoun, Littledean, and Morriston ; the elder son, Sir Robert of Caverton, died in his father's lifetime, leaving two sons, George of Faudonside, and Sir Andrew, who succeeded his grand- father in Cessford. This Sir Andrew had three sons (1) Sir Walter of Cessford ; (2) Mark, Abbot of Newbottle ; and (3) Thomas of Ferniehirst. These three sons all left descendants, so we will take them in order. The eldest Sir Walter (1) was grand- father of Robert Kerr who was created Earl of Roxburghe, 1616. The Earl waa twice married. By his first marriage he had a son, William, Lord Ker, who died without issue, 1617, and a daughter, Jean, who married John Dnirnmond, second Earl of Perth. By his second marriage the Earl had a son, Harry, Lord Ker, who died leaving two daughters ; the elder, Jean, married her cousin, William (fourth son of John, second Earl of Perth), who then became second Earl of Roxburghe; the younger, Margaret, married Sir James Innes, Baronet. William, second Earl, had two sons, Robert, third Earl, and John who succeeded to the Barony of Bellenden of Broughton. The third Earl's second son, John, fifth Earl, was created Duke of Roxburghe, 1707, but on the death of his grandson, John, third Duke, 1804, this title devolved on his kinsman, William, seventh Lord Bellenden of Broughton, but on his death the following year without issue, the Dukedom devolved on Sir James Innes, great-grandson of the above-named Sir James Innes, and his great-grandson, Henry John, is the eighth and present Duke of Roxburghe. We will now return to (2) Mark, Abbot of Newbottle. His son, Mark, was created Earl of Lothian, 1606, but the title became extinct in his family by the death of his son Robert, second Earl, in 1624. We will now take up the descendants of the third son of Sir Andrew of Cessford, namely (3) Thomas of Ferniehirst. He had three sous, Andrew of Ferniehirst ; Thomas, Abbot of Kelso; and Ralph from whom descended the Kerrs of Prymsidelock, and Greenhead. The eldest, Andrew, was father of Sir John, and also of Robert of Ancrum. Sir John was succeeded by his son, Sir Thomas of Ferniehirst, who was twice married. By his first marriage he had a son Andrew created Lord Jedburgh, lfc'22, and by his second marriage two sons- Sir James, whose son Robert became Lord Jedburgh, and Robert, created Earl of Somer- set, 1618. Robert of Ancrum, above named, was father of William, who had two sons William, from whom descended the Kerra of Linton ; and Sir Robert, created Earl of Ancrum, 1633. He was twice married. By his first marriage he had William, who became third Earl of Lothian, and by his second marriage he had Charles, second Earl of Ancrum. William, Earl of Lothian, waa succeeded by his son Robert, fourth Earl, who also succeeded to the Earldom of Ancrum, and was created Marquess of Lothian, 1701. His direct descendant In the ninth degree is Robert Schomberg, tenth and present Marquess of Lothian.

31. KERR.



Badge: Machall monaidh (Dryas); or Craobh ubhal fiadhaim (Crab Apple Tree).

Ardlamond, a headland between the Kyles of Bute and the mouth of Loch Fyne is still the seat of the family of Lamond of that Ilk. Their original seat was Castle Toward ; but Sir James Lamond having espoused the Royal cause, it was destroyed by the Marquis of Argyle.

Their genealogy, as given in ancient history, begins with Murdoch, son of Ferchar. who appears to have died without issue, and been succeeded by another son of Ferchar, named Duncan, who was the father of Malcolm, who was the father of Laumon, from whom came the surname of the clan.

A Duncan MacLamond, who appears to have been Laird of Lamond, was witness to a charter, granted by Duncan, Earl of Lennox, in the reign of Robert III. ; and in another charter granted by Stewart of Ardgowan at Dunoon in 1402, the names Celestine Lament, son and heir of Robert Lamond, and also Christian Lamond, appear as witnesses (Robertson).

Another ancient family of the name were the Lamonds of Inverin ; but this clan, like all the lesser ones, suffered so greatly by the grasping encroachments of the Campbells, that now but a portion of their ancient territory remains with the name.

Lady Jean Campbell, fourth daughter of the Earl of Argyle who fell at Flodden, became the wife of John Lamond of that Ilk.

James Lamond of that Ilk appears under date 15S7 in the list of names of Highland chiefs laid before. Parliament; and in 1639 his descendant, the Laird of Lamond, satin Parliament as one of the Commissioners for Argyleshire.

After the battle of Philiphaugh the Lamonds, who had been out with Montrose, defended them- selves in their chief's Castle of Toward for some time, but were compelled to yield eventually as prisoners of war to the Campbells, who put them all to the sword, together with a number of MacDongals and MacNeills, who defended themselves in the Castle of Dunavertie.

In 1685-86, the Laird of Lamond and Archibald Lamond of Silvercraig were Commissioners in Parliament at Edinburgh. The Lamonds of Willowfield and Silvercraig were branches of the original stock.

"Archibald, the late Laird of Lamond," says Buchanan of Auchmar, "married Margaret, daughter of Colonel Henry, by whom he had no issue ; so the estate went to Dougal Lamond of Stinlaig, nearest heir male." They had five daughters, the eldest of whom was married to John Lamond of Kilfinnan, whose eldest son succeeded to the estate.






HE tartan of which the set is here given was last worn by George, fourteenth Earl of Uothes, who was born in 1809 and died in 1841.

Few Scottish surnames have made a greater figure in Europe than that of Leslie. Four Scottish peerages once belonged to the clan, several of whom rose to the rank of Count in France, Poland, Russia, and Hungary. The first of the name on record was Bartholf of Leslie, proprietor of the lands of that name in the reign of William the Lion, 1165-1214. Sir Andrew Leslie of that Ilk, sixth in descent from Bartholf, was one of the MaffnAtes Scotia who signed that noble letter to the Pope in 1320, declaring that while one hundred Scotsmen remained alive they would never submit to England.

i _ -i IB* David, eighth of Leslie, was one of the hostages for the ransom of James I.

in 1424. George, tenth of Leslie, was the first Earl of Rothes, and was so created by James II. inter 1445 et 1459. William, third Earl, fell with his royal master at Flodden. His second son, John Leslie of Parkhill, was taken prisoner at Solway Moss, and ransomed for 200 merks sterling. George, fourth Earl, accompanied James V. to France when the latter espoused Magdalene of Valois. His son, Norman, Master of Rothes, after being engaged in the murder of Cardinal Beaton, was slain in battle in Picardy in 1554. The Earl died at Dieppe in 1558, not without suspicion of having been poisoned for political purposes.

John, seventh Earl of Rothes, carried the Sword of State at the coronation of Charles II. in Scone Palace, 1651 ; led a Regiment of Horse at Worcester ; and joined the King in exile at Breda. After the Restoration he was High Treasurer and Captain of the Scottish Life Guards, and after- wards Keeper of the Great Seal and Lord High Chancellor. In 1680 he was created Duke of Rothes, but died the following year, leaving a daughter, the Countess of Haddington, whose eldest son, John, succeeded by entail to the Earl of Rothes, while Thomas, her second, carried on the honours of Haddington. John, ninth Earl of Rothes, was a distinguished soldier, and was successively Colonel of the Scots Greys and Scots Foot Guards.

Sir Alexander Leslie (first Earl of Leven, in 1641) Field-Marshal under Gustavus Adolphus, was Governor of all the cities on the Baltic coast, and one of the most famous leaders in the Swedish wars. He afterwards led the armies of the Covenant and the Scottish Parliament. His title is now united with that of Melville.

Sir David Leslie (first Lord Newark, in 1660) was a veteran of the great Gustavus' wars, and was a Major-General in the Scottish army at Worcester. The title has been dormant since the death of Alexander, fourth Lord, in 1791.

Sir Patrick Leslie of Pitcairlie, second son of the fifth Earl of Rothes, was created Lord Lindores by James VI. in 1600. His title has been dormant since the death of John, the seventh Lord, in 1775.

In addition to Sir Alexander and Sir David Leslie, six others of the clan had rank in the army of Gnstavus, viz., Ludovick Leslie, afterwards Governor of Berwick and Tynemouth for the Cov- enanters ; Colonel John Leslie of Wardis ; Colonel John Leslie of Ruthven's Regiment ; Colonel Robert Leslie of "the Old Scots Regiment" ; Colonel Alexander Leslie, son of the Field-Manhal ; and George Leslie, Governor of Fecht, where he was killed.

A famous branch were the Leslies of Bnlquhain in Aberdeenshire. Sir George, the founder of it, got a grant of that estate from David II. by charter, dated 1340. Four Counts Leslie sprang from this family alone. The first, Count Walter, the son of the tenth Laird, was one of the slayers of Wallenstein, and by the Emperor Ferdinand III. was made Field-Marshal and Governor of Sclavonia. Leopold I. made him a knight of the Golden Fleece, and sent him as ambassador to Constantinople.

Sir Andrew Leslie, third of Balquhain, had a bitter feud with the Forbesses, abducted the Laird of Innervin's daughter, known as "The Fair Maid of Strathaven," and was slain by the Sheriff of Angus in 1420. Sir William, seventh of Balquhain, rebuilt the old castle of that name, which had been burned down by the Forbesses, and died in 1545. Patrick, Count Leslie, twelfth of B&lquhain, was Privy Councillor to James VII. He entailed the estate in 1698.

The Castle of Balquhain, a ruin now, is said to possess one of the finest echoes in Scotland.




ANDOLPH, Sire de Toeny, living 1018, descendant of Ivar, Jarl of the Uplandera, in said to be the ancestor of this family. From him descended Sir David Lindsay of Crawford, living 1340, who had two sons (1), Sir Alexander of Glenesk, father of David, created Earl of Crawford 1398, and (2) Sir William of the Byres. The grand- eon of the first Earl David, third Earl left two sons, Alexander, fourth Earl, and Walter of Edzell. The fourth Earl was succeeded by his son David, fifth Earl, who was created Duke of Montrose, 1488. His son John, sixth Earl, did not succeed to the Dukedom, and fell at Flodden 1513; when the Earldom went to his uncle Alexander, seventh Earl, who was succeeded by his son David, eighth Earl. The latter had a son Alexander, known as the Wicked Master, who was killed in a broil with a cobbler of Dundee, December 1542. In consequence of his son's behaviour the eighth Earl resigned his title to the King, who regranted it to him, with the provision that at his (the eighth Earl's) death, it should go to his cousin David of Edzell, great- grandson of the above-named Walter of Edzell. Accordingly on the eighth Earl's death in November 1542, David of Edzell became ninth Earl ; but he generously obtained a regrant of the title to David, son of the Wicked Master, who became tenth Earl, 1558, to the exclusion of the ninth Earl's descendants. David, tenth Earl, had three sons : (1) David, eleventh Earl, father of David, twelfth Earl; (2) Henry, thirteenth Earl, father of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth Earls. On the death of the last-named Earl the title went to the Lindsays of the Byres, passing over the Edzell family. (3) Alexander, created Lord Spynie 1590, whose line failed with the death of his grandson George, third Lord, 1671. We will now return to the Edzell family. David, ninth Earl of Crawford, left two sons : (1) Sir David of Edzell whose line failed, 1744, and (2) John of Balcarres, father of David, created Lord Lindsay of Balcarres, 1633, whose son Alexander was created Earl of Balcarres, 1651. This Earl's grandson James, fifth Earl of Balcarres, left two sons (1) Alexander, sixth Earl, who also became twenty-third Earl of Crawford, 1808, on the failure of the direct line of Lindsay of the Byres. His great-grandson is James Ludovio, twenty-sixth and present Earl of Crawford and Balcarres. (2) The second son of the fifth Earl of Balcarres was Robert, grandfather of Sir Coutts Lindsay, Bart., and also of Robert James, created Lord Wantage, 1885. The first of the Lindsays of the Byres was Sir William, mentioned at the beginning of this article. He had two sons ; the younger, Andrew, was ancestor of the well-known Sir David Lindsay of the Mount, Lyon King of Arms ; the elder, Sir William, was father of John, created Lord Lindsay of the Byres, 1445. His third son Patrick, fourth Lord, left two sons, the younger, William of Pyetstone, was ancestor of the ninth and tenth and present Earl of Lindsay ; the elder, Sir John, left two sons, John, fifth Lord Lindsay of the Byres, and David, ancestor of the seventh and eighth Earls of Lindsay. The fifth Lord's descendant John, tenth Lord, was created Earl of Lindsay 1633, and also became seventeenth Earl of Crawford, 1652, as above mentioned. He left two sons (1) William, eighteenth, whose line ended with his grandson John, twentieth Earl ; and (2) Patrick of Kilbirnie, father of John, created Viscount Garnock, 1703. His grandson George, fourth Viscount, became twenty-first Earl of Crawford. He left a son George, twenty-second Earl, at whose death the Earldom of Craw- ford once more jumped to the Balcarres family (as stated above), descendants of the ninth Earl who so honourably got the title returned to the son of the Wicked Master.




War Cry: "Drium nan deur" ("The Ridge of Tears"). Badge: Conasg (Furze).

HE traditional origin of the clan of the MacLennans is as follows. There was a noted chief of the Logans of Uruiindeurfait, in Ross-shire, called Gilliegorm, who having fallen in a sanguinary battle with the Frasers, his widow was carried off, and a son, to whom she soon after gave birth, was either naturally deformed or was intention- ally injured, as is alleged, that he might have no wish or ability to promote a feud for the slaughter of his father, for the Highlanders had a strong aversion to follow a deformed leader. He was therefore placed with the monks of Beaulieu, as best able to impart to him the religious instruction suited for the profession he was destined to follow. On coming to age he took holy orders, and travelled to the west coast, the Isle of Skye, etc., and built the churches of Kilmor in Sleit, and Kilchrinan in Glenelg. Although he lived in the time of Pope Innocent III., in the thirteenth century, he did not observe the decree, strictly enjoining the celibacy of the clergy, but married and had several children. One of his sons he called Gille Fhinain, in honour of the renowned Saint Finan, and the son of that man was, of course, called MacGillinain. His successors were the Siol'inain, the race of Gille Fhinain, otherwise Glann or MacGhille'Inain, now corrupted to MacLennan. The MacLennans were generally enrolled among the Frasers and MacKenzies in the different rebellions, and as they were thus lost in the ranks of those predominant clans, their numbers do not appear, nor, for the same reason, do they agree as to who is the present chief, but it is certain that they were at one time of considerable note among the tribes of Ross- shire. The district of Kintail has still scarcely any inhabitants but those of MacRae and MacLennan, the boundary between them being a river, which runs into Loch Duich ; but slight as the line of demarcation is, the two clans keep up a marked distinction. The MacLennans were entrusted with the standard of Lord Seaforth at the Battle of Aultdearn, in 1645, and they proved the estimation in which they held this honour, by the great number who were cut down in the defence they made of the renowned " caber feidh," as the banner of the clan was called.




Badge : Fraoch (Common Heath).

JACALISTER of Loup and Kennox, the head of this clan, is descended from Alister Mor, Lord of the Isles and Kintyre in 1284. He opposed the claim of Robert Bruce to the throne. The latter besieged him in his Castle of Swan, stormed it, and im- prisoned him in the Castle of Dundonald on the Firth of Clyde, where he died ; and his possessions were bestowed upon his brother, Angus Mor, who was an adherent of the King, and in 1306 gave him refuge in his Castle of Dunavertie. "But," says Burke, ' the MacAlisters, possessing that jus tanguinis, of which no forfeiture could deprive them, claim to represent the ancient Lords of the Isles.

On the overthrow of that dynasty in the reign of James IV., the MacAlisters became an independent clan under Ian Dim, whose residence was at Ardpatrick in South Rnapdale, and for generations his descendants were known as Vic-Ian-Dhu.

His son, Charles, Steward of Kintyre, in 1481, was succeeded by his son Angus Vic-Ian-Dhu-MacAlister of Loup, who is mentioned in the Privy Seal Register in 1515.

Alister, son of the latter, was fined for absenting himself from the King's host at Solway Moss in 1542. His son Alister obtained a charter from the Earl of Argyle in 1573. According to Burke, his son Godfrey closed a turbulent life early in the sixteenth century, and was buried in lona. In the Roll of the Landlords and Chiefs, under date 1587, we find "Alexander Macallaster of Loupe in Kintyre." In the Privy Council Register there is a case, in 1589, of Glenlyon against Fercher Dhu Maconeill MacAlister and others ; and in 1582 another of Glengarry against Kintail for the slaughter of Rory MacAlister and others, to the number of thirty-three, whom the MacKenzies slew " with dirks, -appointing that they suld not be buriet as Christian men, bot cassin furth and eitten be doiggis and swyne." Godfrey MacAlister, Burke states, was succeeded by his son Hector, who married, in 1620, Margaret, daughter of Campbell of Kilberry.

The MacAlisters of Loup were in the army of Montrose at the battle of Inverlochy in 1645, "but without Hector, their chief, who was an unwilling vassal of Argyle."

" Gory M'Alaster of Lowp" appears in the Scottish Acts of Parliament in 1678 as a commissioner for Argyleshire. Burke states that Hector's son Godfrey married a daughter of Sir Robert Mont- gomerie of Skelmorlie.

Their son, Alexander MacAlister of Loup, was loyal to King James, and fought at Killiecrankie under Viscount Dundee, and afterwards served with the Royal army in Ireland against William of Orange. His son died without issue, so he was succeeded in his inheritance by his brother Charles, who married a daughter of Lamond of that Ilk.

Angus, the son of the latter, was, we are told, a warm friend of the famous Flora MacDonald. His son Charles, born in 1765, married the heiress of Kennox, in Ayrshire, and added the arms of Somerville to his own. The estate of Strathaird in Skye, was the property of Alister MacAlister. Charles MacAlister died in 1847, and was succeeded by his son Charles Somerville MacAlister, born in 1799, died in 1891, and was succeeded by his son Lieut. -Col. Charles Somerville MacAlister.

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War Cry:-"Cuimhnfch bas Ailpein" ("Remember the death of Alpin"). Badge: Giuthas (Pine Tree).

"~"rlT has been claimed for the Royal Clan Alpin that it is the most ar j^ . Highlands. The old Gaelic saying, ' ' Cnuic is uillt is Ailpeanaich, "

ancient clan in the intimates that the origin of the clan was contemporary with the formation of hillocks and streams.

The Mac Alpines, according to some of the records, are descended of those vener- able sons of antiquity whose successors became Kings of Scotland during twenty-five generations.

The ancient crest of the MacAlpines is a boar's head couped , gules, gutty sanguine : with the Gaelic motto " Cuimhnich bas Ailpein" that is, Remember the death of Alpin, alluding to the murder of King Alpin by Brudas after the Picts defeated the Scots near Dundee in the year 834.

i - ' The ancient seat of the family of MacAlpine is said to have been at Dunstaff-

nage in Argyllshire.

S\al Ailpein, as described in histories relating to the Highlands and the Clans, is composed of the MacGregors, MacNabs, MacKinnons, MacQuarries, Grants, and several other branches. The Alpinian origin of those clans has, however, been questioned. One reputable writer has stated that it seems not to have been heard of until after 1467. The principal clan appears to have been that of the MacGregors. The MacGregor motto, " '5 Rioghail mo Dhream" my people are Royal- is expressive of the royal descent of Clan Alpin.

" Sliochd nan righribh duchasach Bha shios an Dun Staiphnis, Aig an robh crun na h-Alb' o thus. 'S aig an robh duchas fathasd ris.


Who were down at Dunstaffnage, Who in the beginning had the crown of Albyn, And who still have a claim to it."

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Badge :-Rold (Wild Myrtle); or Garbhag an t-sleibhe (Fir Club Moss).

MacArthurs are a branch of the great Clan Campbell, and trace their descent from the original stock ; they indeed for a long time disputed the seniority with the powerful family of Argyle. In the reign of Alexander III., 1249-86, the Campbells presented two great divisions ; those of Mac Chailein Mh6ir and MacArtair, and the latter maintained their right to the chiefship, and were, in fact, at the head of the clan, a position which they retained till the time of James I., who ascended the throne in the year 1406. MacArtair espoused the cause of Robert the Bruce, and was rewarded by ample gifts of the forfeited estates of MacDugal. The chief was also appointed Captain of the Castle of Dunstaffnage, and the clan was in possession of such an extensive district as to rival that powerful house which had so fearlessly opposed the royal champion of Scotland's independence.

John MacArtair was beheaded by James I., and his lands were forfeited, since which time the MacCbailein Mhoir branch have held the chiefship, and gradually acquired the vast importance which they formerly held, and still possess. The above John is described as being a great prince, and leader of a thousand men. In 1275, Cheristine, only daughter of Allan MacRuarai, granted a charter, " Arthuro filio domini Arthuro Campbell militis de terris de Mudwarde, Ariseget Mordower, et insulis de Egge et Rumme." At subsequent periods the MacArthurs obtained Stra'chur in Cowal, from which they are designated, and they also held portions of Glenfalloch and Glendochart.

The seat of the MacArthurs of Stra'chur is on the side of Loch Awe. Many of this name are still to be found about Dunstaffnage, who have been merely tenants of the Campbells.



Badge: A'Muileag (Cranberry); or Giuthas (Scotch Fir).

HE chief seat of this little clan, of which few notices can be gleaned, was at Ardin- caple, a handsome turreted mansion, said to have been built in the twelfth century in Row, a point in the western extremity in Dumbartonshire. They had once been in Kintail, as the old statistical account of that parish states that " when the MacRaes first entered Kintail there were several clans inhabiting it, particularly the Mac- Aulays of whom no vestige now remains." Buchanan of Auchmar believed the Mac- Aulays of Ardincaple to be of the family of Lennox.

" For confirmation of this allegation," he continues " in a charter by Maldnin Earl of Lennox, to Sir Patrick Grahame, of the currucate of Muckraw, is Aulay, the Earl's brother, as also in another charter by the same Earl to William, son of Arthur Galbraith, the witnesses are Duncan and Aulay, the Earl's brethren. This Aulay is mentioned in divers other charters of the Earl, as also the said Aulay's son and successor, designed Duncan, son of Aulay, or MacAulay, knight, is inserted in a charter by the same Earl to Walter Spreul, of the lands of Dalquhern, but I find no mention made of this Duncan's successor." Malduin, Earl of Lennox, died early in the reign of Alexander III.

The Laird of Auchmar states that the next to be met with, and supposed to be of the MacAulay line, is Arthur, designed of Ardincaple, witness to a charter by Duncan, Earl of Lennox, " so this might be the grandchild to Duncan last mentioned. There is a current tradition that this family or surname was designed Arncaples (sic) of that Ilk for some time, until from one of the chiefs, properly called Aulay, the whole- surname was so denominated."

Hugh Montgomerie of Hesilhead, son of Alexander, Master of Montgomerie (1430-52) had a granddaughter who was married to MacAulay of Ardincaple. According to the " Douglas Peerage," Hugh was a son of Andrew, the third Lord.

Sir Aulay MacAulay of Ardincaple appears in 1587 in the Roll of the Landlords and Bailies in

vassals of the Earl of Lennox.

the Highlands and Isles as one of the principal

In the same Register we find in 1585 caution given in 200 by Bontein, younger of Ardoch, for Allan MacAulay of Ardincaple and Patrick MacAulay, Allister Dewar's son, " that Petir Burnsyde in Gowaineburne, his wife, bairns, and servants," shall not be troubled or molested by them.

A branch of the MacAuleys settled in the county of Antrim, and there acquired the estate of Glenerm ; but Ardincaple changed proprietors, and the estate was acquired by its present possessors, the MacDougalls, by whom it was entailed in August 1758.

A remote branch of Ardincaple was the Rev. Aulay MacAulay, son of the minister of Cardross, who was an industrious writer in " Ruddiman's" and other magazines, and in 1796 was presented to the vicarage of Rothelay by Thomas Babington, M.P., who had married his sister, and for whom the distinguished historian was named Thomas Babington MacAulay.




lodge: Bocsa, or Craobh aighban (Boxwood); or Lus nan craimsheag, braoileag (Red Whortleberry).

HERE seems to be little known of the history of this clan, although they mast at one time have been numerous and united, having an acknowledged chief with an independent following.

There is an opinion, however, among several of this clan, that they are a branch of the Gamerons, and a division of MacBeans fought with Lochiel as their kinsmen in 1745. But, although some few might have been his followers, unvarying tradition ranks the clan as one of the many tribes comprehended under the generic appellation of Clan Chattan, and it is certain that the MacBeans, with the above exception, in all general expeditions, and other transactions, ranked under the banner of the Macintosh, as their superior. The chief could bring somewhat more than a hundred men into the field, and in the rising with Prince Charles Stewart in 1745, he held the rank of Major in the Macintosh battalion. His son was likewise engaged in that attempt, but escaped, and afterwards obtained a commission in Lord Drnmlanrick's regiment, a better fate than awaited his gallant father. At the battle of Culloden, when the Argyle militia broke down a wall which enabled Hawley's dragoons to attack the Highlanders in flank, Major Gillies MacBean, who stood six feet four inches in height, stationed himself at the gap, and as the assailants passed through he cut them down by the irresistable strokes of his broadsword. No fewer than thirteen, including Lord Robert Ker, were thus slain when the enraged enemy closed around him in numbers, that they might bring down so formidable an opponent, on which MacBean, placing his back to the wall, bravely defended himself for some time against the fierce assault. At last the heroic Gillies fell, pierced with many bayonet wounds, his head dreadfully cut by a sword and his thigh bone broken.

The Bains or Baynes of Tullanh, an old and respectable family in Ross-shire, like several other Highland septs, never prefixed Mac to their name. They are supposed to be a branch of the Mackays, and possessed considerable influence in the county. MacVean is another mode of spelling MacBean.




ACBETH, MacBeath (or MacBeathad MacFinlegh, as he was called in contemporary chronicles), was a King of Scotland. He ascended the throne in 1039, and reigned seventeen years. According to one account he inherited the rule of the province of Moray from Finlegh, his father ; according to another account he was by birth Thane of Ross, and by his marriage with the Lady Gruoch, became also Thane of Moray during the minority of Lulach, the infant son of that lady by her marriage with Gilcomgain, the Maormor, or Thane of Moray. He was slain at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire on the 5th of December 1056. His body was interred in lona the common sepulchre for many centuries of the Scottish Kings. His followers were able to place his nephew, or stepson, Lulach, on the throne.

The following names occur in an old genealogy of the MacQuarries : mcBeathach mcFinlaeic mcFearchar fada mcFearadaig mcFergusa.

In the Introduction to the Dean of Lismore's Book it is stated that many of the oldest Gaelic MSS. preserved in the Library of the Faculty of Advocates belonged to the Betons, or, as their name was in Gaelic, Macbheatha, who were hereditary physicians in Isla and Mull, and who were also sennachies of the Macleans, and are said by tradition to be one of the twenty-four families who accompanied a daughter of the great Irish house of O'Cathan, princes of an extensive territory in the north of Ireland, when she was married to the Lord of the Isles towards the close of the thir- teenth century.

In a footnote in the same book it is stated that there is a charter of lands of Islay, written in Gaelic by Fergus Beaton in 1411.






War Cry:-"t-'raocb Eilean" ("The Heathery Isle"). Badge : Fraoch (Common Heath).

[Pali the clans, that of the MacDonalds is by every rule of antiquity, power, and numbers fully entitled to be spoken of before any other," says Robertson. "Their founder was named in Gaelic Somhairle, and by the Norsemen Somerled, both words having the same meaning, namely Samuel. This hero, for such he undoubtedly was did more to free his countrymen from the rule of the Danes and Norwegians than any other, and in consequence attained to a power greater than has fallen to the lot of a subject of present Scotland. . . . His origin, as stated by Gregory, seems to be clearly Pictish. His father's name was Gillebrede, a very common Pictish name." It signifies the followers of St. Bride or Bridget.

Ronald MacDonald Glas of Keppoch fought at Blairleine in 1544, and was after- wards captured by Huntly, and warded as a traitor in the Castle of Ruthven, and was beheaded, together with Ewen, eon of Allan, Captain of the Clan Cameron. The Braelochaoer MacDonalds were always called of Keppoch.

His chief, Ronald Oig of Keppoch, when the tide of battle had turned against the great Marquis had often to seek shelter in a cavern in Rannoch.

It was MacUonald of Keppoch who, proudly disdaining to hold by a sheepskin the lands of Glen- roy, in 1687 asserted by the sword his right against Macintosh, who had obtained a crown charter of the disputed territory, vanquished and took him prisoner in a desperate conflict, and compelled him to renounce his acquired claim. In requital for his temerity, Keppoch lands were laid waste with fire and sword by a body of Scottish Regulars from the Lowlands.

Keppoch's strength in 1715 was only 220 men. It was more than double this in 1745. The three MacDonald Regiments of Glengarry, Keppoch, and Clanranald were on the left wing of the Prince's first line at Culloden, but refused to advance in the headlong charge, on the plea that the right wing had ever been their post since Bannockburn. When the rest of the line advanced, fruitlessly did the Duke of Perth wave his bonnet to them, and cry, "Claymore ! Claymore !" hoping to stimulate them by his example. Keppoch, the venerable and fearless, advanced to the charge alone, or with a few kinsmen, while his clan, an event unknown in Highland history, remained stationary. "My God!" cried the old man, in the bitterness of his heart ; "My God! have the children of my tribe forsaken me? "

Unmoved they saw him fall, and after exchanging a few rounds with the Scots Royals and " 34th," marched off the field with colours flying and pipes playing.

MACDONALD OF GLENCOB. Thechief of this branch, called Mac Vic Ian, held his lands of Appin, wiys the Report of the Lord President in 1745, and he could always bring out 150 men. He was lineally descended from the ancient Lords of the Isles, and from the Royal family, the common ancestor of the MacDonalds having espoused a daughter of Robert II. In the Roll of the Clans in 15S7 the tribes appear as the Clan Maclain of Avricht or Abrach.

Glencoe served under Montrose in his wars, and fought with particular valour at the battle of Inverlochy in 1(545.

At the time of the Revolution in 1688, Maclan of Glencoe was, according to a contemporary testimony, "a person of great integrity, honour, good nature, and courage;" and his loyalty to hi* master, King James, was such that he continued in arms from Dundee's first appearing in the Highlands till the fatal treaty that brought about his ruin. The infamous massacre of Glencoe by the troops of William of Orange, that barbarous infraction of all laws human and Divine, which covered with disgrace the abettors of the Revolution, is too well known in history to require further mention here. In the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh are four amber beads, which were esteemed by the sept of Glencoe as a cure for blindness, and were worn by a lady of the clan on the morning of the massacre. Latterly they were in possession of Mrs Campbell of Glenlyon.

Glencoe is supposed to be the birthplace of Ossian. Through the middle of the aoletnn valley runs " the roaring stream of Cona ;" on its northern side rises the Hill of Fingal, and close by is " the sunny place of Darthula."




War Cry: "Dh'aindeoin co theireadh e" ("Gainsay who dare").

Clan Pipe Music : March "Spaidsearachd Mhic Mhic-Ailein" ("Clan Ranald's March"). Lament "Cumha Mhic Mhic-Ailein" ("Clan Ranald's Lament").

Badge : Fraoch (Common Heath).

||Y his marriage with Amy de Insults, John, Lord of the Isles, left three sons, says Robertson ; but the youngest alone, named Ranald, left issue. From him descend the Clan Ranald, and called of Glengarry and Clanranald. For the latter there is a bar to the chieftainship, the ancestor of the family having been illegitimate." His authority for this assertion is "The Record of the Privy Seal " in 1531. In 1543 a feud ensued between the Erasers and the Clanranald of Moydart in consequence of the following circumstances :

Dougal, chief of Clanranald, made himself so odious by cruelties that the tribe slew him ; and then, by election, the command of the clan and lands was given to Alister Alanson, his uncle, to the exclusion of his sons, who were then young. Alister died in 1530, when his natural son, John of Moydart, was acknowledged as chief, but for turbulence was lodged in prison by James IV. The Frasers now attempted to reduce the rights he had acquired in favour of Ranald Galda, or the stranger, so called from his being fostered by the Frasers. He was son of Alan M'Ruari, chief of Clanranald, 1481-1509. Alister Alanson was son of a first marriage. This brought about the battle of Blairleine in 1544, so called from the combatants letting slip their kilts and fighting in their shirts. Yo\ing Ranald was slain, and John of Moydart became eventually the firm friend of Lovat. He died in 1584.

His son Alan married a daughter of MacLeod of Harris, according to Burke, and died in 1593. Alan's son Sir Donald, who was knighted by James VI., waged a fierce war with the Lairds of Duart and Kintail, and died in 1619.

The MacVnrichs were the hereditary Sennachies to Clanranald. Murdoch Albanach (i.e. t of Scotland) was the first of them, and they kept the Leabhar Deary, or Red Book of Clanranald.

Sir Donald's son, John of Clanranald, served in the ware of Montrose in 1644, and in the march to Argyle penetrated as far as Lochcreran, and, according to the Red Book, put about 900 men to death, a tale of slaughter which no other historian, even the vindictive Baillie, corroborates. He died, in old age, at Uist, in 1670. He was succeeded by his son John, who had served with him under Montrose ; and in 1650 he appears as one of the " Colonells of the clans in the Isles and Heigh- lands." He died in 1686.

His son Alan adhered to James VIII., and was killed at Sheriffmuir. He had married in France, Penelope, daughter of Colonel MacKenzie, Governor of Tangiers, and having "no issue, was succeeded by his brother Donald, who died in 1730. Ranald, son of the latter, born in 1692, succeeded and was killed with Wolfe at Quebec, 1759.

Ranald succeeded. In his youth he had been "out " with the Prince in 1745-46 with his clan, the fighting strength of which was 700. Among them was Neil MacEachin of the Uist branch of the clan, father of Stephen James Macdonald, Duke of Tarentum, the truest adherent the great Napoleon ever had. Ranald for a time was A.D.C. to Marshal Saxe in his exile after Culloden. By his second wife, Flora, daughter of MacKinnon of that Ilk, he had several children, and was succeeded by his son John, born in 1764, a Captain in the 22nd Dragoons. He died at Edinburgh in 1794, and was succeeded by his son, Reginald George MacDonald, eighteenth chief, who died in 1873. This long line of gallant and warlike chiefs is now represented by Allan Douglas Macdonald, son of Admiral Sir Reginald MacDonald, K.C.S.I., who in 1882 was Commander-in-Chief at Sheernew, and died 1 v.ty. Mils Flora MacDonald, who for years served as Maid of Honour to the Queen, was the daughter and grand-daughter of the chiefs of Clanranald.




War Cry: "Creagan-an-fhithich " ("The Raven's Rock").

Clan Pipe Music: Lament "Cumha Mhic Mhic-Alastair" (Glengarry's Lament"). Badge: Fraoch (Common Heath).

N Gaelic lie is called Mac Vic AllisUiir," says Duncan Forbes in 1745. the crown." He can bring out 500 men.

1 He holds of

" There seems reason to believe," says Sir Walter Scott, " that Ranald, descend- ant of John of lla by Anne of Lorn, was legitimate, and therefore Lord of the Isles dejure, though de facto his younger half-brother Donald, son of his father's second marriage with the Princess of Scotland, superseded him in his right . . . From Ranald, upon whom a large appanage was settled, descended the chiefs of Glengarry and Clanranald." He was murdered at Elcho in 1346 by the Earl of Ross.

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the chieftains of Glengarry were in- volved in many bloody feuds and brawls. In 1582 Donald MacAngus of Glengarry complained to the Privy Council of the slaughter of his people by those of Kintnil and damage done to the value of 120,000 (Scot*), ina raid made upon him by the latter with 200 men. Kintail was ordained to deliver the Castle of Strome to him ; but there was a suspen- sion of this decree in 1583. In right of his grandmother, he was proprietor of half the lands of Lochalsh, Lochcarron, and Lochbroom in Ross-shire.

In pursuitof the feud with the MacKenzies, early in the next century, his men surprised a party of the latter at prayer in the chapel of Kilchribt in Urray, and set fire to it, while the MacDonald piper marched round it, playing, till the shrieks of the miserable victims within were hushed in death. But the MacDonaldg were overtaken at Torbreck in a public-house, which was set on fire by the MacKen/ies, and thirty-seven of them were burned alive.

This feud was fiercely prosecuted in 1002, and Glengarry's son was killed in a fight near Ellon- donan, and buried in the doorway of the church of Kintail, so that the llaclvenzies might trample on hie body every Sunday.

In consequence of a MticDonald who lived among the Grants being killed in a skirmish with the Camerons in H;J>9, the then chief of Glengarry was on the point of attacking Locheil ; and this bitterness seems to have been remembered, as in 1729 we find John of Glengarry, in a letter to the Duke of Gordon, writing thus : " I incline not to have to with the Camerons, being the villains that most trouble me."

The strange episode, almost fracas, caused by the Mac-mhic-Alastair holding his pistol in his hand at the coronation of George IV., made much noise in 1821. In iS40 Glengarry sold his estate, and with most of his clan embarked for Australia; and it was observed in the prints of the time, "We cannot regard the expatriation of the heat! of an old Highland family, with its clan associations, ito pipe music, and its feudal recollections, from the kittle of Inverlochy downwards, without some regret and emotion."

The family of Glengarry, however, returned, and though now extinct in the line last referred to, the chiefahip of this once powerful stock of the great Clan Donald legitimately representing the Lords of the Isles is at present held by /Kiiea* Ranald M'Donell, Esq., of Glengarry, who matricu- lated for arms some years ago in the Court of the Lyon of Scotland as chief of the clan, and twenty- second Mac nihic Alastair.




Badge: Fraoch (Common Heath).

IHE period assigned at which Somerled first became powerful as Thane of Argle is 1135, " when he married Effrica. daughter of Olave the Swarthy, King of Man and the Isles, thus adding to hie possessions by the heritage of the latter. He was slain at Renfrew when invading Scotland in 1164, and left four sons : First, Dougal, from whom des- cended the Lords of Lorn, whose line ended in heiresses, married to ancestors of Argyle and Breadalbane ; but a male line is still continued, says Robertson, in the MacDougal, designed of Dunolly ; second, Angus, whose daughter married the High Steward; third Olave ; and fourth, Reginald, from whom came all the families of the surname of Mac Donald.

The descendant of Angus who sheltered Bruce in Dunavertie in 1306 was Donald, Lcrd of the Isles, who entered into a treaty with P.ichard II. on the footing of a sovereign prince ; and after marrying the Countess of Ross, took up arms to establish his right to the Earldom, but was slain at the battle of Harlaw in 1411, when HOO men were slain, many of them high in rank.

He was succeeded by his son Alexander, Lord of the Isles, who was defeated by James I. at Loch- abei in 1429. and in despair had to sue for his mercy before the High Altar at Holyrood. His son John, eleventh Earl of Ross, succeeded him as Lord of the Isles ; but entering into a treasonable treaty with the King of England in 1462, was branded as a traitor, and deprived of the Earldom of Ross. Dying without issue he was succeeded by his brother.

Donald, great-grandson of the latter, styled himself Lord of the Isles, but was refused recognition as such by James V., who besieged him in hisCastle of Eilondonan, on the ramparts of which he was shot dead by an arrow in 1537. His eldest son, Donald of the Isles, was restored to Sleat by Queen Mary, to whom he adhered in 1567, and after much hard fighting with the MacLeans, died in 15S5, and was succeeded by Ids nephew. The latter, Donald MacDonald of Sleat, was created a Baronet by Charles I. in 1625. He adhered to the King in all his troubles, and died in 1643. By his wife, " Fair Janet MacKenzie" of Kintail, he left a son, Sir James MacDonald of Sleat, who joined Montrose in 1044, and fought at Worcester in 1651.

In 1688 the House of Sleat was burned by the troops of William.

Sir Donald MacDonald, fourth Baronet of Sleat, fought for King James in 1715 and \v;ia attainted. He died three years after Sheriffmuir. On the death of his son in 1720, unmarried, the Baronetcy reverted to his uncle, James, designed of Oronsay, whose son Alexander succeeded him at his death in 1723. Sir Alexander was twice married, the second time to Margaret, daughter of the ninth Earl of Eglinton, in 1739. " She became mother of three distinguished MacDonalds, namely, Sir James, the Marcellus of the Western Isles ; Sir Alexander, created Lortl MacDonald in 1776 ; and Sir Archibald MacDonald, Lord Chief Baron of the Court of Exchequer of England." Flora Mac- Donald, when assisting to conceal Prince Charles in Skye, confided in Lady Margaret MacDonald, and obtained her assistance. Sir Alexander died at Rome in 1766 in his twenty-fifth year.

Hia son Alexander was raised to the Peerage in 1776 as Lord MacDonald of Sleat (in the county of Antrim) ; and his descendant to this hour, called by the Highlanders AJacDhonailt nan Eiltau, or "MacDonald of the Isles," unquestionably represents the ancient Lords of the Isles. Their fighting force was set at only 700 men in 1745.

The first Lord died in 1795, and was the father of Alexander and Godfrey, the second and third Barons ; the last named assumed the additional surname of Bosville, and died in 1>33, when he was succeeded by his son Godfrey, fourth Baron, who died in 1863, leaving Somerled, fifth Baron, who died in 1874, and Ronald, the present Lord,




War O0.--"Fraoch Eilean" ("The Heathery Isle"). Badge: Froach (Common Heath).

HE MacDonaliLs of Staffa are now in reality the family of Steuart-Seton of Allanton, in Lanarkshire, created Baronets of Great Britain in 1815.

Reginald MacDonald of Staffa was the fourth son of Colin MacDonald of Bois- dale, son of Alexander, first of Boisdale in South Uist, and grandson of Donald MacDonald of Benbecula, bj his second marriage with Margaret, daughter of George MacKenzie of Kildun.

Reginald of Staffa was an Advocate and Sheriff" Dep\ite of Stirlingshire. On his marriage with Elizabeth Margaret, only daughter and heiress of Sir Henry Steuart of Allanton and Touch, Bart., in January 1812, he assumed the name of Steuart. In 1835 this lady added to her own name that of Seton, as sole heiress of Touch-Seton. She at the same time " succeeded to the Offices of Heritable Armour- Bearer to the Queen, and Squire of the Royal Body," which have been from time immemorial in the family of Seton of Touch. Her grandson, Sir Alan Seton Steuart, Bart., is the present repre- sentative.




War Cry: " Buaidh no Bas" ("Victory or Death"). Badge : Fraoch dearg (Bell Heath).

MERLED of the Isles, who died in 1164, left four sons : First, Dongal, from whom descended the Lords of Lorn. The male line is continued in "The M'Dogall," designed of Dunolly. The son of Dugall above-named was Duncan, and it has been stated that he died without issue ; if so, the descendant of the Clan Dugall, or Dougal, must be from Duncan, son of Dugall, the eldest son of Somerled, and from whom descended the Lords of Lorn.

Gregory assigns the representation as heir male to MacDougal of Dunolly. In 1230 the Priory of Ardchattan was founded on the shore of Loch Etive by Duncan MacDougal of that Ilk. Much of it was standing in 1793.

In 1303 was fought the battle of Dalree, in which the famous " Brooch of Lorn " was lost and won in the conflict between Bruce and the traitor John MacDougal, son of Alaster of Argyle, as be was named, son-in-law of the Red Comyn, and in alliance with England ; yet Bruce won his admiration by the splendour of his valour.

Rent from Bruce's shoulder, the royal brooch remained in the hands of MacDougal, and after many adventures it is now in possession of the Chief of the Clan. After the battle Bruce laid waste Argyllshire. Weary of the contest, the elder MacDougal submitted, but his son John fled to England byaea.

MacDougal, who fought at Dalree, was succeeded by his son Ewen (John?) MacDougal, father of John of Dunolly, whose son John was father of Dougal of Dunolly, who entered on his lands in 1562.

At that time the Master of Works to Mary was a Sir William MacDougal.

Dougal's son Duncan, whose name appears in the Roll of the Clans in 1587, was succeeded by hi son, Sir John of Dunolly, in 1598. He married a daughter of Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy, and left a son, Alexander of Dunolly, who died s.p., so Allan his brother obtained from James VII. a charter of part of Lorn, dated Windsor, 1686.

His son John fought for King James in 1715, and was forfeited, but his estate was restored to his son Alexander in 1745 by a charter from the Duke of Argyle. His fighting force in that year was 200. He is styled of Lorn by Duncan Forbes.

The MacDougals of Dunolly always buried their dead at the old Priory of Ardchattan. Various landholders of the name appear in the Acts of Charles II. Among these are the MacDougals of Frengh, Garthland, Gillespick, Logan, Mackerstoun, and Muirtoun.

Three of the name attained rank in the wars of Gustavus Adolphus : Colonel MacDougal, after- wards a Major-General in the Imperial service; Lieutenant-Colonel MacDougal, who was slain in Swabia ; Colonel MacDougal, who from the rank of Serjeant rose in four years to be Colonel of the Swedish Life Guards. He attacked Landsberg, defended Sweinfurt, defeated the Imperialists at Leignitz, and performed many other brilliant actions.

Alexander MacDougal of Dunolly entailed the lands of Dunolichbeg and others in August 1765 (Shaw's Index).




Clan Pipe Music: Lament "Cum ha Mhic Dhuibh" ("MacDuff's Lament"). Badge; Bocsa (Boxwood); or Lus nan craimsheag, braoileag (Red Whortle).

|HE origin of this tribe, of which the old Moriuaers and afterwards Earls of Fife were head, is clouded by fable ; but the first of whom there is any distinct trace is that Earl of Fife who is said to have slain MacBeth, and whom, according to Fordoun, Malcolm III. rewarded by according to his family the honour of placing the sove- reign on the throne, with the leading of the army, and the sanctuary, afforded by the famous Girth cross of MacDuff, of which, we believe, only the socket stone is seen on the Ochil range now.

His son Gillemichel, is probably the first in whom the Earldom became heredi- tary. He died in 1139, and was succeeded by his son Duncan, who was at one time Regent of Scotland, and died 1154. His son Duncan, third Earl, was Justiciary of Scotland, and dying 1203, was succeeded by his son Malcolm, who founded the Abbey of Culross in 1217. He died without issue in 1228, and was succeeded by the son of his brother Duncan Malcolm, fifth Earl, who was one of the Guardians of Scotland. He died 1266, and his son, Colbran, died 1270, and was succeeded by his son Duncan, seventh Earl, who was murdered in 1288. His son Duncan first sided with the English, then with Robert Bruce, and being token prisoner at the battle of Dupplin in 1332, he submitted to Edward Baliol. In the long run he changed sides once more and joined King David II. He was again taken prisoner at Durham in 1346, condemned as a traitor, was pardoned, and eventually died without male issue in 1353. He was succeeded by his daughter Isabel who married first William Ramsay of Colluthie, who in her right became Earl of Fife. The Countess afterwards married Walter, son of King Robert II., Sir Thomas Byset, and John de Dunbar, but left no issue.

" There were several cadets of the MacDuff's, Earls of Fife," says Sir Robert Sibbald, " viz., the predecessors of the Earls of Wemyss, of Macintosh, of Tosach.of Monyvaird, of the Barons of Finday, Craigton, and others of the name of Duff."

Among the missing charters of Robert III. is one to David Duff of the lands of Maldakatn and Baldavy, in the shire of Banff. In the Register of the Privy Council, under date 1586, are some entries with reference to a feud between the MacDuffs of Strathbraan and of Fandowie, who seem to have bail a quarrel among themselves.

In 1600 John MacDuff, otherwise Ferguson, of Fandowie, in Athole, was executed for his share in the Oowrie conspiracy.

David Duff, an alleged descendant of the last Earl of Fife, received from Robert III., in 1401, a considerable grant of land, and of the Barony of Muldavit, which continued to be one of the chief title* of the family until alienated in the reign of Charles II.

Adam Duff in Cluniebeg was the father of Alexander Duff of Keithmore, whose eldest son was Alexander Duff of Braco, M.P. for Banffshire 1707, and his second son William " was elevated to the Peerage of Ireland by the Queen Regent Caroline as Baron Braco of Kilbryde, 28th July 1735, and advanced to a Viscounty and Earldom, 26th April 1759, by the titles of Viscount MacDuff and Earl of Fife."

He wa twice married ; first to Janet Ogilvie, daughter of James, Earl of Findlater and Seafield ; but by her had no issue. He married, secondly, Jane, daughter of Sir James Grant of Grant, Bait. Four of their children all died unmarried, but he was succeeded at his death in 1763 by his son James, second Earl of Fife, who in 1790 was created a Peer of Great Britain.

The second Earl died in 1809, and was succeeded by his brother Alexander, third Earl, father of James, fourth Earl, who died without issue in 1857 ; when the title devolved on his nephew, James tfthEarl ; he died in 1879, and was succeeded by his son Alexander, sixth Earl, who, in 1889, on his image with the Princes* Lonise of Wales, was created Duke of Fife, with remainder to his male Having no son, he was again created Duke of Fife in 1900, with remainder to his daughters.




War Cry: "Loch Sloidh" ("The Loch of the Host").

Clan Pipe Music: Gathering "'Thogail nam bo" ("Lifting the Cattle"). Badge: A'Muileag (Cranberry); or Oireag, foighreag, or feireag (Cloudberry).

pHIS clan and surname are descended from tbe ancient Celtic Earls of the district to which they belonged the Lennox.

" The wild MacFarlane's plaided clan "

occupied the land forming the western shore of Loch Lomond from Tarbet upwards. From Loch Sloy, a small sheet of water near the foot of Ben Voirlich, they took their Cathghairm, of " Loch Sluia." The remote ancestor of this clan is said to have been Duncan MacGilchrist, a younger brother of Malduin, Earl of Lennox. Duncan appears in the Ragman Roll of 1296. His grandson was Bartholomew, which in Gaelic is Parian, from whom the clan are designed, the letters P and F being easily convertible in Gaelic. Robert I. granted a Charter to Dougal MacFarlane of the lands of Kindowie, Argushouche, etc.

Malcolm was the sixth Laird, and got from Duncan, Earl of Lennox, a Charter of the lands of Arroqnhar, in the north-west of Dumbartonshire, dated at the Castle of Inchmurrin in 1305. The direct male line of these ancient chiefs failed, and their estates were forfeited. By marriage with a daughter of the Earl of Lennox Andrew Macfarlaue succeeded in 1493 ; but his son was only allowed the title of Captain of the clan. Sir John MacFarlane of that Ilk was slain at Flodden ; he had been knighted by tbe King the night before the battle.

The MacFarlanes emulated the MacGregors in their raids upon the Lowland districts as much as their limited number allowed.

There was a bond of Manrent granted to Hugh, Master of Eglinton, in 1545 by Duncan, uncle to the Laird of MacFarlane at Irwine. Walter MacFarlane of Tarbet was among the slain at Pinkey in 1547. At Langside, in 1567, they fought under Murray's banner.

In 1578 it would appear from the Privy Council Register that the clan were guilty of consider- able bloodshed. Andrew MacFarlane of Arroquhar and that Ilk appears in the Roll of Landlords in 1587 who were made by Parliament responsible for their clans. In 1594 the MacFarlanes were denounced as robbers and oppressors : and in 1608 the old standing feud between them and the

lared rebels by law.

Thu did not prevent them from following Montrose in 1644-45, and their wild pibroch, Thogail nam bo, was heard in many of his battles. At Bothwell Bridge, in 1679, they were among the foremost gateway through which the Guards chaiged.

Walter MacFarlane of that Ilk was one of the most learned antiquaries of the last century. A portrait of him was presented by his son Walter in 1794 to the Antiquarian Society of Scotland. Robert MacFarlane, one of the clan, an eminent political and miscellaneous writer, born in Scotland in 1734, was author of various historical works, such as " the Rights of the Crown of Scotland," "the Authenticity of Ossian," etc. He was killed by a fall from a carriage at Hammersmith in 1804.

Another of the clan, Major-General MacFarlane, under fire of the guns of H.M. Ships Warrior and Succetf, in 1809 led the British troops with distinguished bravery at the storm and capture of the Island of Ischia, in the Bay of Naples, and afterwards at the capture of Procida.

In 1624 many of the clan were driven out of Arroquhar and went to Aberdeenshire, where they assumed the names of MacCondy, Griesck, Maclnnes, etc. The last descendant of the chiefs is said to have gone to America at the end of the last century ; and his house of Arroquhar became the property of the Duke of Argyle, and was long used as an inn for travellers from Tarbet to Glencroe and Inverary.




HIS clan is supposed to be a branch of the race of Alpine ; the name is spelt in a variety of ways, Dubhsith in Gaelic has passed into Duffle in English, which in its MacDuffie form has further passed into MacFie, which is also spelt MacaFee, Mac- Fee, and Macphee, the name implying a dark-coloured tribe. After the Norse occu- pation, Colonsay, in the County of Argyle, fell under the sway of the Lords of the V. Isles. In 1549 Archdeacon Munro informs ns that "the He is bracket be ane gentle capitane callit MacDuflfyhe, and pertained of auld to Clan Donald of Kintyre." The MacDuffies or MacFhees seem to have possessed the island for a considerable time. On the tombstones of Oronsay they figure as warriors and ecclesiastics. The island was held by the MacPhees as late as the middle of the seventeenth century ; there are still several freeholders and many respectable families of the name in the county and elsewhere.

During the Civil War of 1645, Coll MacDonald, a companion of the Marquis of Montrose, was accused of having been guilty, with some of his followers, of the slaughter of Malcolm MacPhee of Colonsay. The clan having been dispossessed of its original inheritance became a " Broken Clan," lost itu independence, and so was obliged to rank under more powerful clans ; the greater part followed the Mac Donalds of Islay, others settled in the country of the Camerons under Lochiel, where they were distinguished for their bravery, others found homes on both entrances to the Firth of Clyde, whilst others settled in the north of Ireland, where the name is spelt according to the primitive pronunciation, MacHaffie or Mac Afee.

At the battle of Culloden, 1745, the Camerons were one of the few clans who made that furious onset which nearly annihilated the left wing of the Duke of Cumberland's army, and almost led to a brilliant victory ; the Camerons suffered severely, and with them a proportionate number of the Macfiea, but soon loyalty to the reigning dynasty was in the ascendant, and the armorial bearings of the race have for motto the words Pro rege.




War Cry. "Loch Moidh " (Loch Moy).

Badge . Bocsa (Boxwood).

the "History of the Macintoshes," we are told that about the year 1263 a warrior named Gabri placed himself under the protection of Macintosh, and became the progenitor of the clan of MacGillivray, or MacQilli-Bhreac, the children of the freckled man. His stronghold was named Dunmacglas.

There is still a branch of this clan in Mull, designated from the head of the branch, as of Beinn-an-gaill, or "The House of the Stranger."

In the Privy Council Register for 1578, caution is found by " Williame Drurn- ond of Myllynab in 500 merks for Duncane Macfarlane, and in 100 pounds for Malcolme M'Gillevoray, his servant, that they will appear to be tried for (being) art and part in the slaughter of ... Ra, and will keep the peace meanwhile." In the same Record, under date 1579, we find the name of " Archibald M'llvoray " in a case of the Laird of Luss against Campbell of Auchnawilling and others. The notices of this surname are rather meagre. The Rev. Martin MacGillivray of the Mull branch, who lived about 1640, always wore a claymore ; and once, when calling on MacLean of Loch- buy for his stipend, was asked, with a sneer, if he meant to enforce his demand with his sword. " Rather than lose what is my due, I shall ! I do mean to use it," said he sternly.

Farqnhar MacGillivray of Dunmacglas was a Commissioner for Inverness-shire in the Parlia- ment of 1685 (Acte ParL Jac. VII.).

The MacGillivrays of Beinn-an-gaill were at Sheriffmuir for King James in 1715 ; and when Lady Macintosh raised her clan for the Prince in 1745, the command was assigned to MacGillivray of Dunmacglas, as the chief refused to lead it. He fell at Culloden with four officers of his regiment. Hi* own immediate following was only eighty men. He fell in front of the 4th Regiment of the Line, but not before he had nearly hewn off the Colonel's sword hand with his claymore. He was alive next day ; but when the English were murdering the wounded, by Cumberland's order, his brains were dashed out in presence of his distracted wife and aged nurse, in whose arms he lay. His body was stripped, and his laced waistcoat was appropriated by a soldier of the 4th Foot. The rallying cry of this clan was " Loch Sloy ! "

Dr William MacGillivray, one of this surname, a very distinguished naturalist, died at Aberdeen in 1862. Nor should we forget Alexander MacGillivray. who was author of some pretty Scottish songs.




WarCry:-"Ard-coille" ("The Woody Height.")

Clan Pipe /Ifws/c. --Gathering-" Ruaig Ghlinne Fraoine" ("The Chase of Glen Fruln").

Salute" Failte Chlann Ghriogalr" (" MacGregor's Salute").

Badge: Giuthas (Pine Tree).

HEN I asked a very learned minister in the Islands," says Dr Johnson, " which they considered their most savage clans, c Those that live next the Lowlands,' said he ; and most true was this of several tribes, among them the Macgregors, whose ancient ter- ritory was on both rides of Loch Tay ; and these are still called Tuaruith and Deas- nuith, or north and south."

The sept of the MacGregors, of whom Sir Walter Scott says ' ' that they were famous for their misfortunes and the indomitable courage with which they maintained them- selves as a clan" a clan the most oppressed for generations claim a descent from Gregor, third son of King Alpin, who flourished about 787, hence they are usually termed the Clan Alpin, and their proud motto is " 'Srioghail mo dhream "" Royal is my race ;" and one individual tribe of these retains the same name. They had at one time very extensive possessions in Argyleshire and Perthshire, which they im- prudently continued to hold by the coir o' chlaidheimh, that is, by the right of the sword ; thus the Earls of Argyle and Breadalbane gradually found the means to usurp their lands under the pretext of Royal grants. The MacGrcgors strove to retain their lands by the cold steel ; and this conduct, " though natural," says Sir Walter Scott, "considering the country and the time, was represented at the capital as arising from an untamable and innate ferocity which nothing could remedy save cut ting off the tribe of MacGregor, root and branch." They were styled " Lawless Limmers " in Parlia- ment ; their name was suppressed ; and at baptism no clergyman could give the name of Gregw under deprivation and banishment.

Prior to these dark days of the seventeenth century, the MacGregors appear to have been in possession of the lands of Glenorchy in the thirteenth century. In the Ragman Roll of 1296, John of Glenorchy appears. In their genealogy this John is called the son of Gregor ; but in the reign of David II. the direct line of the chiefs would appear to have ended in an heiress, who, it is said, married a younger son of the House of Argyle. The next chiefs appear to have remained in Glenorcby as tenant* of the Campbells, who were relentless in their efforts to usurp all they had.

John Dhu MacGregor of Glenstrae, and Gregor MacGregpr of Roro, in Glenlyon, were both, says Robertson, younger sons of the chief Patrick who succeeded in 1390, and on the extinction of whose line the chieftainship went to Glenstrae. In 1502 the line of Roro lost their lands by the Campbells. In 1552, Gregor, son of the deceased Sir James MacGregor, Dean of Lismore, became head of an independent sept, but bound himself to Campbell of Glenorchy and his heirs "taking him for his chief in place of the Laird of MacGregor, ana giving him his calp." Scott says that it has been dis- puted whether the MacGregors were the real Children of the Mist ; and quotes an Act of Council in 1589 proving that they were so.

In 1603 the fierce battle of Glenf ruin came to pass through the severity with which the Colquhouns executed the barbarous laws against the MacGregors, who retaliated by invading Luss, under Alister of GleoBtrae. The Colquhouns were vanquished, and resorted to the device of appearing before the King at Stirling with the pretended shirts of their slain smeared with blood, and hence the Mac- Gregors were more sternly proscribed ; but so recently as 1744 MacGregor of Glengyle drew Black Mail as a kind of Lord Warden of the Highland Borders.

In the end of the hut and beginning of the present century the proscription laws were in force ; but Sir John Murray MacGregor, Bart, of Lanrick, whose father had been A.D.C. to Prince Charles was acknowledged as chief by 826 MacGregors capable of bearing arms. The present Baronet is his direct representative.

MacGregor, a French officer, defended Gingee in India in 1759, under Count Lally. His garrison consisted of 1750 men. He defended the hill fort with such valour that he was permitted to march out with the honours of war on the 5th April in that year.




War Cry: "Loch Moldheidh" ("The Loch of Threatening" A lake near the seat of the Chieftain).

Clan Pipe Music: Lament "Cumha Mhic an Toisich" ("Macintosh's Lament"). Badge /-Bocsa (Boxwood)J or Lus nan craimsheag, braoileag (Red Whortle).

(HE Macintoshes are a sept of the Clan Chattan, which includes the Farquharsons, Shaws, MacPhersons, MacBeans, and eleven others. To these races belonged Bade- noch and much of Lochaber. A rivalry has long existed between the heads of the two chief septs, Macintosh and MacPherson, as to which was the superior ; " and," says Robertson, "without pronouncing positively, it does look from the proofs broxight forward for the chief of the latter name by Skene, as affording a strong presumption in his favour, from the fact of Macintosh calling himself Captain of the Clan."

The old genealogy (of 1450) makes them descend from two brothers, Muirach Mhor and Dai Dhu, sons of Gillecattan Mhor, chief of the Confederation. Mae- pherson of Cluny, as the lineal representative, is chief of Muirach Mhor, and is chief of Clan Mhuirach, or MacPherson, says a writer in the "Scottish Journal of Anti- quities" : "Dhai Dhu, brother of Muirach Mhor, and second son of Gillecattan, left issue, who are represented by Davidson of Invernahaven. The descendants of Dhai Dhu are called Clan Dhai, or Davidson. They are the Clan Kay of Sir Walter Scott and Inch of Perth celebrity (1396). The descendants of Muirach Mhor are called the Clan Mhuirach or MacPhersons."

The chiefs of the Macintoshes have certainly held their chiefship over that name for nearly 500 years. Moy is said to have come into possession of William, seventh Macintosh of that Ilk, in the year 1836 by a gift from David, Bishop of Murray, according to the Old Statisical Account of Moy ; but that prelate was dead in 1299, according to Beatson's "Index."

James I. appointed Macintosh of that Ilk Captain of the Castle of Inverness after the battle of Harlaw in 1411. In 1526 Lachlan, the Laird of Macintosh, was slain by James Malcolmson, who, with his followers, fled to an isle in the Lake of Rothiemurchus ; " bot being apprehendit by Mac- Intoshe's kindred, they were all of them cutt to pieces," records Sir James Balfour. Hector, his .natural brother, was appointed chief till his nephew should be of age, and in a quarrel with the Earl of Murray ravaged his lands, till the Earl procured letters of fire and sword against him. The Macintoshes were routed in battle and 200 of them were taken and hanged. Hector escaped, and no bribe or torture could induce his followers to reveal the place of his hiding.

William, fifteenth Macintosh of that Ilk, was treacherously beheaded by the Countess of Hnntly, when on a friendly visit to Huntly Castle in 1550, by the cook's hatchet. She was Elizabeth, daughter of William, third Earl Marischal.

In 1587 Lachlan Macintosh is noted as "Captain of the Clan Chattan" in the "Geography of the Clans," 1878.

In 1624 the Macintoshes, to the number of 500, attacked the Earl of Murray's people and captured his House of Pettie, now called Castle Stuart.

In 1689 Macintosh was kept out of Glenroy and Glenspean, which he claimed in Inverness-shire. He led 1000 of his people in 1689 to take vengeance upon Keppoch, who defeated him with only 500 at Inverary, and made him prisoner. He died in 1704, and his funeral was one of the most expensive ever known in the Highlands.

In 1745 the strength of the fighting force was 800 ; but as the chief remained neutral, only 200 took the field, under MacGillivray of Dunmacglas. His countries are Brae Lochaber, Badenoch, and Strathnairn, Inverness-shire.

Lachlan Macintosh, who died in 1704, was succeeded by bis son Lachlan, who was "out" in 1715, and died without issue in 1731. He was succeeded by his kinsman, William Macintosh of Daviot, who also died without issue in 1741, and was succeeded by his brother ^Eneas, created a Baronet by King George III. The Baronet dying without issue, the chieftainship devolved on his kinsman, the Hon. Angus Macintosh, resident in Canada ; he died in 1883, and was succeeded by hiw son Alexander, who died in 1801, and was father of Alexander (died 1876) and Alfred, at present "The Macintosh."




Badge: Bocsa (Boxwood); or Lus nan craimsheag, braoileag (Red Whortle).

HIS tartan, according to Smith, is supposed to be "the genuine set which has been worn by the chiefs of this distinguished clan for many generations." The chiefs of Borne clans wore separate tartans from their men, which accounts for their being two tartans for the name Macintosh. An account of most of the chiefs will be found under the "Clan." When Lachlan, the nineteenth chief, died, his body lay in state from the 9th of December 1703 to the 18th of January 1704, and was followed to the grave by 2000 of his clansmen, a number of Farquharsons and MacPhersons, besides 220 men under Keppoch, and 200 horsemen. Lachlan, his successor, had an even grander funeral, the expense of which amounted to 700.




Badge. Culleann (Holly).

ISTORICALLY very little seems to be known of this clan, but the name is derived from Angus, one of the oldest names in the Gaelic language.

The Gaelic orthography ia Aongas, but as in the genitive the g is aspirated by the following h, the word is pronounced Aon'es, from which Innes is derived. There can be no doubt that many of the latter name, as well as those called Maclnnes, are properly of the MacAon'ais clan ; at the same time, as Innes signifies an islet, many families may have taken the name as a local appellation which was common in Scotland, such as Blair, Ross, Moray, and many others. Morvern, the district of Argyleshire celebrated in the poems of Ossian as the territory of the great Fingal, was the chief seat of the clan, and in a romantic situation, at the confluence of a rapid stream, with a salt- water loch, stands the ruined and romantic castle of Ceann- loch-aluin, long the residence of the MacAon'ais, a massy square tower or keep, reared by a lady named Du'ghall, which would imply the dark-complexioned stranger. It underwent at one time a very sharp siege, during which it was bravely defended by the Clan Aon'ais ; this was probably when it was taken and garrisoned by Montrose's Irish auxiliaries in 1645. The hereditary bowmen to the chiefs of MacKinnon were of the Clan Aon'ais, and thev also had the duty of instruc- ting the clan in the use of the bow.



War Cry: "Cruachan" (A mountain near Loch Awe). Clan Pipe Music: March "Gabhaidh sinn an rathad mor" ("We will take the

Highway"). Badge: Fraoch (Common Heath)

LEN O, near Bunawe, in the district of Lorn, was the country of this sept, which General Stewart says they possessed from 1300 down to 1810. They were originally the Hereditary Foresters to the Stewarts, Lords of Lorn, and were continued in their possessions and employments after the succession of the Glenorchy and Bread- albane families to that estate, by a marriage with a co-heiress of the last Lord of Lorn of the Stewart family in 1435.

Tradition says they are descended from the Macdonalds.

The name occurs in the "Eglinton Memorials," under date 1490, when "Gille- christ M'Yntyr" witnesses a " Letter of Reversion" by the Rector of the Church of St. Mary at Rothesay, and "Christino M'Yntyr" witnesses an Instrument of Sasin in favour of the same priest.

During Montrose's invasion of Argyle, 1644-45, Alaster MacColkeitach, with his brigade, marched through Glen O ; and supposing himself to be still among the Campbells, he " ordered all the houses in Glen O to be destroyed, as their inhabitants had fled ; and the dwelling of the chief, which was roofed with heather, was the first to be given to the flames. A burning coal was brought from the hearth and thrust into the deep thatch ; but before the fire had made progress. Alaster was informed that this was the house of the chief of the Maclntyres. 'Then forbear,' he exclaimed, 'and extinguish the flames, for it is the house of our own blood!'" re- ferring to the tradition above given. "The coal was extracted from the roof, and, as a relique to Erove the respect paid by a Scotsman even to traditionary ties of kindred, it was carefully preserved y the Macintyres of that Ilk, until the last of them, with all the men of Glen O, were expatriated to America."

John Maclntyre, piper to Menzies of that Ilk, composed the salute, " Failte Phrionsa," on the landing of King James in 1715.

Duncan Ban Maclntyre, of this tribe, one of the best of modern Gaelic poets, was born of poor parents at Druimliaghart, in Glenorchy, in 1724, and fought at Falkirk under Colonel Campbell of CarwhJn. He became a private in a Highland fencible regiment, with which he served till it was disbanded in 1799. Though he never received any education he excelled in every kind of verse. HU poems have gone through three editions ; and the writer of his life in Reid's " Bibliotheca Scoto-Celtica" says, "All good judges of Celtic poetry agree that nothing like the purity of his Gaelic and the style of his poetry have appeared in the Highlands since the days of Ossian." In his old age he became one of the City Guard at Edinburgh, where he died in 1812. He is buried in the Greyfriars. In 1859 a stately monument of a Druidical style was erected to his memory at Dalmally, near the head of Lochawe.

Another bard of the name of Maclntyre is mentioned in the Book of the Dean of Lismore.




War Crj/:-"Bratach bhan Chlann Aoidh" ("The White Banner of MacKay").

Clan Pipe Music: March "Piobaireachd Chlann Aoidh" ("MacKay's March").

Lament "Cumha Dhomhuill Mhic Aoidh" ("Lament for

Donald MacKay").

Badge: Luachair-bhog (Bulrush); or Bealaidh (Broom).

HE S'u>l Mhorgain, or Clan Morgan, was the ancient patronymic of the MacKays, the 1 descendants of a pare Celtic stock, who retired into the interior mountain fastnesses before the Norse invaders. Several of this ancient race were called Y, or I (Hugh) MacKay, and were designated of Strathnaver. In Robertson's ' ' Index to the missing Charters of Robert III." there is one to " Gilchreist Macymor M'Cay, of the lands of Kintyre," in the shire of Bute.

In 1427 Angus Dhu MacKay led 4000 men in the feud between the Keith and the people of Caithness. The two armies met at a place called Blair Tannie, and the latter were defeated by the valour of Angus in 1438. In the end of 1442 Angus was burned to death in the church of Tarbetby the men of Ross, whom he had frequently harried. His son, John MacKay of Farre, invaded them in revenge, but was defeated and elain in 1479.

The MacKays had no charters for their lands before 1499, when lye Roy MacKay of Farre obtained one from James IV. He died in 1512, and was succeeded by his son Donald of Farre and Strathnaver, by charter 1539. In pursuance of a feud with the Sutherlands, he marched to the village of Knock - artall, burned it, and afterwards fought his enemies at a place called Aldine-beh, where he was routed, but not before he had slain, with his own sword, William Sutherland, for which, by command of the Queen Regent, he was imprisoned in the Castle of Foulis. In 1556 Mary of Guise went north as far as Inverness, and made the chief of each clan answerable for its good conduct.

"The Laird of Grant," says Balfour, " bringes in the heades of some of his kindred, quhome he could not bringe in alive, and presents them to justice. She fynnes the Earl of Cathnes . . . and cendes the Earl of Sutherland with an armey against MacKay of Strathnauerne by land, and Ihone Kennedy, with a navey by sea, qho brought him prisoner to Edinbrughe Castle, quher he lay for a long tyme thereafter."

In 1626 Sir Donald MacKay of Strathnaver levied a regiment of 2000 men for service in Bohemia and Sweden.

He was made a Baronet of Nova Scotia in 1627, and in 1628 a Peer of Scotland by the title of Lord Reay. He joined Charles I., and was taken prisoner when Newcastle was stormed by the Scottish army and sent to the Tolbooth of Edinburgh, after which he went to Sweden, where he was made Governor of Bergen in 1649, and died soon after. In the year named, the Abrach MacKays invaded Caithness, and a bloody conflict ensued near Thurso. Lord Reay's country now belongs to another race and name, and, until recently, the family for more than one generation resided in Holland, but have returned permanently to Scotland. The MacKays of Scourie, and Auchness, are considered the next oldest branch.

Hugh MacKay of Scourie, from being an ensign in the Scots Royals in 1660, in 1674 found himself Major-General at the head of the Scots- Dutch Brigade in succession to Claverhouse, by whom he was defeated at Killiecrankie. His long career of service was a most brilliant one, and the soldiers were wont to say that " Hugh feared nought but God !" He fell at the battle of Steinkirke in 1692. He left a descendant, Baron ^neas MacKay, Chamberlain of Holland, who became heir to the Peerage of Reay.

John MacKay of this clan, the eminent botanist, was the founder of the Botanical Garden at Edinburgh, where he died in April 1802.

When the last Sutherland Fencibles, a corps disbanded in 1798, was embodied in 1793, there were many MacKays in its ranks over 104 being William MacKays, of whom there were seventeen in the company of Captain Sackville Sutherland.

Baron .Eneas MacKay, tenth Lord Reay, died in 1876 and was succeeded by his son, Donald, eleTenth and present Lord Reay (born 1839).




War Cry: "Tulach Ard" (A mountain in Kintail).

Clan Pipe Music.- Lament "Cumha Thigearna Ghearrloch" ("Gairloch's Lament"). Badge: Cuileann (Holly).

HE descent of the chief of this clan

" Mac Kenneth, great Earl of the North, The Lord of Loch Carton, Glenshiel, and Seaforth,

ia of pure Scoto-Qaelic descent, with a strain of Irish, as asserted by Douglas and others. In the " lona Club Transactions" their descent in 1450 is given as follows : "The genealogy of the Clan Kenneth Murdoch, son of Kenneth, son of John, son of Kenneth, son of Angus, son of Christian, son of Adam, son of Gilleoin-Oig of the Aird." In Robertsons " Index of Missing Charters " there is a Crown Charter of Confirma- tion by David II. for the lands of " Kintale " in 1344, when a grant of that and other lands by William, Earl of Ross, to Reginald, son of Roderick de Insulis, dated 1342, 4th July, is confirmed. In MacKenzie's " History of the Clan " the earliest date which can be assigned for its acquisition of Kintail from John, Earl of Ross, is 1463. After the forfeiture of the Lords of the Isles, the clan, like all others in the West became independent.

Alexander, seventh chief of Kintail, accompanied James I. in his expedition to the north in 1426. He was ancestor of the MacKenzies, of Logie, Hilton, and Gairloch, and died in 1488.

John, the ninth chief, followed James IV. to Flodden with a body of his clan, and narrowly escaped being made prisoner. He was faithful to Mary of Guise, Queen Regent, fought in his old age at Pinkie, and died in 1554.

Colin, eleventh chief, fought bravely for Queen Mary at the battle of Langside, for which he was afterwards pardoned by the Regent Murray.

Kenneth, his eldest son by Barbara Grant of that Ilk, was raised to the Peerage in 1609 as Lord MacKenzie of Kintail. From these descended the MacKenzies of Pluscardine and Lochslyne, accord- ing to Douglas. Colin, their eldest son, was created Earl of Seaforth in 1623. He and his brother John of Lochslyne, dying without issue, the title devolved on his half-brother, George, by a charter under the Great Seal. He went to Holland after the murder of Charles I., and was subsequently Secretary of State for Scotland.

Kenneth, fourth Earl, was one of the Privy Council to King James VII., and K.T. in 16S7. He followed to Ireland and to France his Royal master through war and exile, and was created Marquis of Seaforth ; but as his patent had not passed the Great Seal of Scotland, the title was only recognised by the Jacobites. He died in 1701, and was succeeded by William, fifth Earl, who was attainted in 1715, and was at the battle of Glenshiel in 1719, when a rising in Scotland, aided by a few Spanish Infantry, was concerted by the Marquis of Tullibardine and the Earl Marischal.

Earl William, after the insurrection of 1715, made his escape to France, where he remained till George I. granted him a pardon for his life in 1726, after which he returned to Scotland, and spent the remainder of his life in peace and retirement. He died in 1740, and would have been succeeded by his son Kenneth, Lord Fortrose, as sixth Earl, but for the attainder.

The fighting force of the MacKenzies is given by Forbes at 2500 men, adding those of the Earl of Cromartie and the Lairds of Gairloch, Skatwell, Kilcowie, Redcastle, and Comrie, all MacKenzies.

Kenneth, son of Lord Fortrose, having repurchased the property from the Crown, was created an Irish Peer as Viscount Fortrose, and in 1771 was restored to the Earldom of Seaforth. In gratitude, therefore, he and the clan of the Caberjey, as the MacKenzies are called, in 1778 raised the old Sea- forth Highlanders, afterwards numbered as the 72nd, 1000 strong, for service in India. In 1793 the clan, under Humbereton MacKenzie, who died Earl of Seaforth in 1816, raised the " 78th," or famous Roan-shire Buffs, and now both regiments are formed in one, as the 1st and 2nd Battalions of " the Duke of Albany's Seaforth Highlanders."

The Chieftainship and the Earldom were claimed by MacKenzie-Fowler of Allangrange ; but now Anne (only child of John Hay MacKenzie of Cromartie and Newhall), Mistress of the Robes to Her Majesty (1870-74), Ducheaa of Sutherland, became in her own right (1861), Countess of Cromartie, Viscountess Tarbet, Baronew MacLeod and Castlehaven.

Kenneth MacKenzie of Gairloch was created a Bart, in 1629, and there are six other Baronetcies borne by members of the clan.

In the field of literature we cannot forget Sir Alexander MacKenzie, the traveller, 1781-1816 ; George, author of the " Writers of the Scots Nation ;" and more than all, Henry, who was author of "The Man of Feeling."

The above-named Anne, Countess of Cromartie, died in 1888, and wassucceeded by her second son, Francis, as Earl of Cromartie, etc. He died in 1393, and his elder daughter Sibell, was declared in March 1895 to hold all her father's titles, and so ia Countess of Cromartie.





N the Dean of Lisraore's Book, a collection belonging to the early part of tne sixteenth ( century, there are two poems ascribed to Gillecallum Mac an Ollaimh. In the Dean's MS. the name appears in these forms Gilcallum m'ynnollaig, gillicalluni in "yn olle; and the translator has rendered the name in modern Gaelic as Gille- callum Mac an Ollaimh, and stated that the name signifies Malcolm, the son of the chief bard or physician. It is stated in a footnote that the name is found still in the form of Mclnally.

MacKinlay is more commonly regarded as being derived from the name Finlay, the Gaelic form of which is Fionnladh. The form MacFhionnlaidh is pronounced as nearly as English spelling can show it, Mac-ionnlay.

Buchanan of Auchmar, who wrote his book upon Scottish surnames before 1728, gave under the heading of Drumnakill, a cadet of Buchanan, the name of McKinlay as descended from Fionnladh MacArtair of that family.

Arms, crest, and motto : gu, a stag trippant ar ; crest, an armed arm holding a branch of olive, all ppr. ; motto, "Not too much."

There is also a family of the name of MaoKindlay who have arms, crest, and motto of their own.





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War Cry:-

'Cuimhnich bas Ailpein" ("Remember the death of Alpin"). Badge: Giuthas (Pine Tree).

[HE possessions of this clan in Skye are thus described by Monro, Dean of the Isles (1594): " The Castill of Dunakym ; the Castill of Dunningill pertaining to the said M'Kynnoun. At the shore of Skye lyes one iyle called Pabay, full of woods, good for fishing, and a main shelter for thieves and cut-throats. It pertains to M 'Kynnonn." This ancient tribe can be traced to Ferchar Oig, and includes Finlay, the son of Fin- gon, from whom sprang the Clan Fingon. Their name occurs in many a feud and strife during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

On the 1st of November 1409 Lachlan MacFingon, vir nobilis (i.e., a gentleman), witnessed a charter by the Lord of the Isles to Hector M'Lean of Duart.

In a history of the clan we are told that in the charter chests of Lochbuy there is preserved a charter dated 1492 (?) to which John MacKinnon, Abbot of lona, affixed his seal as one of the Council of the Lords of the Isles who were forfeited in 1476. He died in 1500, the date on his tomb in lona. Not far from it is the tomb of his father, Lauchlan, inscribed thus : Hcec eat crux Locolani M'Fingone, et ejusfilii Johannis Abbatia de Y facto, anno Domini MCCCCLXXXIX.

In 1503 MacKinnon of that Ilk is mentioned among the chiefs to take action against Duart and Lochiel, forfeited for treason.

In 1515 the MacKinnons took part in the rebellion of Sir Donald MacDonald of Lochalsh ; and, again, Ewen nan Cath, the chief, was summoned for acts of rebellion 1545.

In 1579 Fynnoun MacKynnoun of Strathardill, and Lachlane Oig, his son, were reported to the King, together with Lochbuy, and the MacLeans, by John, Bishop of the Isles, for preventing him receiving the rente of his See.

MacKinnon and his clan accompanied the MacLeans on an expedition against the MacDonalds, when a desperate conflict ensued at a place called Bern Bige. This was soon after the battle of Lochgruinard in 1598.

The MacKinnons served under Montrose, and in 1645 were at the battles of Inverlochy and Auldearn. In 1650 Lachlan MacKinnon and his clan fought for the King at Worcester.

In 1715 John Dhu MacKinnon of that Ilk, with 150 of his clan, fought for King James at Sheriff- inuir, and was attainted, but was pardoned in 1727.

The clan was " out " in the year 1745, and fought at Cnlloden ; their old chief was taken, and after being long a prisoner in the Tower and Tilbury Fort, died in his seventy-fifth year in 1756.

This clan has furnished several officers of distinction, more particularly Daniel MacKinnon, second son of the chief, and nephew of General MacKinnon, killed in the breach at Ciudad Rodrigo. He was Colonel of the Coldstream Guards and wrote a history of that regiment at the request of . William IV.



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Clan Pipe Music .--Salute Moladh Mairi ("The Praise of Mary"). Badge : Faochag (Little Periwinkle); or Uinnsean (Ash Tree).

TRATHLACHLAN, in Argyllshire, of old called Kilmorie, from a chapel of the Virgin Mary, is the country of this clan ; it is 11 miles in length, with an average of H miles in breadth. The name of the parish is now derived from the MacLachlans of that Ilk, who have resided there from time immemorial.

Robertson says that the genealogy of this clan is that of Lachlan Oig, who is named in the account as of a remote time, and states that his mother was Elizabeth, daughter of a Lord of Cowal ; and that this corresponds with the tradition that this chin derived their possessions in Cowal through an heiress of the Laments, the ancient Lords of that district.

After being followers of the Lords of the Isles, he adds, the MacLachlans became dependent on the Campbells.

In the "Index of Missing Charters" of Robert I. there is one to "Gillespie M'Lachlan of the tenth land of Schyrwaghthyne," etc., and the name Lachlanson occurs in three charters under the same monarch.

Archibald MacLachlan of Strathlachlan and that Ilk appears in the Roll of 1594, so frequently quoted. He appears in the previous Roll of 1587 (Act. Parl., Jac. VI.).

The name occurs frequently in that quaint volume "Brittanes Distemper," by Gordon of Ruthven, published for the Spalding Club. In 1645 "Corronel M'Lachlan " led a regiment of foot under Montrose at Alford, and routed the enemy's cavalry ; but was taken at the battle of Philip- haugh, and " put to death in the Castill of Edinburgh."

In the Parliament under Charles II., 1678, Archibald MacLachlan of Craigentarve was a Com- missioner for Argyle, with his chief, Lachlan MacLachlan of that Ilk, and MacLachlan, the Captain of Innisoonnel, a castle of Argyle's in Lochawe.

Among others of the clan, Auchmar enumerates " MacLachlan of Anchintroig, in the shire of Stirling, with a charter in favour of Celestin MacLachlan, one of whose ancestors, Duncan, Earl of Lennox, confirms a charter, granted by Eugene MacKesson of Garchells to one of the said Celestin's ancestors, which confirmation was dated 1394, the eighth year of the reign of Robert III. There is another numerous sept of the MacLachlans residing in Morvern and Lochaber, the principal of these being MacLachlan of Coryuanon ; of this family are MacLachlan of Drumlane in Menteith, with others of that surname there."

In 1794, when Donald MacLachlan of that Ilk was chief, he resided in a modern house, near the ancient castle, the walls of which were over 47 feet in height, with a frontage of 72 feet. The tradi- tion regarding it is that it was built by a lady at the time her husband, the laird, was abroad serving in one of the Crusades. A most unlikely story, and evidently borrowed from that of the Castle of Kile hum.

In 1810 Captain MacLachlan of the Royal Marines of H.M.S. Caledonia, under Admiral Sir Harry Neale, distinguished himself in the Basque Roads at the storming of the battery on the Point do Che, spiking the guns there.

Donald MacLachlan died, and was succeeded by his son Robert, whose nephew, John, is the twenty-second and present chief.



War Cry: "Creag an Tuirc" ("The Boar's Rock"). Badge . Buaidh chraobh, na laibhreas (Laurel).

I HIS tribe, sometimes called MacLaurin, occupied a narrow strip of country, extend- ing from Lochearnhead, till they bordered on the MacGregors of Glengyle.

As the Clan Lauren they appear in the Roll of the Broken Clans in the High- lands and Isles in 1594, and are stigmatised in the Act of Parliament as being among " the wickit thevis and lymmaris of the clans ; " but they figure in company with the Clan Donnachaidh, the Clan Chattan, and others, which certainly never could be " Broken Clans."

Notices of this clan are very scanty, and their name is better known in peace than war. One of the most eminent was Colin MacLaren or MacLauren, son of the Rev. John MacLaurin, minister of Glendaruel, author of a Gaelic version of the Psalms. He was born at Kilmodan in 1698, and was educated by the Rev. Daniel MacLaurin, minister of Kilfinan. He graduated at the University of Glasgow in his fifteenth year, and rapidly attained high distinction as a mathematician and writer. In 1745, when Professor of Mathematics at Edinburgh, having been active in making plans for the defence of the city against the Highlanders, he had to seek shelter in the city of York. The suffering he experienced by bis journey there on horseback laid the foundation of the illness of which he died in 1746. He was buried at the Greyfriars Church.

John MacLaren, Lord Dreghorn, an eminent Senator of the College of Justice, was born at Edinburgh in 1743, and was raised to the Bench in 1787.

Another of the clan, Archibald Macl-uen, a prolific dramatic writer of some merit, was'born in the Highlands in 1755, and served in the American War under Generals Howe and Clinton as a private soldier. After producing two pieces at the Edinburgh Theatre with credit, " The Coup de Main" and the " Highland Drover," in both of which he acted with spirit, the year 1794 saw him a sergeant in the Dumbarton Highlanders. He fought at Vinegar Hill, and after his discharge strove to support himself by his pen. He closed a life of struggle in 1826 in London, leaving his family destitute, though a list of his works, one hundred in number, published at Edinburgh in 1835, evinced his industry and care.




Clan Pipe Music. Gathering "Caismeachd Eachainn Mhic Ailein nan Sop " (" MacLean's Gathering "). Badge : Cuileann (Holly).

HE ancient Sennachies hare asserted that the surname of MacLean was originally MacGilliau, derived from a famous Celtic warrior who was known as Gillian-nan- Tuagh, or of the battle axe, which his descendants use as their crest to thia day between a laurel and cypress branch.

This powerful and numerous chin has been seated in the Island of Mull from a very remote period, but did not appear, like several others, as an independent one till the forfeiture of the Lord of the Isles in 1476 ; though, of course, as vassals of these princes they existed long under chiefs of their own. Their genealogy deduces them from Gilleain, the son of Jerath.

The Castle of Duart, so called, occupies the verge of a high cliff on the coast of Mull. It is of great antiquity, and is a square tower with walls of enormous thick- ness. Two buildings of more recent date, one of which was occupied as a garrison in the last century, connected by a high wall with the keep, form an oblong square of 120 by 72 feet.

Among the list of the slain at Flodden, Or Abercrombie (" Martial Achievements, etc.") gives the name of Hector MacLean of Duart.

Lachlan Cattanach MacLean of Duart married Lady Elizabeth, a daughter of Archibald, Earl of Argyle, who fell at Flodden leading the vanguard ; and she was the heroine of that story connected with " The Lady's Rock," which lies between Lismore and the coast of Mull. Lachlan resolved to get rid of his wife ; he caused her to be exposed on the rock, which was only visible at low water, intending that she should be swept away by the return of the tide. From this situation the intended victim was rescued by a boat passing, and conveyed to her brother's house. Her relations smothered their resentment for a time, but only to break out afterwards with greater violence ; for Dnart, being in Edinburgh, was surprised when in bed, and assassinated by Sir John Campbell of Calder, the lady's brother.

In 1536 Hector MacLean, then of Duart, with Keppoch and others, signed a bond of Manrent " vitht my hand at the pen," to George, Earl of Huntly, at the castle of that name (Spald. Club Miscell. iv.).

In 1579 Hector MacLean of Coll complained to the Council that he had been " utterlie wrakkit ' by Lachlan MacLean of Duart, who had captured his castle and destroyed its plenishing ; for which Lachlan was summoned to appear within six days, or be put to the horn. He prosecuted a feud with MacDonald of Duny vag ; he was accused of causing to " strek the heid from Hector MacLean Allan- son ;" of imprisoning Donald MacLean in Carnbulg ; and of having nine " maist honest men " and two women murdered at his instance in the Isle of Gigha.

Lachlan of Duart was afterwards knighted, and proved himself a gallant soldier at the battle of Glenlivat in 1594. In 1598 he fought in the dreadful clan battle of Lochgruinard against the Mac- Donalds of Islay, which he wished to conquer, when he was slain, " courageously fighting with 80 of the principal men of his kin, and 200 common soldiers lying dead about him. His son, Lachlan Barroch MacLean, waa chased with the rest of his men even to their boats and vessels." The battle of Benbigger followed, in which the Mac Donalds were almost cut off by the MacLeans and three other clans, acting under the orders of James VI.

In 1632 Lachlan MacLean of Duart was created a baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles I., to whom he waa zealously attached, and in whose cause he participated in all the triumphs of Montrose. He died in 1649, and was ucceedd by his son Hector, who fell at the battle of Inverkeithing in 1651. The title devolved upon his brother, Alan, who died in 1674, and was succeeded by his only son, Sir John, who raised the clan at the Revolution, and joining Viscount Dundee, fought at the victorious battle of Killiecrankie. In 1715 he unfurled the standard of loyalty again, and joining the Earl of Mar, fonght at Sheriffmuir. By his wife Mary, daughter of Angus MacPherson of Essick, he left a son, Sir Hector, who was apprehended in Edinburgh in 1745 on suspicion of being in the French service and enlisting men for it. He was conveyed to London, and kept there a prisoner for two years, till the Act of Grace was passed. In 1745 the clan could muster 500 claymores. They were in the first line at Culloden under the Duke of Perth.

in 1776. Two of the clan attained military rank in the service f Portugal. Colonel MacLean, who had served in the army of that country from 1763, was in 1773, appointed General-in-Chief and Governor of Lisbon. He had previously been Governor of Almeida and the whole province of Beira. In the same year Lientenant-General MacLean succeeded Don Jose A. Francis Lobo, Count of Oriolo, bti?e W^ort^ioWeT 5 Eatremadura ' the first militar y honour in the kingdom ever given to any




Clan Pipe Music. --March-" Spaidsearachd Chlann Ill-Eathain" ("M'Lean's March"). Badge: Culleann (Holly); or Grainseag dhubh (Blackberry Heath).

[HIS ancient family sprang from Hector Reganach, brother of Lauchlan Lubanach, from whom descend the MacLeana of Duart ; they were the sons of Eoin Dubh, or Black John, who was settled in the Island of Mull. Which of these brothers was the elder has never been properly authenticated, although this family has always claimed the seniority of Hector, who is believed to have married a lady of the clan MacLeod. The nominal possessions of the family were vast, viz., the lands of Lochiel, Duror, Morven, Glenco, Tiree, Jura, Scarba, and Mull. The Castle of Lochbuie ia in a good state of preservation, including the celebrated dungeon. The land adjacent to Lochbuie was owned by a chief named MacFadyean. Hector Reganach obtained permission from him to build a fortalice at the head of the loch on a high rock close to the sea. Availing himself of the advantage thus given him, he was soon able to add these lands to his own. In course of time one of the chiefs of Lochbuie died, leaving his estates to his only son, Murdoch Gear, an infant. MacLean of Duart, thinking this a favourable opportunity for seizing the lands, invaded the territory of his young kinsman, who was only saved by being conveyed to Ireland. On attaining manhood he resolved to attempt the recovery of his estates, and with ten brave Irishmen set sail to Mull for that purpose. On arriving he was recognised by his nurse, who knew him from a mole on his breast. She caused her husband, who was door-keeper, to open the gate of the castle, when MacLaine rushed in, and was soon not only master of the castle, but estates also.

At a place between Lochbuie and Grulin the two branches of the clan fought a pitched battle. The Mac Leans of Duart were defeated. Lochbuie when returning home after the battle fell in with Duart, who was sleeping along with some of his men ; he drew his dirk and twisted it in the hair of bis rival and then left him. When MacLean woke in the morning and found his hair fastened to the ground, he recognised the dirk, and the two families were friends ever after. The MacLaine s served with Graham of Clavarhouse, Viscount Dundee, and also under Montrose, with their kinsmen the Mac Leans of Duart. Hector MacLaine of Lochbuie with 300 men on his march to join Dundee, was attacked by five troops of horse sent by the enemy to intercept him, under command of a major of MacKay's army. The parties encountered each other at a place called Enockbreck in Badenoch, and after a severe fight Lochbuie put the horse to flight and killed the commander, with the loss on the MacLaine's side of one ensign and some few private soldiers. Lochbuie joined Dundee next morning. This was the first blood shed for James's cause in Scotland. There are some excellent Latin verses composed by Phillips of Annyscloss, a great Jacobite, on the Knockbreck engagement. Their names appear in Montrose's bond to unite the loyalty of the Highlands against the powers of Argyll, 1645. There is no doubt that the clans of Lochbuie and Duart were separate, having separati- Tartan* and Arms. With regard to the name, there is no record of the correct mode of spelling, as in manuscripts one comes across "Mac Leane, MacLean, MacLayne, MacLaine, etc.

The celebrated Sir Archibald MacLaine, K.T., C.B., ete., of Matagorda fame was a cadet of the House of Lochbuie, being one of the MacLaines of Scalasdale. The present chief is Murdoch Gillian MacLaine of Lochbuie, son of the late Donald MacLaine of Lochbuie. by Emilie, daughter of A. Vincent, Eaquir*.





Clan Pipe Music: March " lomaradh Mhic Leoid" ("MacLeod's Praise").

Lament "Cumha Mhic Leoid" ("MacLeod's Lament"). Badge: Aiteann (Juniper); or Lus nan craimsheag, braoileag (Red Whortleberry).

HIS clan is divided into two tribes the MacLeods of Lewis, called the branch of Tovquil ; and the MacLeods of Harris, called the branch of Tormod. Both were powerful, and both were independent of each other, though both are descended from the son of Leod, who gave his name to the entire sept, and whose pedigree goes to a very remote ancestor called " Laigh the Strong." The chief of the Harris branch has been variously designated "MacLeod of MacLeod, MacLeod of that Ilk and of Harris."

There were other branches Raasay in Inverness-shire, and Cadboll and Geanies in Ross-shire, besides Dunvegan in the west.

About 1344 David II. granted a charter to "Malcolmo filio Turmode Maclode" for the lands of Glenelg, for which he was to render service to the King, with a ship of twenty-six oars. Another charter grants Tormod the lands of Assint. From these and other circumstances it is supposed that the Harris tribe was the senior, though Lewis was the oldest cadet. While the Lords of the Isles existed both families held their lands under them. After their forfeiture the MacLeods became independent. The Harris MacLeods had also large possessions in Skye.

Alaster Crotach (or the Humpbacked) MacLeod of that Ilk (or Dunvegan), who lived in the time of James V., was the chief, who, in a quarrel with the people of Bigg, smoked scores of them to death in the Uamh Fhrainc, or cave of St. Francis. So lately as 1814, Sir Walter Scott found the floor of the cavern strewed with the bones of 200 men, women, and children of the MacDonald clan. The tomb of Alaster Crotach still remains in the Church of St. Clement in Harris. He got a gift of the lands of Ardmannach in 1498. He is called the son of William MacLeod of Dunvegan.

In the Roll of the Clans in 1587 we find Torquil of Coggach, eldest son of Roderick of the Lewis, which title and estate he claimed on his father's death, and which were disputed.

William MacLeod of Harris, Dunvegan, and Glenelg appears at the same date as chief of the Siol Tormaid ; also Malcolm MacLeod of Raasay, nearest heir-male of the MacLeods of Lewis ; after the descendants of the body of Roderick MacLeod of Lewis, Coggach, and Assint, chief of the Siol Torcuil.

Some time towards the close of the fourteenth century, Angus MacKay of Strathnaver married a sister of MacLeod of Lewis ; and as he used her ill, the latter marched into his country, ravaged it, and fought a pitched battle in 1406 at a place Tuttumtarwigh, where he was slain with many of his clan.

On the forfeiture of 'MacLeod of Lewis, a life-rent grant of Assint was given to Y. Mackay of Strathnaver.

In the island of Handa, off the Sutherland coast, there lived in the reign of James VI. John M'Dhoil-vic-Huishdon, a branch of the Siol Torquil, a man of low stature, but matchless strength. " By him it was that Judge Morrison was slain. This judge had James VI.'s commission to main- tain good order in the country ; and though he was murdered by this MacLeod it was for no injury done to himself, but in revenge for his being instrumental in putting to death one of that family who acted as Laird of Lewis."

In 1605 Tormod MacLeod of Lewis, for resisting the Duke of Lennox, to whom James VI. had gifted his ancient patrimony, was committed a prisoner to the Castle of Edinburgh, with Isla and several other chiefs. After ten years' captivity he was released, and went to Holland to serve under Maurice, Prince of Orange, as a soldier of fortune, and died in the ranks of the Scots Brigade.

About 1660 the superiority of Assint passed to the Earl of Seaforth after there had been four- teen successive lairds born there of that name.

" The rival family of Lewis became extinct," says Robertson, "but their heir-male is Raasay." The MacLeods of Lewis and Harris "are both utterly extinct," wrote the Lord President in 1745. " The present Laird of Macleod is chief of the name. He can bring out 700 men.

From some information given by "the Chevalier de Macleot" at Lisle in 1787, there would seem to have been a considerable branch of the clan settled in France since 1530, descended from David MacLeod, Gendarme of the Scottish Guard. " The present head of the family (1794) is Jean Nicolas de Macleot, Seigneur de Terreigne Pierreville, before the Revolution, gentilhomme ordinal,- duRai."

The stately and picturesque Castle of Dunvegan, on the west coast of Skye, is still the seat of MacLeod of that Ilk.



Badge : Cuileann (Holly).

[HE traditions in regard to the origin of this clan are very conflicting. Some say their original country was Argyle, others Braidalban, others say Lochaber in Inver- ness ; their known possessions, however, were on both sides of Loch Arkaig, where they were dependent on the Clan Cameron. Another branch, supposed to have been driven from Strath Tay, began to flourish in Knapdale in the sixteenth century. Through the marriage of a chieftain with the heiress of the chief of the MacNeils, they became the possessors of the Castle Sweyn. One of the towers of this stronghold is called "MacMillan's Tower." Those who went to Argyle settled in the southern part, where the chief was distinguished from his residence as MacMillan of Cnap, the name of the property which had been obtained from the Lord of the Isles ; and it is said that he had the charter engraved on the top of a rock at the boundary of his land in the Gaelic language and letter. Here they rose to considerable importance, and in the burial-ground of the chapel of Kilmore, which was built by them, is a stone cross, at least twelve feet high, covered with beautifully executed foliage and other ornaments, amid which is represented a spirited deer hunt. On one side is inscribed in rude Saxon characters, " Hsec est crux Alexandri MacMillan." One of the clan, Gille Maol, subsequently returned to Argyle, and taking up his residence at Badokenan, by the head of Loch Fyne, was the progenitor of the MacMillans of Glena Shera, Glen Shira, and others. On the extinction of the family of Cnap, MacMillan of Dun- more assumed the chiefship, with apparent right, but this house also became extinct, when the Campbells laid claim to the lands, but were opposed by the MacNeils. The contention was finally settled in favour of the Campbells'by mutual concessions, and in 1775 the estates became the property, by purchase, of Sir Archibald Campbell of Inver NeiL The MacMillans of Lochaber latterly dwelt in Muir Lagan, Glen Spean, and Caillie, and they were among the trustiest followers of Lochiel. The branch best known in history is that which passed into the district of Galloway. One of this southern branch distinguished himself as a preacher and leader of the " Cameronians," who were also called " MacMillanites " ; his Bible is still preserved among the descendants of the Covenanters. Some of the Kintyre MacMillans found their way into Arran last century, and from them have sprung the most distinguished bearers of the name.




Clan Pipe Music: Salute "Failte Mhic an Aba" (" MacNab's Salute"). Badge: Fraoch (Common Heath).

f N the ancient Gaelic genealogy, so often referred to, this clan is deduced from Ferchar, son of Feredaoh, and in Gaelic they are called Clan-an-Aba, from their chief ancestor having been the Abbot of Glendochart, who lived between 1150 and 1180. As his lands were within the glen of that name, they were inherited by his descendants. The Abbot of Glendochart was a man of such consequence that in the reign of William the Lion he was joined with the Earl of Atliole in having the rule and management of Argyleshire, at that time when the royal authority could not be entrusted to any one belonging to that wild and warlike district.

The MacNabs having joined the MacDougals, Lords of Lorn, against Robert I., suffered the loss of the greater part of their lands, but they still retained a small portion called Bowaine or Bovin. At Inch Ewen, in Breadalbane, says General Stewart (in 1822) " a family of the name of MacNab had occupied the same farm for nearly four centuries till within these last few years, when the last occupier resigned."

During the reign of James IV. the MacNabs and the Neishes, in the vicinity of Lochearn, had been at bitter feud. Skirmishes between the clans had been frequent, and at length a regularly pitched battle was fought between them on the confines of a glen north of the foot of Lochearn. Victory declared for the MacNabs ; only a remnant of the Neishes escaped ; and their chief fell, covered with wounds, after many of the MacNabs had been slain by his sword. On an island in Lochearn the remnant of the Neishes took shelter ; their head was an old man, a near kinsman of the late chief, and they lived by plunder. In the time of James V. the chief of the MacNabs, who lived in Kennil House, sent a gillie to Crieff for provisions at Christmas time, but on his return he was waylaid and robbed by the Neishes. MacNab of that Ilk, whose eldest son, John, was ironically known as Ian min Mac an Aba, or "Smooth John MacNab," had twelve sons, all men of great strength. These young men were gloomily meditating revenge in the evening, when their father entered and said, " Bha'n oidhch' an oidhche, na'm bu ghillean na gillea.n" (The night is the night, if the lads were the lads). The dark hint was taken; each belted on his arms, and, led by their brother John, they carried a boat on their shoulders from Loch Tay to Loghearn, on which they launched it, and rowed over to the island. In the house of the Neishes all was dark and silent. Smooth John dashed open the door with his foot, and rushing in, the twelve brothers put every man therein to the sword save one and a boy, and cutting off their heads, returned with all the plunder they could collect to Kennil House. There Smooth John held up the head of the chieftain of the Neishes, exclaiming, Na biodhjtamh oirbh!" (Be in fear of nothing); and old MacNab, while contemplating the bloody heads with extreme complacency, said, "The night was the night, and the lads icere the lads ! "

In 1578 caution in 500 merks was found by Colin Campbell of Airdbaith, for " Allestar Barrayth Maknab, son of Allester M'Nab (sic), that he will appear upon the 3rd day of the nixt justice aire of the .Sherefdome of Perth, to underly the law for all crymes that may be imput to him."

When .Montrose was in arms for the King in 1645, among the clans who joined him at Foredoun in 1G45, Menteith in his " History of the Troubles" mentions "the clans of Mackgregor and Mack- nab, with a good number of the Farquharsons of the shire of Mar." In 1646 John MacNab of that Ilk, with his clan, with Lord Napier and Drummond of Balloch, garrisoned Montrose's patrimonial Castle of Kincardine for the King. On this Major-General Sir John Middleton drew off a body of infantry and cavalry with a battering train for Stirling, and bent the guns on the castle from the opposite side of the glen. For fourteen days the MacNabs defended the fortalice, till the concussion of their firearms caused the water in the well to subside, on which they all made a sally forth on the night of the 14th March, and, cutting their way through Middleton's guards, escaped to join Montrose. John MacNab of that Ilk, though leading 300 of his clan, was taken and sent to Edinburgh, but escaped, to die on the field of Worcester.

In 16.04 the Laird of Glenorchy was empowered by General Monk to make up certain losses he had sustained out of the chief of MacNab's estates, " and to assist in putting the haill MackNabs out of the country," dated Dalkeith, 21st November. On the 18th of the same month there was another letter written by Monk to Glenorchy, "desiring him to forbeare to trouble the widowe of the deceased Laird of M'Nab, as she has paid sesse and lived peaceably since her husband's death." And this protection was also given to Archibald MacNab of Agharm. The last descendants of the ancient chiefs are now settled in Canada.

The old burial-place of this tribe is at Killin, immediately below the bridge that spans the Dochart, on a picturesque island covered with fine award and shaded by pine trees, amid which are what seem the remains of an ancient chapel ; but, save one, no stone or memorial is there. It is a ittle marble slab built into the wall, to the memory of a son of MacNab of that Ilk Francis MaximuB MacNab, Lieutenant of the Gordon Highlanders, killed at Almeida in 1811. As his regiment was not there, he must have volunteered for special service.




War Cry: "Fraoch-Eilean" ("Heather Island," Loch Awe, Argyllshire). Badge: Lus Albanach (Trailing Azalea).

'.ir.-CvlHIS c ] an takes its name from Nechtan, or Nauchton. Several Pictish kings were so tf^J.v 1 called ; but the beat known is that King who founded Abernethy, or, as the High- tfH-i landers name it to this day, Abair Neachtain. The lona Club MS., in deducing their pedigree, begins with Moris, or Maurice, son of Malcolm, and traces them uj> to Ferchar Fada, a petty prince of the Iro-Scots in Argyleshire, and then goe.-> farther back to Lorn (or Loarn), a reputed son of Ere, and one of the leaders of the little Irish colony in 506. The lands and possessions of the clan were certainly within Lorn, on the shore of Lochow.

Douglas, in his "Baronage of Scotland," records an ancient grant by charter from Alexander III. (1249-85) to Qilchriat MacNaughton of the custody of the Castle and Island of Fraoch, in Lochow. MacNaughton's tenure was that he should enter- tain the King whenever he passed that way. The MacNaughtons fought against Bruce in 1306 at the battle of Dalree, where their leader pointed out to the Lord of Lorn the King's deeds of valour in covering the retreat.

On the forfeiture of John, grandson of Alexander of the Isles, John MacNaughton of that Ilk got a grant of his lands by a charter from David II. about 1344 (Rob. Index, p. 48).

In the reign of Robert III. Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow granted a Charter of Confirmation to " Maurice MacNaughton of aindrie lands in Over Lochow, with ane taillie, which are not to be copied."

In 1426 one of the clan, Donald MacNaughton, Bishop-elect of Dunkeld, died on his way to Rome when proceeding there for confirmation.

Sir Alexander MacNaughton of that Ilk was slain with King James at Flodden in 1513. Maurice MacNanghton of Dunderaw appears in the Roll of the Chiefs in the Parliament of 1587. In 1627 Alexander MacNaughton of that Ilk levied, by order of Charles I., one of the finest bands of Highland archers that Scotland ever had, to serve in the war against France, for which they Bailed with MacKinnon's men, with many pipers and harpers. Alexander MacNaughton was deemed, says Buchanan of Auchmar, one of the bravest and most accomplished men of his time. He was a loyal servant to Charles I. and II., and had the honour of knighthood conferred on him, with a pension by the latter. The latter part of his life he spent at Court, and died in London.

In 1707 the eldest son of the chief, Captain MacNaughton of the Scots Foot Guards, was killed in battle in Spain.

Among a list of arms and goods in the Castle of Kilchurn in 1689 are recorded "two chists undir bagage of Lady M'Nauchton's, and anoyr wit a lock yt Andrew Chystie hes." It is doubtful whether the lady referred to was the wife of Malcolm MacNanghton of that Ilk, or of his son Alexander, also of that Ilk. The former married Mary, daughter of Donald Murray, Provost of Inverary, and the latter married a daughter of Sir Colin Campbell of Ardkinglass.

A copy of a complimentary letter, written by James VII. to MacNaughton of that Ilk on the 80th November 1689, is inserted in the "Leven and Melville Papers," prepared by the Hon. Leslie Melville for the Bannatyne Club.

A branch of the MacNaughtons settled in the county of Antrim, where they amassed a good estate, with a castle called Benuardin.

In 1878 a meeting of the Clan MacNaughton was held at the Literary Institute, Edinburgh, when a committee reported that they had made an investigation regarding the chieftainship, and had unanimously resolved that Sir Francis Edmund MacNaughton, Bart., of Dunderove, Antrim, lineal descendant of the ancient line, should be held the chief. His ancestor was Ian Dhu, third son of Sir John MacNaughton of that Ilk, and grandson of Sir Alexander, who fell at Flodden. He went to Ireland as secretary to his kinsman, Earl of Antrim, and settled there.

The above-named Sir Franeis Edmund MacNaughton's brother, Edward, was in 1887 created a Lord of Appeal as Lord MacNaughton.




War Cry: "Buaidh no Bas" ("Victory OP Death").

Clan Pipe Music. --March "Spaidsearachd Mhic Neill" ("MacNeill's March"). Badge: Machall monaidh (Dryas).

HE MacNeil Clan was divided into two septs those of Gigha, and others of Barra, two islands off the coast of Argyle.

The name of MacNeil first appears in a charter by Robert I. of lands in Wigton to John, son of Gilbert MacNeil ; but the oldest charter to the name for the Isle of Barra confirmatory of one from Alexander, Lord of the Isles is dated 1427, and is granted to Gilleonon, son of Roderick, son of Murchard, the son of Neil. The Gigha branch were, so far back as 1472, keepers of the Castle ot Swen, in North Knapdale under the Lords of the Isles.

In recent times the MacNeils of Barra have always been held to represent the chiefs of the clan.

Martin, in his "Historical Account of the Isles," says that MacNeil of Barra can produce evidence for thirty-six generations of his own family as possessors of that island, besides a great many charters which were not legible.

As regards Gigha " Neil MacNeil," says Logan, " sold to James MacNeil the lands of Gigha, with the Totchadoiraeh of Kintyre," but gives no date for the transaction, in quoting " Caledonia."

The MacNeills of Barra interred their dead in the Chapel of St. Barr, whose image, covered with linen, in the form of a shirt, stood on the altar in Martin's time.

In the Roll for 1587 we have the name of Roderick MacNeil of Barra. Having seized an English ship in the reign of James VI., Queen Elizabeth complained of it as an act of piracy, and Roderick was summoned to Edinburgh to answer for his conduct ; but he either despised or refused to obey the royal citation. At length he was taken prisoner by a stratagem of MacKenzie of Kin tail.

He was conveyed to Edinburgh and tried for his life. Barra was forfeited and given to Kintail, who restored it to him on condition of holding of him and paying him sixty merks of feu-duty. Sir James MacDonald of Slate married one of Kintail's daughters, when the superiority of Barra was given as part of the lady's dowry, and it now continues with Lord MacDonald.

In 1650, among the " Colonells of Horsse,"for the Scottish army in this year, before Worcester, curiously enough, we find the name of MacNeil of Barra.

" MacNeil of Tainish," says Auchmar in 1775, " the next principal person of this name, resides in Knapdale, in which are also MacNeil of Gallochoil and Tarbart. There is also another gentleman of the name Laird of the Isle of Colonsay, once the property of the Macaphies" i.e., MacPhees

The MacNeils of Colonsay, an island of the Hebrides, ten miles in length by three in breadth, are descended from a younger son of the MacNeils of Arichonan, who acquired it from the family of Argyle in the reign of James VI. Of this family, the two most distinguished were Duncan, son of John of Colonsay, and his brother, Sir John. Duncan died on the 1st February 1874.

The latter, the Right Hon. Sir John MacNeil, third son of John MacNeil of Colonsay, was born in 1795, and in 1831 was Envoy at the Court of Persia, where he received the Order of the Lion and Sun, and was made K.C.B. in 1839. During his residence in the East he became thoroughly master of the habit*, policy, and resources of the Asiatic nations. In 1844 he was appointed to be head of Scottish Poor Law Board. He became an honorary D.C.L. of Oxford ; LL.D. of Edinburgh ; and wrote " Progress and Position of Russia in the East to 1854." Latterly he resided long at Granton House.

Another member of the clan, many of whose songs are familiar among our peasantry, and whose chequered life was portrayed by himself in a novel entitled " The Memoirs of Charles Macpherson," *Hctor MacNeil, author of " Mary of Castle Cary," " Come under my Plaidie." He travelled in the East and West Indies. He was author of several, now forgotten, novels, but will be always best known by his songs for the people.

He was for a time editor of the " Scots Magazine," and died at Edinburgh on the loth July 1818. The tartan shown is that of MacNeil of Barra.


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War Cry: "Creag Dhubh Chloinn Chatain" ("The Black Craig of Clan Chattan"). Clan Pipe #u/c: March '"8 fheudar dhomh fhein a bhi falbh dhachaidh direach"

("MacPherson's March"). Badge ; Bosca (Boxwood); or Lus nan craimsheag, braoileag (Red Whortle).

HE MacPhersons are called in Gaelic the " Clan Mhurich " (pronounced Vuirich), and have long been an independent tribe. In English their chief is called Cluny Mac- Pherson. The other branch of the tribe are the MacPhersons of Invereshie (now MacPherson-Grants), and for ages distinguished as the Sliochd Chillies, and which is composed of many considerable families, not only of the name of MacPberson, but such as the Gillieses, the Gillespies, etc. The founder of the Sliochd Ghillies branch lived in the reign of Alexander III. " He was a younger son of Ewan or Eugene Baan, the fair-complexioned, and brother of Kenneth MacPherson, the ancestor of Cluny MacPherson. Ewan was son of Muriach or Murdoch, grandson of Gillichattan, chief of the Clan Chattan during the reign of David L, who having devoted himself to the service of the church, became Abbot of Kingussie, which title he enjoyed till 1153, when, upon the demise, issueless, of his elder brother Diarmid, the chieftainship devolved on him." Subsequently he procured from Rome a dispensation enabling him to marry, and he espoused a daughter of the Thane of Calder, and their eon Ewen was called MacPherson, or the ion of the Parson, surnames about that time becoming hereditary.

The Parson left two sons, Gillepatrick and Ewan Baan. Gillepatrick was the father of Donul Dall, the supreme chief of the Clan Chattan, whose only child and heiress, Eva, was married to Angus Macintosh of that Ilk, head and chieftain of the Clan Macintosh.

Coming to times of more distinct history in the Rotation of Clans, under the two Acts of Par- liament in 1587 and 1594, we find "No. 28, The Clan Chattan, MacPhersons, and Macintoshes" classed together.

In 1591 a bond of Manrent to George, Earl of Huntly, was signed at Huntly Castle, "leallie, faithfnllie, and to serve in all action and wars again* quhatsumever," that noble and potent Lord, by Andrew MacPherson of Cluny, John MacPherson in Brakaucht, James and Paul MacPherson, and others. This was in pursuance of a system of private leagues, which attained a great height in Scotland between 1440 and 1570, and resulted from the impotence of all law and authority save that of the sword.

In 1704 the MacPhersons mustered 700 claymores, when a list of troops to be raised for King James was made up.

Cluny with his MacPhersons joined the Prince in 1746, and fought in the first line at Falkirk. It was he that, all unaware that the cavalry had iron skull-caps in their hats at Falkirk, expressed astonishment at the thick skulls of the English, " as he had struck them till he was tired, and was scarcely able to break one ! "

At Cluny Castle there is still preserved a letter written to him by the unfortunate Prince, dated from a cave in Lochaber, 18th September 1746. It runs thus :

" MACPHERSON or CLUNY, As we are sensible of your clan's fidelity and integrity to us during our adventures in Scotland and England in the years 1745 and 1746 in recovering our just rights from the Elector of Hanover, by which you have sustained very great losses both in your interest and person, I therefore promise, when it shall please God to put it in my power, to make a grateful return, suitable to your sufferings.

(Signed) CHARLES, P. R,"

There too are preserved the Prince's weapons, and the famous Feadan Dubh Chlann Chatain, or Black Chanter of Clan Chattan, which according to tradition, inspired with a strange courage all who heard it.

The late Cluny MacPherson, C.B., after the celebration of his golden wedding, when a massive candelabrum of 700 ounces of silver, representing an incident in the '45, was presented to him and Lady Cluny " by their friends and clansmen," diedin!885, at the age of eighty-one ; but leaving two gallant sons, Ewen MacPherson, who was Colonel of the 93rd Highlanders, and served in the cam- }aigns under Lord Clyde ; and Duncan, who served with him in the same wars, and latterly led the Black Watch triumphantly over the trenches of Tel-el-Kebir.

A singular member of this clan was Malcolm MacPherson of Phoiness, who, in his eightieth year, after being ruined by a lawsuit, joined the Eraser Highlanders at the battle of Quebec, and used his claymore with such fury that he won the attention of General Townshend, who obtained for him an nsign s commission, with full pay for the short remainder of his life (Stewart's Sketches).

Seat, Oluny Castle, Kingussie.






Badge: Bocsa (Boxwood); or Lus nan craimsheag, braoileag (Red Whortle).

HIS pattern is said to have been made for Janet, daughter of Simon, eleventh Lord Fraser of Lovat, and wife of Ewen MacPherson of Cluny, great-grandfather of the present chief " from an old plaid which had been preserved in Cluny Castle for some generations."





War Cry:-" An t-Arm Breac Dearg" ("The army of the checkered red" [tartan]). Badge: Qiuthas (Pine Tree).

iHE MacQuarries, though a clan of very great antiquity, have ever been too few in I number to figure much in war or history. " They claim," says Robertson, following ' the papers of the lona Club, " to be descended from one of the Dalriadic princes," and the ancient Gaelic genealogy assigns it to them also, thus " Cellach, son of Paul, son of Cellach of the Islands, son of Torquil, son of Cellach, son of Guaire, son of Cormac, son of Oirbertig, son of Murdoch, son of Ferchar, son of Bethach, son of Finlay, son of Fercbarfada, son of Feredoch, son of Fergus."

In 1314 the chief of the MacQuarries fought under Bruce at Bannockburn. Twenty-one Highland chiefs joined Bruce in that victory, and three the Mae- Dougals, Cummings, and MacNaba were in the ranks of the enemy.

The first of the name prominently known is John MacQuarrie of Ulva, who died in 1473. The clan were followers of the Lords of the Isles, and after a time had some possessions in the Island of Mull. A few are to be found in Argyleshire still.

When, in the end of July 1609, the Bishop of the Isles, Andrew Knc (previously parson of Paisley, and first Protestant Bishop of this See), went to lona as Commissioner for King James VI. among the chief men of the Isles who submitted themselves to him as the Royal representative were MacQuarrie of Ulva, MacKinnon of that Ilk, and ten others. The last of this line, Lachlan Mac- Quarrie of that Ilk and MacQuarrie, was compelled, by debts, to dispose of his property and become a soldier in his sixty-second year.

When the old 74th Regiment, or Ar^yle Highlanders, were raised in 1777 by Colonel Campbell of Barbreck, Lachlan MacQuarrie obtained a commission in it, and his name, under date 23rd December 1777, appears among the captains in the Army List for that year. Twenty-three Campbells were officers of this regiment, which was disbanded in 1783 ; and after a long life, too probably of penury, the last of the MacQuarries of Ulva died in 1817, without male issue, so his line is extinct.

The name has found its way into France. There in 1865 Laurent. Victor. Ed. Macquaire was Colonel of the 12th Battalion of Chaueurx it Pied in Algiers.

MacQuarrie Island, in the Southern Pacific, discovered in 1811, together with a harbour, river, and port in Van Diemen's Land, are all named from a member of this clan, who was highly popular its a Governor of New South Wales.




Clan Pipe Music: Gathering "Blar na Pairc" ("Battle of Park"). March

"Spaidsearachd Chlann Mhic Rath" (" MacRae's March").

Badge : Garbhag an t-sleibhe (Club Moss).

HE natives of the parish of Kintail, says the author of the " Old Statistical Account," writing in 1798, "are all MacRaes, except two or three families."

When the MacRaes first entered Kintail, there were several clans inhabiting the district, particularly the MacAulays, of whom no vestige now remains. A William Rae, or MacRae, was Bishop of Glasgow in 1335. In the second line at the battle of Killiecrankie were the MacKenzies of Seaforth, with the MacRaes from Kintail. On this day the latter were led by Duncan Mor of Torluish. Under him the MacRaes were said to have made a desperate resistance, and to have died almost to a man. Ere he fell, he was frequently seen to brandish his claymore on high, and heard to shout, "Cobhair! cobhair ! an ainm Dhia's an Righ Sheumais.'" ("Relief! Relief! in the name of God and King James!"). A recent writer in the "Inverness Courier" states that ere Duncan was slain he slew fifteen with his own hand, which was so swollen in his claymore hilt that it was extricated with difficulty.

In 1778 Edinburgh was startled by what was known as the " Affair of the Wild MacRaes," some hundreds of whom had enrolled in the Seaforth Regiment of Highlanders, formed in 1778 by Kenneth, the Earl of that title, and which mutinied at Edinburgh on hearing that they had been sold to the East India Company. In military order, after one wing had fired on another at Leith Links, the main body marched to Arthur Seat, where they threw up trenches, which are visible to this day under the cone of the hill near the loch of Dunsappie, and defied all attempts to reduce them, even though the llth Light Dragoons, 200 of the Buccleuch Fencibles, and 400 of the Glasgow regiment environed their position.

General Skene, Lord MacDonald, and others proved to the men that their complaints were groundless, and the affair, which promised to have a serious termination, was satisfactorily arranged by the Duke of Buccleuch. The regiment then marched with pipes playing to Holyrood, and on the 27th September embarked for Guernsey, from whence it soon after sailed for India on what proved a fatal voyage to the MacKenzies and MacRaes, for ere St. Helena was in sight Lord Seaforth died, and then a great grief, with the mal du pays, fell upon his clansmen ; so of the thousand who sailed from the British Isles, 230 perished at sea, and only 890 were able to carry arms when, in April 1782, they began the long, hot, and toilsome march to Chingleput.

There were several bards of old in Kintail. One of the last of these, John MacRae, otherwise MacCurchi, emigrated to America before the close of the last century, where he met with many misfortunes.

At the first siege of Bhnrtpore in 1805, one of the clan, Colonel MacRae, led the stormers under a fire so dreadful that of them alone no less than 591 fell.




Badge: Bocsa (Boxwood); or Lus nan craimsheag, braoileag (Red Whortle).

.ODERICK DHU REVAN MACSWEYN or MACQUEEN is said to be the founder of this clan, who, about the beginning of the fifteenth century, received a grant of territory in the county of Inverness, Corrybrongh being the name of the property. Macqueen belonged to the family of the Lord of the Isles, and his descendants from him were called the Clan Revan. The Macqueens fonght under the standard of Mackintosh, captain of the Clan Chattan, at the battle of Harlaw in 1411. On the 4th April 1609, Donald Macqueen of Corrybrough signed the bond of manrent, with the chiefs of the other tribes composing the Clan Chattan, whereby they bound themselves to support Angus Mackintosh of that ilk as their captain and leader. At this period it is said that the clan of Macqueen included twelve distinct families, all landlords in the counties of Inverness and Nairn. The Macqueens were acknowledged to have been of MacDonald origin, although they ranged themselves among the tribes of the Clan Chattau.






tCCORDING to tradition this clan settled at a very early period in Argyleahire ; yet in Robertson's Index we findacharter from David II. (1330-70) "to Nicoll Malcolme of ane tenement in Stirling;" and from Robert II. (1370-90) two charter*, one to Murthac, son of Malcolm, of the half lands of Leckie, lying near Buchanan, in Stirlingshire, resigned by Malcolm his father ; and another to the said Murthac, son of Malcolm, of two-fourth parts of the land called Racheon and Akrenmoneyth, in the Lennox, with the office of serjeandry in the shire of Dumbarton, on the resigna- tion of Malcolm, his father.

Sir Archibald and Sir Colin Campbell (father and son) were according to the Douglas Peerage, Lords of Lochow between 1340 and about 1442 ; yet in Burke's " Landed Gentry " it is stated that in 1414 Sir D. Campbell of Lochow granted to Reginald Malcolm of Carbarron certain lands in Craignish on the shore of Loch Avich (a fresh-water lake in Nether Lorn), with the hereditary Captaincy of his Castles of Lochatty and Craignish.

He died in 1446, and was succeeded by his son John, who was confirmed in these in 1448.

" This family," continues the same writer, who is usually most acute and correct, "which seems soon after to have declined, appears to have been a branch of that of Poltalloch, from the circum- stance that the farm of Carbarron, then the only remaining portion of their possessions, is said t<> have been bequeathed by the last of this race to Zachary (Malcolm), the then proprietor of Poltal- loch, as representative of the elder branch of his house."

Donald, son of Archibald, son of Malcolm, was seized in the lands of Poltalloch on'the 18th of May 1562, and was the lineal ancestor of Neil Malcolm of Poltalloch, who succeeded his cousin Dugald of Poltalloch in 1787. He died in 1802, and was succeeded by "his son, Neil Malcolm of Poltalloch.

In the Parliament of 1650 John Malcolm of Balbedie, head of another branch of the clan, was one of seven gentlemen who were ordained to provide meal for the Scottish army against Cromwell, who was then at Lanlithgow, and in 1665 he was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia, or Scotland, by Charles II.

In the Parliament of 1678 he was a commissioner for the shire of Fife, in levying 8,100,000 (Scots) for the use of the King. Others of the name appear in the Parliamentary Records at that time ; viz., Sir John Malcolm of Invertick; Sir John Malcolm of Inverteb ; and two others, the Lairds of Lochar and Nethhill.

The Baronets of Balbedie were afterwards of Lochow.

Sir John Malcolm succeeded to the Baronetcy in 1705 on the death of his distant relation, Sir Michael Malcolm. His son, Sir Michael, married in 1824 Miss Forbes of Bridgend, and had three sons, the eldest of whom became Sir John Malcolm of Balbedie and Lochow.

Three members at least of this clan have attained to distinction in recent times.

The first of these, John Malcolm, a pleasing and accomplished poet, was a son of the minister of Firth and Stenness in Orkney, where he was born about 1795. Failing to obtain a commission in the army, he joined our troops in Spain as a gentleman volunteer, under General Graham (of Lynedoch) then besieging San Sebastian, and for his gallantry received an Ensigncy in the Black Watch, with which be served throughout the war. A ball in the right shoulder at Toulouse, and the debility, woiM>quent thereto, caused him to retire on half-pay, and he first became known to the public by jotne exquisite verses he produced on the death of Byron and other pieces in " Constable's Magazine." His " Reminiscences of the Campaign of 1814" was so ably written that many extracts from it were inserted in the War Office Records of the 42nd Highlanders. In 1S2S he published "Scenes of the War " nnd " Tales of Field and Flood." He succeeded his friend, Lieutenant Sutherland, author of " The Knights of Malta," etc., as Editor of the Edinburgk Observer, and died there in 1835 in his fortieth year.

General Sir John Malcolm, a distinguished soldier and diplomatist, was born at Burnfoot, Dumfriesshire, his father's farmhouse. One of seventeen children, he joined the East India Company's Service as a Cadet ; served aa a Captain at Seringapatam ; and when Colonel, was our Ambassador in Persia. After a long and splendid career, he died in 1833, but won a monument in Westminster, and also an obelisk one hundred feet high in his native village.

Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm, elder brother of the preceding, distinguished himself in many brilliant engagement* and in many posts of importance; latterly as Commander in-Chief of the St. Helena Station, where he won the regard of Napoleon, and died a K.C.B. in 1838.

The progress in life of the sons of the humble farmer, Robert Malcolm of Burnfoot, was remarkable. Robert, the eldest, was high in the Civil Service of H.E.I. Company ; while James, Pulteney, and John, were all Knights Commanders of the Bath for distinguished Service*. The younger sons were Gilbert, rector of Tottenham ; David, head of a commercial house in India; and Captain Sir Charles Malcolm, R.N. John Malcolm of Poltalloch was created Lord Malcolm in



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War Cry: "Dail Achadh 'n da thearnaidh" ("The Field of the two Declivities").

I HIS name is probably of Norse extraction, as above one hundred so called are now in the city of Christiania.

John Matheson of Lochalsh, eldest son of Alister MacRuari, was constituted by John MacKenzie of Kintail, who fought at Flodden, Captain of the Castle of Ellan- donan (of which MacKenzie got a charter in 1508), and in defending that fortalice Sr against Donald Gorm MacDonald of Slate in 1537 he was killed.

By his marriage with the widow of Dugald MacKenzie, tutor of Kintail, he had a son named Dngald of Lochalsh, known as Dugald Roy, who died at Invergarry on the banks of Loch Oich, leaving a son, Murdoch Mathebon of Lochalsh, who had two sons, Roderick and Dugald.

Roderick became the progenitor of the Mathesons of Burnetsfield. Dugald inherited Balmacan, and had three sons, the eldest of whom, John Gig, married a daughter of MacKenzie of Hilton; and was succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander Matheson, who married Christian, daughter of Farquhar MacRae of Inverinate.

Their son, designated as of Fernaig, married, firstly, a daughter of Murchisson of Auchetertyre, by whom he had no issue ; and secondly, Mary, daughter of MacRay Arigugon, by whom he had, first, John, his heir; second, Kenneth, killed with Wolfe at the battle of Quebec ; third, Alexander ; fourth, Farquhar Matheson, who obtained the lands of Courthill.

The third son, Alexander, became proprietor of Attadale, and married Catherine, daughter of Matheson of Balmacan, and had issue.

In 1851 Mr Matheson acquired by purchase his forefathers' ancient patrimony of Lochalsh, which had been forfeited in 1427 for being concerned in the outrage for which Alister MacRuari was executed at Inverness, and which Balfour records thus in his Annals :

"1427, Januarij, this zeir, K James goes to Innernesse, to suppresse the rebellione of Ihone Campbell, John MacKarture, and Alexander Mackrorey, quho had willanously killed Ihone, Lord of the Isles. These three the King caused hange on ane tall ocke."

In the same year another of the same name suffered in the famous conflict at Drum-na-coup, in Tongue. It was fought between the MacKays and the Sutherland.-,, and so sharply that, according to the "Conflicts of the Clans" (written in 1620), "in the end there remained few alive of either side."

The MacKays obtained a complete, though mournful, victory, for their aged chief was accidently slain by lomhor MacMhathan (or Matheson).

Matheson's head was struck from his shoulders and placed on a pole, planted on a knoll, called to this day Cnocan an Ceann, or the " Hillock of the Head."

76. MATHE30N.



1R JOHN MAXWELL, Chamberlain of Scotland, died without issue, 1241, and was succeeded by his brother, Sir Ayrucr, who, with other children, ha.l two sons named Herbert and John. Sir Herbert's descendant in the seventh degree, also named Herbert, was created Lord Maxwell, and dying, left two sons, Robert, second Lord, and Sir Edward ; from the latter come the Maxwells of Monreith, created Baronets, 1681, and now represented by Sir Herbert Eustace Maxwell, seventh Baronet of Monreith. Robert, second Lord Maxwell, was succeeded by 'his sou John, third Lord, who fell at Flodden 1513 ; and he by his son Robert, fourth Lord. This nobleman had two sons, Robert, fifth Lord, and Sir John, who became Lord Herries of Terregles, in right of his wife, Agnes, Lady Herries. Robert, fifth Lord Maxwell, was succeeded by his son John, sixth Lord. He obtained the Earldom of Morton on the execution of the Regent, but was afterwards deprived of it. He was killed in an engagement with the Johnstons, 1593 ; his son John, seventh Lord, killed Sir James Johnston of that Ilk, 1608, and was executed, 1613, being succeeded by his brother Robert, eighth Lord, who was created Earl of Nithsdale. His son Robert, second Earl, dying unmarried, 1(367, the Earldom reverted to his cousin John, fourth Lord Herries, great-grandson of Sir John, first Lord Herries, mentioned above. John, fourth Lord and third Earl, was succeeded by his .son Robert, fourth Earl, and he by his son William, fifth Earl. This nobleman was out in 1715, but being taken prisoner at Preston, was found guilty of high treason, and sentenced to death. He escaped from the Tower by the devotion of his wife (Lady Winifred Herbert, daughter of the first Marquis of Powis), who, dressing her husband in female attire, remained in prison, allowing him to leave in her stead. The Earl died in Rome, 1744, leaving a son, William, who left an only daughter, Winifred, who married WiJliam Haggerston Constable. Their grandson proved his claim to the Barony of llerries, and dying 1876, was succeeded by his son Marmaduke, the present Lord Herries. A brother of the present peer married Mary Monica Hope Scott of Abbotsford, great- graddaughter of Sir Walter Scott. We now return to Sir John Maxwell, second son of Sir Ayraer, mentioned at the beginning of this article. Sir John's great-grandson, Sir John of Pollok, had two sons, Sir John and Sir Robert. From the younger come the Maxwells, Baits., of Cardoness, and the Maxwells, Barons and Earls of Farnham. From the elder son come the Maxwells, Barts., of Pollok, whose direct male line ended in 1865, on the death of 8,r John, eighth Bart. He was succeeded by his sister, who married Archibald Stirling uf Keir; and their grandson is now Sir John Maxwell Stirling Maxwell of Pollok. The Maxwells, Burts., of Springkell, are a junior branch but now heirs male, of the Maxwells of Pollok.


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War Cry: "Geal 'us Dearg a suas" ("Up with the White and Red").

Clan Pipe Music: March "Piobaireachd a' Mheinnearaich " ("Menzies' March").

Badge : Fraoch nam Meinnearach (The Menzies' Heath).

iHE chiefs of this clan are not of original Celtic descent, though the clan itself w descended from a Gaelic-speaking race, according to Robertson. The name Menzies, or Mengnes (as it was originally spelt), was among the first names, according to Scottish antiquaries, adopted in Scotland in the reign of Malcolm III., when these designations were introduced into the kingdom.

In the time of Robert I. (1306-30), Alexander Menzies resigned the lands of Dorisdeir, in Nithsdale, which the victor of Bannockburn granted to James, brother of Walter, the Lord High Steward. The same King granted charters to Thomas Menzies, Knight, of the lands of Unwyn (OyneV), in the Garioch, and other lands of Fothergill, in Athole. Also two charters to Alexander Menzies of the Barony of Glendochyre, and the darach land of Finlargis (Finlarig?)

David II. (1330-70) granted a charter to Richard Menzies of an annual, furth of Newabie, in the shire of Peebles ; and in his reign William Menzies was Keeper of the Royal Forest of Alythe, in Kincardineshire. In the same reign Robert, son of Duncan, Earl of Athole, granted a charter to Alexander Menzies of Fothergill, " upon the marriage of Jean, daughter to said Robert, one of the heirs of Glenesk." King David granted a charter to Robert Menzies, Knight, of the Barony of Enache, which Robert's father had resigned to Robert, the Great Steward, for a new infeftment.

Sir Robert of Mengues, Knight, who inherited the estates of his father, John de Mengues, in 1487, obtained from the Crown, in consequence of the destruction of his mansion house by fire, a grant of the whole of his lands and estate, erected into a free barony under the title of the Barony of Menzies. From him the Baronets of that name are lineally descended.

In 1586 we find " Barbara Stewart, Ladye Weyme, relict of Umquhile James Menzies of that Ilk," binding herself to be faithful to George, Earl of Huntlie, during the ward and nonenM-y of her son Alexander, signed at Menzies, in presence of Menzies of Snype, Patrick, son of Menzies of Morinche, and others of the clan (Gordon Papers, Spald. Club).

A year or two before this time we find two of the gentlemen of the King's Guard, Menzies of Quhite Kirk and Menzies of Culterhallis, for themselves and others on the muster roll, prosecuting the Earl of Montrose, Collector-General, for failing to make them proper payments for their services.

In 1633 another gentleman of the clan, Robert Menzies of Kinmundie, Provost of Aberdeen, was knighted at Holyrood by Charles L, after his coronation. The Provost was also Commissioner for the City in the Parliament of that year.

In 1650 and 1651 a Lieutenant-Colonel Menzies, who captured the Marquis of Huntly, was Commissioner of Fines ; and though in the service of the Estates, he was accused of obstructing the levy of troops in the Isles, and so plundering the lands of Seaforth, that the Earl was unable to march his regiment from Kintail. Various branches of the clan appear in the Parliamentary Acts of Charles II., among them the Lairds of Castlehill, Combrie, Enoch, Pitfoddels, and others.

In 1738 Menzies of Culdares brought in his portmanteau from the Tyrol seven little saplings of the first larches ever seen in Scotland, which he planted in that year, and two, that are now in the Dunkeld grounds of the Duke of Athole, are the most gigantic specimens of the kind in the country. In 1745 the Lord President estimated the fighting force of the chin, whose chief, he says, is called in Gaelic Metiairich, at 300 men ; but they were not "out" with the Prince, though Colonel Menzies of Shian was, and had a small regiment under his standard.

An old branch of the clan were the Menzies of Pitfoddels. Thomas Menzies of Pitfoddels was Provost of Aberdeen in 1551, and held that office till his decease in 1576, and was succeeded by his son, Gilbert of Pitfoddels, which he also held till his decease in 158S, and was succeeded in office by Thomas Menzies of Durne (Spald. Club, iii.). In the wars of Montrose, the then Laird of Pitfoddels adhered to him and the King's cause with steady loyalty and great valour. At the battle of Inver- carron, where the Marquis was finally defeated in 1650, "young Menzies of Pitfoddels, who carried the Royal Standard, with Major Guthry, were killed close by him" ("Hist, of the Troubles," folio). This line became extinct about forty years ago.

Alexander Menzies, of Castle Menzies and that Ilk, son of Duncan (by Jean Leslie, only daughter of the Master of Rotbes), was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia in 1665. He married Agnes, daughter of Sir John Campbell of Glenorchy (father of the first Earl of Breadalbane), by whom he had a son, Robert, who predeceased him ; but by his wife, Anna, daughter of Walter Lord Torphichen, he left a daughter, married to Menzies of Cultrallers, and Alexander, who became the second Baronet of that Ilk. He married his cousin, Christian, daughter of Lord Neil Campbell, and had (with a daughter married to Macintosh of that Ilk), a son, Robert, who became third Baronet ; and a* the family is still in existence, his descendants are to be found traced in any Baronetage.


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War Cry; "Cal*teal Foulis 'n a theine" ("Castle Foulis ablaze" referring probably to beacon or signal lights).

Clan Pipe Music:- March "Bealach na broige" ("Munro's March"). Badge: Qarbhag nan Qleann (Common Club Moss).

HE clan of Munro (like that of MacMillan) is supposed to descend from some of the ancient tribes of Moray, -such as the Vacommjl. The most ancient genealogy makes them come from Uwen, son of Donald Dhu, and traces them up to Milan, the son of Neil. In Gaelic they are called the Clan tivich,. Their possessions were on the north side of the Firth of Cromarty, and the title of their chief is and was Munro of Foulis. According to Burke, Hugh Monro, first designated of Foulis, died in 1120. George Muuro of Foulis is said to have got a charter from the Earl of Sutherland in the reign of Alexander II. (1214-49).

Robert Munro in 1309 got a charter from Robert I. for lands in Strathspey and the lands of Cupermakcnltis. The Munroes held their lands of, and were followers of, the ancient Earls of lioss.

In 1333, according to Sir Robert Gordon, John Munro, tutor of Foulis, when travelling home from Edinburgh to Ross with his servants, reposed for a night in a meadow near Strathardle, where the owner of the ground, in the dark,' cut ort their horse*' tails. Summoning 850 of his bent men, in revenge for this he ravaged Strathardle, slew many of the people, and carried off their cattle. In passing Moy, Macintosh demanded a share of the latter, us it was customary when cattle were driven through a gentleman's land to give him what was called a Staoiy Chrtiche, or " Road Callop." Munro refused, so a fight between the clans ensued at Clach-na-harry. Macintosh paid dear for his rapacity, as he and most of his men were slain ; while many of the Mu tiroes fell, and John Munro was left for dead, and would have died had he not been succoured by the Frasers. In this fight (which Shaw dates 1454, and Anderson 137S) the Munroes galled the Mac- intoshes fearfully with their arrows.

In 1544 and 1550 two bonds of Kindness and Alliance were signed between Ross of Balnagowan and Robert Munro of Foulis, the former at Rosskeyne, and the latter at Balnagowan. Robert Munro of Fonlis was slain at the battle of Pinkie in 1547^

Robert Munro, sixteenth of that Ilk, according to Bmke ; fifteenth according to the Roll of the Clans, who died without issue in 1587, was succeeded by his brother Hector, who married, firstly, a daughter of Hugh, Lord Fraser of Lovat, by whom he had two sons and a daughter ; and, secondly, Janet, daughter of Andrew Munro of Milltown, but had no other issue. Hector Munro died in November 1603, and was succeeded by his son Sir Robert Munro, commonly called the Black Baron. He was Colonel of two Dutch regiments, one of Horse, the other of Foot, under Gustavus Adolphus ; was wounded mortally by a musket ball in 1638, and was buried at Ulm. There were at that time in the Swedish army twenty-seven field-officers and eleven captains of the surname of Munro. Of these John Munro of Obstell, a Colonel of Scots, was slain on the banks of the Rhine ; and Sir Hector Munro, Colonel of Dutch, died at Hamburg in 1635, " and was buried at Buxtehood in the old land on the Klve."

In 1632 the Munroes mustered 1000 strong at the funeral of Lord Lovat in Kirkhill ; the Grants were 800 ; the MacKenzies, 900 ; the Rosses, 1000 ; and the Frasers, 1000, all in arms a singular gathering.

The Black Baron, leaving no male issue (his daughter Margaret was married to MacKenzie of Skatwell), was succeeded by his brother Hector Munro, who was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia 7th June 1634, and married Mary, daughter of Hugh Mackay of Furre. He died in 1635, and was ucceeded by hia only son Sir Hector, who died unmarried in l(wl, in his seventeenth year, wht-n the title devolved upon his cousin Robert, who became the third Baronet, and married Jean, eldest daughter of Sir Hector, the firet Baronet. Sir Robert, who had seven sons, died in 1008, and was succeeded by his eldest, Sir John, who married a daughter of MacKenzie of Coul, and dying in 1690, was succeeded by his son Sir Robert, appointed High Sheriff of Ross under the Great Seal in 172.'.. Dying four years after, he was succeeded by his eldest son Sir Robert, bixth Baronet, a gallant officer who fell at Falkirk at the head of the 37th Regiment, fighting n-ainst James VIII. His son, Sir Harry, won a high reputation as a scholar, and died at Edinburgh in 1781.

Among the distinguished members of this clan we cannot forget those who shed such lustre on the School of Anatomy at Edinburgh : Alexander Munro, primus, of the family of Milltown, whose grandfather fought at Worcester ; Alexander Munro, tecundus, born in 1733 ; and his son Alexander Munro, (frtiux.

Nor can we forget the gallant Sir Hector Munro, K.C.B., Colonel of the Black Watch, so dis- tinguished for service in India, and who died at Navar, in Ross-shire, in 1805.

There was another distinguished soldier of the clan, Major-General Sir Thomas Munro, born at Glasgow in 1701. He served in the Mysore war against Hyder Ali and at the fall of Sei ingapatam. In 1820 he was Governor of Madras, and was created a Baronet 30th June 18'J5. lie was succeeded by his oi; the present Sir Thomas Munro, Bart., of Linderti*.

79. MUNRO.





ITIIOUT adopting the vague account of the origin of this clan, the family is paid to be descended from Freskin, who owned land in Morayshire in the twelfth century. His descendant, Sir John de Moravia, was & man of importance in the reigns of William the Lion and Alexander II. He settled in Perthshire, and died about 1225, leaving a son, Sir Malcolm, and also a brother, Sir Gilbert, who was consecrated Bishop of Caithness in 1222, and died 1245.

Sir William, the son of Sir Malcolm, succeeded his father in 1236, and acquired the lands of Tullibardine by marriage. He was one of the Magnates Scot'ut summoned to Berwick in 1296 by Edward I. of England. His son, Sir Andrew, assisted Edward Baliol, and was present at the battle of Dupplin, where he was taken prisoner, and executed 1332. His successors in the direct line were Sir William, Sir John, Walter (died 1390), and Sir David. Sir David died 1453, leaving several sons William, his succeessor ; Patrick, ancestor of Murrays of Ochtertyre ; James, ancestor of the Murrays of Strowan ; and Alexander, ancestor of the Murrays of Tibbermore. From the eldest son, William, who died about 1459, descended Sir William, died 1459; Sir William, died about 1511 ; Sir William, who married a daughter of Sir John Stewart, Earl of Atholl, and died 1524; William, who died 1562 ; Sir William, who was father of Sir John Murray, who was Master of the Household to King James VI., and was created Earl of Tullibardine, 1606. He died 1(309, and was succeeded by his son William, second Earl, who married the eldest daughter of John Stewart, fifth Earl of Atholl, and resigned the Earldom of Tullibardine, which was afterwards conferred on his younger brother, Patrick, in 1628. William, second Earl, died in 1626, and was succeeded by his son John, who was in 1628 confirmed as Earl of Atholl. He was taken prisoner by the Earl of Argyll during the civil war, and died 1642. His son, John, second Earl of Atholl, was keeper of the Privy Seal, and succeeded his cousin James in 1670 as Earl of Tullibardine. In 1676 he was created Marquis of Atholl, and was one of the original Knights of the Thistle. He died 1708, and was succeeded by bis son John, who was a supporter of King William III., was afterwards Lord Privy Seal, and was created Duke of Atholl in 1703. He opposed the Union with England, and died 1724. Of his children, John, the eldest, was killed at Malplaquet in 1709 ; William, the second son, as Marquis of Tullibardine, with the fifth son, George, joined Prince Charles Edward. He surrendered, and was committed to the Tower, where he died in 1746 ; James, the third son, succeeded to the Duke- dom, and died 1764, being succeeded by his nephew John, son of his brother George. He sold the sovereignty of the Isle of Man to the Government for 70,000 and a pension, and died 1774, being succeeded by his son John, fourth Duke, who died 1830, leaving two sons, John, fifth Duke, died 1846, and James, Lord Glenlyon, father of George, sixth Duke, who died 1864, and was succeeded by John, seventh and present Duke of Atholl.

The Viscounts Stormont, who later became Earls of Mansfield, are descended from Sir Andrew Murray, second son of Sir William Murray of Tullibardine, who died abont 1511. The present epresentative is William, fifth Earl of Mansfield and tenth Viscount Stormont. The Earls of Dunmore are descended from John, first Marquis of Atlioll.

Eleven baronetcies have belonged to the powerful clan of the Murrays. In 1626 Sir William Murray of Clerrnont, a cadet of the family of Blackbarony, was created a Bart, of Nova Scotia ; Sir Archibald Murray of Blackbarony, Bart, in 1728 ; Sir William Murray of Dunerne, Bart., 1U30 (extinct); Sir William Murray of Abinnont, Bart., 1631 (extinct); Sir William Murray of Stanhope, Bart., 1664 ; Sir William Murray of Ochtertyre, Bart., 1673 ; Sir Thomas Murray of Glendoick, Bart., 1776; and Alexander, Count Murray of Melgum, Bart., 1704.

Sir Robert Murray of Craigie, one of that small but learned group who founded the Royal Society in 1662, died in 1673. When his daughter was married to Lord Yester in London, Charles II. "himself led the bride, uncovered, to church." William Murray, the first Earl of Mansfield, the famous lawyer and statesman, was the fourth son of the fifth Viscount Stormont, and was born in Perth in 1705. In 1754 he succeeded Sir Dudley Rider as Attorney-General, became a member of the Cabinet and Chancellor of the Exchequer. During the Gordon Riots his house in London was fired by the mob. Infirmities compelled him to resign the office of Lord Chief Justice in 1778. He died at hi seat, called Caen Wood, near Hampstead, in 1793, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.




Badge: Calg-bhealaidh (Butcher's Broom); or Aiteann (Juniper)

lS tartan (sometimes erroneously called Tullibardine), was adopted and worn by Charles, first Earl of Dunmore, second son of the first Marquis of Athole, and of Lady Amelia Stanley, by whom the sovereignty of the Isle of Man and the Barony of Strange caine into the Athole family. He was thus sixth in descent from Mary, Queen Dowager of France, the beautiful daughter of King Henry VII., through the Stanleys, Earls of Derby ; and the Cliffords, Earls of Cumberland.

Lord Charles Murray, when young, became an officer in the Scottish Regular Forces, and in 1670 was Lieutenant-Colonel of the Royal North British Dragoons, now known as the Scots Greys ; and upon the death of Sir Thomas Dalziel of Binns, who raised the regiment, he received the command of it, and was Master of the Horse to the Princess Anne, afterwards Queen of Great Britain.

Upon the accession of King James II. and VII. to the throne, Lord Charles Murray was made Master of the Horse to Queen Mary, and on 16th August 1686 he was created Earl of Dunmore, Viscount Fincastle, and Lord Murray of Blair, Moulin, and Tullymet ; taking his Earldom from Dunmore in Athole.

At the Revolution he was deprived of all his offices, and retiring led a private life till the death of William of Orange.

Soon after the accession of Queen Anne, he was made a Lord of the Privy Council in February 1703, and Governor of Blackness Castle in 1707. He died in 1710, and was succeeded by his second, but eldest surviving son John as second Earl, who commanded the Scots Guards for forty-nine years. This nobleman dying unmarried in 1752, the title devolved on his brother, William, the third Earl, who was a staunch adherent to Prince Charles Edward in the '45, and was tried for high treason at Southark, and was eventually pardoned by George II. ; he died in 1756, and was succeeded by his son John, the fourth Earl, who was also a Captain in the Scots Guards. In 1761 this Earl purchased the estate of Elphinstone in Stirlingshire, and rebuilding the house, changed the name to Dunmore. George, the fifth Earl, married the daughter of the Duke of Hamilton, and had issue, Alexander, sixth Earl, Captain in the 9th Lancers, and A.D.C. to H.R.H. Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge ; and his son Charles, seventh Earl, was a Captain in the Scots Guards, and Colonel commanding the 3rd Battalion Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders, and is well known as a Central Asian traveller. The family property is the Isle of Harris, Inverness-shire. His son is Viscount Fincastle, V.C., 16th Lancer*.




Badge .-Sgitheach geal (Whitethorn, Hawthorn).

WORDING to Douglas, the Ogilvies are descended from a certain (filbert, second son of Gilibred, an Earl of Angus in the days of William the Lion, who witnessed many charters to the Abbey of Arbroath, and assumed the name of Ogilvie from his lands and barony so allied. Patrick of Ogilvie, his grandson, was forced to swear fealty to the invader, Edward of England, for his lands in Forfur in I'J'.HJ. In 1309 Robert I. granted a charter to Patrick of Ogilvie of the Barony of Kettenes in Forfur. Walter Ogilvie of Wester Pourie was Hereditary Sheriff of Forfar, and in 13S5 obtained from Rol>ert II. a money grant from the thanedom of Kinalty, Forfarshire. His son, Walter Ogilvie, was also High Sheriff of Forfar, and lost his life in 13SU, in a conflict with Duncan Stewart, a natural son of the Earl of Buchan, who invaded the county to burn and pillage. The Sheriff overtook them at a place called Glenberrith, and in the fight that ensued lie fell with his brother and sixty of his clan. The line of Sir Alexander, eldest son of Sir Walter Auchterhouse, ending in a daughter, who became Countess of Buchan, Sir Walter Ogilvie of Lintrathen, second son of Sir Walter of Auchterhouse, became the head of the family. He was Lord High Treasurer under James I. in 1425, and a Commissioner for renewing the truce with England in 1431. He married Isobel Durward, the heiress of Lintrathen, by which his posterity were designed till raised to the Peerage, which was the fortune of his grand- son, Sir James, who after guaranteeing a Treaty of Peace with England in 1-184, was made a Lord of Parliament in 1491 by James IV., as Lord Ogilvie of Airlie. He died in 1504. James, sixth Lord Ogilvie of Airlie, was a loyal subject to Queen Mary, for which he suffered long imprisonment, but was released by James VI. in 1596, and sent Ambassador to the Court of Denmark to assist at the coronation of Christian IV. He died in 1606, and was succeeded by his son James, who married a daughter of William, Earl of Gowrie. James, eighth Lord Ogilvie, for his loyal and gallant services to Charles I., was created Earl of Airlie in 1639, and became as a Royalist very obnoxious to the Scottish Parliament, against whom his second son, Sir Thomas, levied a regiment, at the head of which he fell at the battle of Inverlochy. James, second Earl of Airlie, by his valour contributed to the defeat of the Covenanters on more than one occasion, but was taken prisoner at Philiphaugh, and sentenced to death. He effected his escape from the Castle of St. Andrews in his sister's clothes, and was afterwards pardoned. James, Lord Ogilvie, was " out " for King James in 1715, and, dying without issue, was succeeded by his brother John, as fourth Earl of Airlie. His son, afterwards fifth Earl, w:w a devoted adherent of the Royal family, and joined Prince Charles at Edinburgh in 1745, with 600 men, principally of the Ogilvie clan. He marched to Derby, fought at Falkirk and Culloden, after which he retired to Norway, where he was made prisoner, but escaped to Sweden, and became an officer in the French service. He returned to Scotland in 1783. Walter Ogilvie of Airlie assumed the title in 1812, but the Earldom was not restored by law till 1826. The present Earl and Chief is the ninth Eai 1. The first ancestor of the Ogilvies, Earls of Findlater, was Walter, a son of Sir Walter Ogilvjp, who, as stated, married Isobel Durward, the heiress of Lintrathen. He obtained charters under the Great Seal of the baronies of Deskford and Findlater in 1440. James, his heir, was knighted by James III., and his second son was Sir Walter of Boyne, from whom the Ixirds Banff and Ogilvie of Strathearn, Lord High Treasurer of Scotland in 1516 were descended. Sir Walter Ogilvie. seventh of Findlater and Deskford, was created by James VI. in 1616 Loid Ogilvie of Deskford, and his son was raised to the Earldom of Findlater by Charles I. in 1G38. Having no male heir, he obtained a new patent conferring the title of Findlater after his death on his eldest daughter, I
James, fourth Earl of Findlater, born in 1664, was appointed Secretary of State by King William in 1695, and in 1701 was created Earl of Seafield. In 1704 he was Chancellor and a promoter of the Union. He sold his vote for 100. James, fifth Earl of Seafield and Findlater, was Vice- Admiral of Scotland in 1737. James, seventh Earl of Findlater, and fourth Earl of Seafield, left no issue by his Countess (a daughter of Count Murray of Melgum), and at his death in 1811 the Earldom of Findlater expired ; out the other dignities reverted to his cousin, Sir Lewis Alexander Grant of that Ilk, Bart., who then added to his own the name of Ogilvie.

The Ogilviea of Dunlugus were first Baronets in 1627, and in 1642 created Lords Banff for the loyal services of Sir George Ogilvie, who fought at the Bridge of Dee in 1639. The title has been dormant since the death of William, eighth Lord, in 1808. John Ogilvie of Inveiquharity was created a Baronet in 1627, and George Ogilvie of Barras (for defending Dunottar against the English) in UWl. Title extinct. In 1684 Ogilvie, the Laird of Logie, was brought before the Privy Council for shooting Alexander Leslie, writer, in a jealous quarrel. He was fined 'JOO sterling, and remitted by the King, though the Chancellor alleged that Ogilvie waylaid Leslie "and then proditoriously (fie) murdered him." In the same year Francis Ogilvie of New Grange was "pursued by the Lords of Council for the forcible abduction of the daughter of David Scott of Hadderwick. David Stuart Ogilvie of Corrimony, who had served in the Crimean War, joined the army of the Loire duriner the Franco- Prussian War, and gave, it is said, Gambetta a plan of the campaign. He died of wounds in action, in 1870, when Capitaine d'Etat-majorof the 18th Corps d'Armee.




Clan Pipe Music: Salute "Failte Thigearna Struthain" ("The Laird of Struan's

Salute"). Gathering "Thainig Clann Donnachaidh " ("The Robertson's have come").

Badge :-Dubh Fhraoch (Fine-leaved Heath); or Raineach (Fern).

jHIS tribe is called by the Highlanders the clan Donnachie, being descended from tlie family of Athole, which was the designation of the ancestors of the chiefs of the clan for four centuries; "and it distinctly points out," pays James Robertson, "that they must derive from the ancient Celtic Comes de Atholia ; and, like other clans, they appear in independence upon the extinction of the Celtic Earls, and were in possession of very large landed properties in the north and west of Perth- shire. As to the descent of the chiefs of the clan, and which has always been allowed by themselves, it is from the MacDonalds."

The Robertsons adhered to Bruce in his struggle for the throne ; and in one of the two isles in Loch Rannoch, about 1338, MacDougal, who was taken prisoner in a battle, was confined by the chief of the Clan Donnachie, named Donachadh ramhar, or the Robust.

In the reign of David II. (1330-70) William Robertson and John Reidheuch got a charter of the lands of Loch-bouse, "whilks were William Mairis, and gave them to the fore.siid persons in Vicecom. de Linlitbgow."

Duncan, chief of the clan Donnachie, died in or about 1355. His sons were Robert of Athole, ancestor of the line of Strnan, and Patrick, ancestor of the line of Lude, who got a Crown charter for that barony in 1448. The next oldest families of the clan were the Robertsons of Strathloch, Faskally, etc.

The Robertsons first appear as a clan in 1891, when in a body they attacked the Lindsays for depriving them of some property at Glenesk, in Aberdeenshire. They were opposed by Sir Walter Ogilvie, the Sheriff of Angus, and others. A battle took place at Glascuny, where Ogilvie and many Lowland barons were slain ; and again, when the clan were followed to their own country, at a second battle in Glenbrerachen, in Athole, the Clan Donnachie were again victorious.

In 1437 Robertson of Struan, having apprehended some of the murderers of James I., received for a crest a hand holding an imperial crown, with the motto Vertutis Gloria Merces, "and on a complement, a wild man chained."

From the Robertsons are derived the surname of Collier, among whom Collier, Earl of Port- more, was the most important. Sir Alexander Robertson, a cadet of Strnan, was made a Baronet by Charles II. in 1676 ; he made a fortune in Holland, and for some reason unknown adopted the name of Collier.

In 1483 Bernard Stewart, Lord Aubigne, Marshal of France, went back to that country, taking with him eighteen companies of Scottish Infantry under Donald Robertson, an expert and gallant commander. In 1516 he has another and a different notice : "Donald Robertson of Strowan, for mony willanes (sic) comitted by him, is behead it at Logereat this zeir, by the Governor's command." Donald Robertson of Struan, in Athole, appears a chief in the Roll of the Clans in 1587. In 1646 the clan joined the army of Montrose, SOO strong, under Donald, the tutor of Struan, as hia nephew, the chief, was then a minor. His commission as Colonel was dated 9th June.

"The Clach-na-Bratach," or Stone of the Standard, was carried on the person of the Chief in battle as a guarantee of victory. It was found one day adhering to the pole of the standard when drawn out of the earth, and was preserved as sacred. The stone was probably a Druidical beryl, and waa discovered in the twelfth or thirteenth century.

The residence of the chiefs of the clan was at Dun Alister, at the east end of Loch Rannoch, a place that derives much interest from its connection with the well-known Jacobite poet, Alexander Robertson of Struan, during the insurrections of 1715 and 1745. He was "out" in both. In the former he led 500 Robertsons at Sheriffmnir, under the clach-nan-brattich, and was forfeited, but restored. In 1745 his estates were annexed to the Crown, notwithstanding which, he returned and lived on his property, and died in 1749 in his eighty-first year, "a poet and a sot," as Dr M'Culloch has it. In the year of Culloden the fighting force of the clan was 700 men.

Alexander Robertson of Struan was succeeded by his kinsman, Duncan Robertson of Drum- achine, whose grandson, Alasdair, is the present Robertson of Struan.

At Dun Alister nothing remains now of the chiefs of the Clan Donnachie but their burial-place, a melancholy and neglected spot, surrounded by a wall, and choked with weeds and gigantic nettles.




HERE are extant three portraits of this famous outlaw and Jacobite leader, all three taken from life, and each representing him dressed in this peculiar tartan of alternate checks of red and black.

It is not improbable that the harsh and cruel proscription of his name, his clan and its insignia, may have led to the adoption of this peculiar and neutral tartan by Rob Roy.

Robert MacGregor Campbell, which last name he bore repugnantly, in conse- quence of the Scottish Parliamentary Acts passed for the suppression of his clan, was a younger son of Lieutenant-Colonel MacGregor of Glengyle (an officer in the Scottish army of James VII.), and his mother was a daughter of Campbell of Glen- falloch. Thus he was well-born, but when is uncertain. He was certainly, however, active in the scenes of war and turbulence subsequent to the Revolution. " His own designation," says Sir Walter Scott, " was of Inversnaid ; but he appears to have acquired a right of some kinder other to the property of Craig Royston, a domain of rock and forest lying on the east side of Loch Lomond, where that beautiful lake stretches into the dusky mountains of Glenfalloch." In 1691 he was engaged in a predatory expedition into the parish of Kippen in the Lennox, under the plea that he had a "commission from King James to plunder the rebel Whigs." The peaceable inhabitants had to flee for safety and leave their property to the rapacity of this banditti, who seized upon cattle, victuals, furniture, etc.

Rob was a gentleman drover, and in those days the cattle were escorted to the Lowland fairs by Highlanders in full array, with all their arms rattling round them.

Rob Roy's importance increased on the death of his father, when he succeeded to the manage- ment of his nephew, MacGregor of Glengyle's property. He became involved in money matters with the Duke of Montrose, and their quarrel ended in Rob challenging his Grace. Eventually he took refuge in the mountains with 1000, given him by several persons to purchase cattle, and in 1712 a reward was offered for his apprehension. From that time he was deemed a " broken man," and his landed property was attached by regular form of legal procedure, which he defied with the sword, and then his lawless life began, under the shelter of the Duke of Argyle, who, according to the High- land phrase, accorded him wood, water, a deer from the hill, and a salmon from the linn.

He maintained a predatory warfare against the Duke of Montrose, whose factor, Graham of Killearn, he made prisoner, and whose rents he drew on more than one occasion. Rob was long- armed and a matchless swordsman.

Lord Tyrawly's Regiment, the South British (now Royal) Fusiliers, was also employed against Rob and his followers, without avail. In 1715 Rob was at the battle of Sheriffiimir. In this battle the Highland right wing, consisting of the Stewarts, MacKenzies, and Camerons, swept Argyle's left off the field, and had the MacGregors charged King James had won the day; but for some reason unknown, Rob Roy retained his position on a hill in the centre and failed to advance, and eventu- ally carried off the baggage of both friends and enemies.

His lawless life went on year by year, till the Government built a fort at Inversnaid, the ruins of which still remain. Rob stormed it, disarmed and dispersed the garrison, and gave the edifice to the names. General Wolfe, when a regimental officer of the 20th Foot, once commanded there. It was re established, but was again taken and demolished in 1745 by the MacGregors, under Rob's nephew, Ghlune Dhu. In his old age he expressed contrition for some acts of his life, and his wife, Helen Mary MacGregor of Cromar on Loch Lomond side, is said to have laughed at his scruples ; but he rebuked her, saying " You have put strife betwixt me and the best men of the country, and now you would place enmity between me and my God."

He died on the 28th of December, 1734. His grave and that of Helen are still to be seen at the east end of the old ruined church at Balquhidder.

They left five sons Coll. Ronald, James, Duncan, and Robert. The latter shot a Maclaren in feud, absconded, and escaped all search. He was wounded at Fontenoy in the ranks of the 42nd Regiment, returned home, and married a daughter of Graham of Drunkie. James MacGregor, with the rank of Major, led the clan, many of them armed with scythe blades, in the campaign of 1745, and was wounded at Prestonpans. He Was afterwards a prisoner in Edinburgh Castle, from which he effected his escape, and died in France about the close of the 18th century. Two years after this, in 1754, his brother Robert, or Robin Oig, was executed in the Grassmarket for the forcible abduc- tion of Mrs Jean Kay, an eccentric but wealthy widow of nineteen years of age, a charge which was never sufficiently proved against him.

84. ROB ROY.



Badge: Ros Mairi Fiadhaich (Wild Rosemary).

HE Roses of Kilravock have enjoyed their property through a descent of nineteen generations. The Rosses, or Roses, were in other parts of Scotland as early as the time of King David I. ; but the documentary history of the Kilravock family commences in the reign of Alexander II., at which time they held the lands of Geddes, in the county of Inverness, Hugh Rose appearing as a witness to the foundation of the Priory of Beaulieu in 1219. His son and successor, Hugh, marrying Mary, daughter of Sir Andrew de Rosco of Redcastle, who inherited the barony of Kilravock thnmgh her mother, he obtained that addition to his possessions, the deed of conveyance being confirmed by charter from John Baliol in ]'Ji>3. He was succeeded by his son William, who married Morella, daughter of Alexander de Donn, by whom he had two sons ; Andrew, the second, ancestor of the Rosses of Auchlossan, in Mar, and Hugh, his successor, who, in a deed of agree- ment respecting the prior of Urquhart and the Vicar of Dalcross, is styled "nobilis vir Hugo Rose, dominus de Kilravock." His son Hugh married Janet, daughter of Sir Robert Chisholm, constable of the castle of Vrquhart, by whom he received a large accession of lands in Strath Nairn, etc. He left a son, Hugh, who was .succeeded by hia son John, who was served heir to his father in 1431 ; he procured a charter de noro of all his lands, a feudal provision for the better security of property against adverse claims, so often preferred in those troublous times. The wife of this chief was Isabella, daughter of Cheyne, Laird of Esslemont, in Aberdeenshire. Hugh, son of this marriage, built the old tower of Kilravock in 1400. The " Barons of Kilravock" intermarried with the first families in the north, and filled various situations of high trust and honour. The castle is an old picturesque building, situated on the bank of the river Nairn. It is still inhabited, and contains some old armour, portraits, and family relics. There is scarcely any family whose charter chest is more amply stored with documents, not only of private importance, but of great antiquarian interest.

85. ROSE.



Clan Pipe Music: March "Spaidsearachd larla Ros" ("The Earl of Ross's March"). Badge: Aiteann (Juniper).

HIS tribe is designated by the Highlanders as the Clan Anrias, which is altogether different from their name, as in a similar way, the Robertson's are called the Clan Donnachie. In the ancient genealogical history they are called " Clan Anrias," and it begins with Paul MacTire, to whom William, Earl of Ross, Lord of Skye, granted a charter for the lands of Gairloch in 1366, witnessed by Alexander, Bishop of Ross, Hergone, brother of Earl William, Henry the Seneschal, and others.

Robertson mentions that in the Earl of Haddington's Collections he met with an entry in the reign of Alexander II., dated about 1220, of a " charter to Ferquhard Ross, of the Earldom of Ross." This Ferquhard, he adds, was called Macant-Sagart, or the Priest's son, and has, with reason, been supposed to be the son of Gille Anrias, from whom the clan took its name.

He founded the Abbey of Fearn, in Ross-shire, in the reign of Alexander II. His son, Earl William, was one of the Scottish nobles who, under Alexander III., bound them- selves to make no peace with England in which the Prince and chiefs of Wales were not included. This line ended in Euphemia, Countess of Ross, who became a nun, and resigned the Earldom of Ross to her uncle, John, Earl of Buchan.

The Rosses of Balnagowan were a very ancient line, as they sprang from William, Earl of Ross, a great patriot and steady friend of Robert I. His son, Earl Hugh, was killed at Halidon Hill, fighting for his King and country, in 1338.

The ancient Rosses of Balnagowan failed, and by an unusual circumstance the estate came, by purchase, to another family of the same name, the Lords Ross of Hawkhead, an old and very honourable branch of the clan, which failed on the death of George, twelfth Lord Ross, in 1754, at Ross House, and of his son, the Master, at Mount Teviot, when his title went to the Earls of Glasgow.

The line of Balnagowan is thus given in 1729 by George Crawford, Historiographer for Scotland, and other authorities.

Hugh Ross, second son of Hugh, Earl of Ross, married the heiress of Balnagowan, and was succeeded by William, second Laird of Balnagowan, who married a daughter of the Lord Living- Ktone. Their son William married Catharine, the daughter of Paul MacTire. She was the heiress of Strathcarron, Strathoykel, and Foatray.

Hugh, third Laird of Balnagowan, married Lady Janet, daughter of the Earl of Sutherland, and had by her John, his heir, and William Ross of Little Allan and Coulnaki, predecessor of the Rosses of Shandwick.

John, fourth of Balnagowan, married a daughter of Torquil MacLeod of the Lewes. Their son Alexander married a lady of the Duffus family, and had " Sir David Ross, who married Helen of Inverugie, daughter to Marischal's predecessor, by whom he had Walter, his son and heir, and William who was the root of Rosses of Invercharron and its branches. The said Walter married Mary, daughter of James Grant of Freuchy, Laird of Grant."

Their son Alexander was twice married. First, to Jean, daughter of George, Earl of Caithness, by whom he had George, his successor ; second, to Katherine, daughter of MacKenzie of Kintail, by whom he had a son Nicholas, the first of the line of Pitcalnie. He died in 1591.

George, sixth of Balnagowan, married Marjorie, daughter of Sir John Campbell of Cawdor, with " a tocher of 3000 merks " in 1572. They had a daughter, married to the Laird of Kintoul, and a son, David, seventh of Balnagowan, who, by Anne of Tullibardine, had a son, "David the Loyal," who married Mary, Lord Lovat's daughter. He died at Windsor Castle after the Restora- tion, and Charles II. bestowed upon him and his heirs for ever a pension of 4000 merks Scots, yearly.

David, the last Laird of Balnagowan, married Lady Ann Stewart, daughter of the Earl of Murray, and dying without issue, conveyed his estate to Brigadier Charles Ross, son of George, tenth Lord Ross of Hawkhead, by his second wife, Lady Jean Ramsay, daughter to the Earl of Dalhonsie.

The Brigadier was an officer of high military reputation, and in 1729 was Colonel of the old 5th Royal Irish Hone raised in 1688, and disbanded after the Rebellion of 1798.

Roes of Pitcalnie is supposed to represent the ancient line of Balnagowan, the present Baronets of Balnagowan being in reality the Lockharts.

In 1745 the fighting force of the clan was 500 men.

The obituary notices for August 1884 contain the death of " Mr George Ross of Pitcalnie, in Ross-shire, and Arnot, in Kincardine, aged eighty-one. Deceased was the last representative of the ancient Earls of Ross, and was chief of the Clan Ross." He was succeeded by a grand-nephew.

86. ROSS.



CHTREDUS filius Scoti lived in 1130. He was father of Richard, who is said to have had two sons Richard, ancestor of the Scotts of Buccleuch, and Sir Michael, ancestor of the Scotts of Balweary. From Richard, the eldest son, descended Sir Richard, who married the heiress of Murthuckstone, and died 1320, leaving a son Michael, father of two sons, Robert and Walter of Synton. Robert's great-grandson was Sir Walter, who had two sons, Sir David of Branxholm, and Alexander of How- paisley. Sir David had two sons (1) David, whose great-great-grandson, Sir Walter, was created Baron Scott of Buccleuch, 1606 ; and (2) Robert, ancestor of the Scotts of Scotstarvit. The first Lord Scott died in 1611, and was succeeded by his son Walter, who was created Earl of Buccleuch, 1619. The Earl was succeeded by his son Francis, second Earl, who died 1651, leaving two daughters (1) Mary, Countess of Buccleuch, who married Walter Scott of Highchester, created Earl of Tarvas for life. On her death, without issue, the title went to her sister (2) Anne, Countess of Buccleuch, who married James, Dnke of Monmouth, natural son of King Charles II. On their marriage they were created Duke and Duchess of Bucclench, 1673.

The Duke of Monmouth was beheaded 1685, when his English titles were forfeited. He left two sons, James, styled Earl of Dalkeith, and Henry, created Earl of Deloraine, 1706, whose line ended with the death of the fourth Earl, 1807. James, Earl of Dalkeith, dying in his father's lifetime, his son Francis became second Duke of Buccleuch, who was succeeded by his grandson Henry, third Duke, who also succeeded to the Dukedom of Queensberry. The third Duke left two sons; the younger, Henry, succeeded to the Barony of Montagu ; the elder, Charles, became fourth Duke. His grand- son is William, sixth and present Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, whose brother, Henry John, was created Baron Montagu of Beaulieu, 1885. We now return to Alexander of Howpaisley. His descendant in the eighth degree was Francis of Thirlestane, who was created a Baronet, 1666. He was bucceeded by his son, Sir William, second Baronet, who assumed the name of Napier on his marriage with Elizabeth, Mistress of Napier. His present representative is William, eleventh Lord Napier and Ettrick. Walter Scott of Synton, mentioned at the beginning of this article was ancestor of Walter of Harden, whose grandson, Walter, third of Harden, had two sons ; the younger Hugh, was ancestor of the Scotts of Gala ; the elder, Walter, was the father of Sir William, fifth of Harden, who had a number of sons. The eldest, William, died without issue ; the second, Sir Gideon, was father of Walter, Earl of Tarvas, above named, whose great-grandson by his second marriage, Hugh, succeeded to the Barony of Polwarth, and is now represented by Walter Hugh, eighth Baron Polwarth. The third son of Sir WilJiam, fifth of Harden, was Walter of Raeburn, who left two sons ; the elder, William, is now represented by Robert Scott of Raeburn ; the younger son, Walter, was great-grandfather of of Sir Walter Scott, the author of " Waverley " (see Maxwell).

There now remains to be described the family of Balweary.

father of another Sir Michael, who was known as the wizard. His descendant, Sir William, was taken prisoner at Flodden, 1513, and was succeeded by his son, Sir William of Balweary, who died, leaving two sons. From the elder, another Sir William, descended David Scott, who succeeded to the Baronetcy of his aunt's husband, James Sibbald, and his grandson is the present Sir Francis David Sibbald Scott, Bart., of Dunninald. The younger son Andrew was great-grandfather of John Scott of Kirkstyle, created a Baronet, 1761, whose descendant is the present Sir William Monteath Scott, Bart., of Ancrum.

Sir Michael Scott was great-grand- His descendant, Sir William, was

87. SCOTT.



Badge : Conasg (Whin or Gorse).

[lIE Clan Sinclair, it has been maintained, are not strictly speaking, a Celtic clan, the surname being originally of French origin. William, son of the Comte de Saint CJair, a relation of the Conqueror of England, came over with him in 1066, and soon after settling in Scotland, became progenitor of all that name in the kingdom ; and many charters granted by Robert I. to William de Sancte Clair of the Roslin family are recorded in Robertson's Index.

William Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, eon and heir of Henry, Earl of Orkney, by f William Douglas, Lord of Nithsdale, and the Princess .Kgiiliu

*gidia, daughter of

daughter of Robert II., founded the collegiate church of Roslin, near his castle there, in 1441. He was Lord High Treasurer of Scotland in 1445 and Ambassador to England, on his return from which, in 1456, he was made Earl of Caithness. He married Lady Margaret, daughter of Archibald, Earl of Douglas, Duke of Touraine and Marshal of France, who was slain at Verneuil in 1424. He died before 1480, and was succeeded by his son, William, second Earl of Caithness, who was slain at Flodden, with great number of his clan.

John Sinclair, third Earl of Caithness, was killed during an insurrection in Orkney in 1529. His son George, fourth Earl, was one of the peers who sat on the trial of the Earl of Both well in 1568.

He died at an advanced age in 1583, leaving by his countess, Elizabeth, of the House of Montrose, John, Master of Caithness ; George, who was ancestor of the Sinclairs of Mey ; and three daughters.

John, the Master, left sons, who were ancestors of the Sinclairs of Murkle and Ratter, and dying before his father in 1577, was succeeded by his eldest son George, fifth Earl of Caithness, who lived to a great age, and died in 1643.

George, sixth Earl, had no children; and finding himself very deeply in debt, he executed a disposition to Sir John Campbell of Glenorchy, his chief creditor, of his titles and property in 1072. On his death in 1676, Sir John assumed, illegally, the title of Earl of Caithness ; but George Sinclair of Keiss was not disposed to submit to this alienation of his rights, and took possession of the property, and asserted himself as Earl of Caithness.

Glenorchy raised his clan, and inarching into Caithness, obtained a victory over the Sinclairs, near Wick. He placed garrisons in the country to secure it ; but Keiss prosecuted his claims in Parliament at Edinburgh. Campbell had to relinquish his schemes, and to pacify him was created Earl of Breadalbane.

George, seventh Earl of Caithness, died without issue in 1698, and his honours devolved on John Sinclair of Murkle, next heir male, and lineally descended from Sir James of Murkle, second on of John, Master of Sinclair, whose eldest son succeeded him in the estate of Murkle, while his second, Francis, entered the Swedish army and obtained high rank.

John, eighth Earl, married a daughter of the Earl of Hyndford, and died in 1705. His successors are shown in the Peerage. Besides the Francis Sinclair above named, four others of the clan attained rank in the army of Gustavns Adolphus John Sinclair (brother of Caithness), Lieutenant-Colonel of Monro's regiment, killed at Newmarke ; David Sinclair, Colonel of Horse and George Sinclair of the Sinclair regiment, massacred at Kingellan in 1612.

Among the many cadets of this family are the Sinclairs, Baronets of Ulbster. In 1603 George, Karl of Caithness, made a disposition to his cousin, Patrick Sinclair, of the lands of Ulbster, and his brother John succeeded, from whom the present Baronet is descended. The Right Hon. Sir John of Ulbster in 1794 raised a Fencible Regiment, and he was the first who extended the services of these troops beyond Scotland.

Henry Sinclair (or St. Clair) of Dysert and Ravenscraig was raised to the Peerage as Lord Sinclair in 1488, and was the first of the peers of that line. The Sinclairs of Herdmanston were another branch of the Sinclairs of Orkney, dating back to the days of William the Lion in 1163.

The Sinclairs, Baronets of Stevenston, are a branch of the Sinclairs of Roslin. The Sinclairs of Longformacus were created Baronets in 1604. The first was an advocate. His son married Jean, daughter and heiress of Sir John Towers of Inverleith, an ancient family long connected with the city of Edinburgh.

Among those who figured in Sweden was Major Sinclair, on whose tomb the King of that country caused the following inscription to be carved : Here lies Major Malcolm Sinclair, a good and faithful subject of the kingdom of Sweden, born 1691, son of the most worthy Major-General Sinclair and Madame Hamilton. Prisoner of War in Siberia 1709 to 1722. Charged with affairs of Bute, he was assassinated at Naumburg in Silesia, 17th June 1739."




I N Aberdeenshire the ancient family of Skene always held the rank of free barons, and took their name from the castle of Skene, in the Earldom of Mar, which was in their possession from the thirteenth century till 1827, when, by the death of the last Skene of that Ilk, the estates passed to his nephew, the Earl of Fife, whose mother was Mary, daughter of George Skene of Skene.

Tradition asserts that the Skenes are descended from the Robertsons of Strnan, and that the first of them was so called from having killed an enormous wolf that endangered the life of Malcolm III. in the Royal Forest of Stocket with his Skene (or dagger) only. Hence the family and clan arms are gules, three dirks or Skenes supported by three wolves' heads ; crest, an arm holding a garland ; supporters, two Highlandmen ; motto, Virtatis regia merces.

In 1318 King Robert I. by charter granted to his beloved and faithful Robert Skene, the lands and loch of Skene (Nisbet's Heraldry").

In 1488, 23rd January, a plea is moved between "Alexander Skeyn of that like and Thomas, Lord Erskine" (Acta. Dom. Auditorum).

In 1513 Alexander Skene of that Ilk fell at Flodden.

A branch of the old family of Skene, designed as of Curriehill, in the Parish of Colinton, were said to be in some way connected with the Royal family. John Skene of Curriehill came prominently forward as an advocate in the reign of James VI.

In 1594 he was appointed Lord Clerk Register, an office which he seems to have shared with his son James in 1598. Three years before that, he was one of the Eight Lords Commissioners appointed to look after the King's Exchequer, " properties and casualties." He is best known in Scottish legal literature by his treatise "Zte yerborum Significations " and his folio edition of the " Regiam M<
His son, Sir James Skene of Curriehill, succeeded the Earl of Melrose as President of the Court of Session in 1626. At what time he was made a Baronet is unknown.

Alexander Skene of that Ilk appears in 1683 in the " Book of the Annualrentaris " for Aberdeen- shire, together with Alexander Skene of Drumbreck, Gilbert Skene of Dyce, and James Skene of Ramoir.

In 1641 Andrew Skene of Auchtertoole was dubbed Knight at Holyrood by Charles I. At Auchtertoole an old house called Camilla is referred to in the " First Statistical Account" in 1793 thus : " Its ancient name was Halyards when it belonged to the Skenes ; and it is said to have been the rendezvous of the Fife Lairds at the insurrection in the year 171">."

In November 1680 Fountainhall records that a man named James Skene was sentenced to be hanged "for disouning the King."

A brother of Skene of that Ilk, George Skene of Auchterairne, in 16S7 married Mary, daughter of Sir Robert Montgomerie, the third Bart., of Skelmorlie.

80. 8KENE.



War Cry: "Creag-an-Sgairbh" ("The Cormorant's Rock" on which is built Castle Stalker).

Clan Pipe Music: Gathering "Bratach bhan nan Stiurbhartach " ("The Stewart's

White Banner"). March "Thainig mo righ air tir am Muideart"

("My King has landed at Moidart").

Badge : Darag (Oak); also the Thistle (Cluaran), the present national badge.

That of the Pictish kings was Rudh (rue), which is joined with

the Thistle in -the Collar of the Order.

HIS tartan has been known for more than a hundred years as the " Stewart." Tartan, and is supposed to have been worn in former times by such families as the Stewarts of Appin, Giandtully, etc.




Badge: Darag (Oak).

l HERE are four ways of spelling this surname Stewart, Slteuart, Stuart, and Steward besides the Gaelio version of it Stiubhard. The ancient form and original name, as spelt by the Royal Family, is Stewart, taken from the office of Lord High Steward of Scotland, which they held for nearly two centuries before they came to the throne. The first traceable progenitor of this gallant and royal race was a Norman, Alan, Lord of Oswestry, in Shropshire, whose family, almost immediately after their settle- ment in Scotland, became completely identified with the nationality of their new country, and were associated with all ita brightest achievements and deepest calamities. Walter, the sou of Alan, obtained from David I., in the twelfth century, a charter of the burgh and lands of Renfrew ; and Malcolm IV., by charter, made the office of High Steward hereditary in the family.

In 1263, Alexander, the Lord High Steward, together with the King, led the Scottish army at the battle of Largs, when the Norwegians, under King Hacho, were totally defeated. King Alexander III. was wounded in the face by an arrow, and the Great Steward, fighting in the van, was slain. In 1286, his son, James the Steward, was appointed one of the Regency on the death of the young Queen Margaret ; during the Treaty of Paris in 1303, he was one of the commissioners sent to watch orer Scottish interests.

Walter, the High Steward, when in the flower of his youth, with Douglas, led the left wing of the Scottish army at Bannockburn, and was knighted on the field by King Robert. In 1315, he married Marjory, the only daughter of the latter monarch. From this union sprang that race of sovereigns under whom the two kingdoms were eventually united, and whose descendant at this moment wears the British crown. Walter, the High Steward, died at Bathgate in 1328.

On the death of David II., the High Steward ascended the throne as Robert II., and first of the House of Stewart.

So numerous were the descendants and nobles of the House of Stewart, that we can but refer to them briefly. One of the most famous of these was John Stewart of Coul, afterwards Earl of Buchan and Constable of France. He was the youngest son of Robert, Duke of Albany, and of his second wife, Mnriela Keith, of the House of Marischal, and was born about 1380. His father, brother of Robert III., on the death of that unfortunate monarch, became Regent of Scotland ; and J-v his intrigues James I., the good and gentle poet-king, was detained till manhood in the Castle of Windsor.

Ou the 16th of August 1424, the Earl of Buchan led a combined army of French, Scotch, and Italians at Vernenil, but was defeated and slain by the troops of Henry V., who buried him with every honour in the church of St. Gration at Tours. His elder brother Murdoch, who succeeded, in 1420, to the Dukedom of Albany and Regency of the kingdom, was condemned and executed for malpractices by James I. After Mary bestowed the title of Albany on her husband, Henry, Lord Darnley and Mar, it became finally vested in the crown.

The Stewarts, Lords Invermeath and Earls of Athole (from whom sprang the houses of Bonkil, Dreghorn, Dalswinton, Buchan, Traquair, etc.), were descended from Alexander, the Lord High Steward, who died in 1283, and was great-grandfather of Robert IF.

On the death of the Constable of France at Vemeuil, without heirs, his earldom of Buchan was conferred on Sir James Stewart, second son of the Black Knight of Lorn, and his line ended with the death of Christian Stewart, daughter of John, Master of Buchan, who was killed at the battle of Pinkie in 1547.

The family of Bute are descended from Sir John Stewart, who obtained from his father, Robert II., a grant of the Island of Bute, the ancient patrimony of the Stewarts.

The Earls of Galloway are descended from Sir John Stewart, second son of Alexander, sixth Lord High Steward, who received from his father a gift of the lands of Garlics and was killed at the battle of Falkirk, 22nd July 1298.

The first of the Stewarts, Earls of Angus, was Sir John of Bonkil, who was created Earl by David II. on his coronation in 1330. Three years after, he was killed at the Battle of Halidon Hill ; on the death of Thomas, third Earl of Angus in 1377, his titles and honours devolved on his nephew, George, who became the first Earl of Angus of the name of Douglas.

Thie Stewarts, Dukes of Lennox, descended from Sir John of Bonkil, killed at Falkirk. Few

families were more distinguished in war and peace than this line, from which were descended the

families of Halrig, Barscob, and John, Lord d'Aubigny, famous in the Neapolitan wars under Charles

VIII. and Louis XII. of France. The male line of this family ended with the death of Charles, Duke

" of Lennox, of fever, at Elsinere, in 1672, when on an embassy to Denmark.

The male line of the Royal Stewarts (or Stuarts) terminated with Cardinal York in 1807. He was the second son of James VIII. or "the Old Chevalier," and was born at Rome in 1725, and was baptised Henry. In 1745 he was at the head of 15,000 French troops assembled at Dunkirk to assist his brother. Prince Charles, when the fatal news of Culloden came, after which he exchanged tha word for the cowl. With him expired all the descendants of James VII.




Badge: Cluaran (Thistle).

ALTHOUGH we have failed to trace the history of this tartan, or fix the date of ita intrpdxiction, as it has long been a favourite with the people of Scotland, we thought it right to preserve in this work a record of one of the most beautiful tartans associated with the Royal Stewarts.



Badge: Darag (Oak).

I HE old dress tartan of the Royal Stewarts is also known at the present day as the " Victoria Tartan," Her late Majesty representing the Stewart family through James VI. of Scotland and I. of England, from whom she was descended. James I. left, with other children, a daughter, Elizabeth, who married Frederick V., Duke of Bavaria, Elector Palatine of the Rhine.

His youngest daughter, Sophia, married in 1658 Ernest Augustus, Duke of Bruns- wick- Luneburg, Elector of Hanover. The son of the Elector, George Lewis, be- came King of Great Britain and Ireland as George I., and died in 1727, leaving behind him a son, afterwards George II. He was succeeded by his grandson, George III., who left thirteen children, two of whom succeeded to the throne under the titles of George IV. and William IV. The fourth son of George III., Edward, Duke of Kent, married in 1818 Victoria Maria Louisa, daughter of His Serene Highness, Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield. His daughter, Alexandrina Victoria, on the death of her uncle, William IV., ascended the throne on the 20th June 1S37, as Queen Victoria. Her Majesty died 22nd January 1901, and was succeeded by her eldest son, King Edward VII.




Badge :- Darag (Oak).

[HIS tartan, which is associated with the memory of that unfortunate Prince, whose name is still a household word in Scotland, is nowise different from the Stewart (or Stuart), excepting that the broad red stripe in the latter is very much contracted.

His achievements and adventures in the ever-memorable campaign of 1745-46 are too well known -to be referred to here, but his last days and funeral may be less so.

"To the last his heart was with Scotland," and with those who suffered and perished in that lost cause, which has filled the land with song and melody.

On the 30th of January 1788 he died in the arms of the Master of Nairn. His funeral obsequies were celebrated on the 3rd of February 1789, in the cathedral of Frescati, of which See his brother, the Cardinal Duke of York, was Bishop. The church was draped with black and gold lace and silver tissue, which, with the many wax lights, gave it a very solemn aspect. On the walls were many texts from Scripture emblazoned. A large catafalque was erected on steps in the nave of the edifice, on which lay the Prince's coffin, covered by a superb pall, whereon lay the Garter, George, and St. Andrew, which are now in the Castle of Edinburgh. It was embroidered with the arms of Britain. On each side stood gentlemen servants of the deceased in mourning cloaks, with wax tapers, and within a square formed by the troops in Frescati.

At 10 A.M. the old Cardinal came to the church in a sedan, and, seating himself at the altar, began in a broken voice to sing the office for the dead. "The first verse was scarcely finished, when it was ob-served tliat his voice faltered, and tears trickled down his furrowed cheeks, so that it was feared he would not have been able to proceed ; however, he soon recollected himself, and went through the function in a very affecting manner, in which manly firmness, fraternal affection, and religious solemnity were happily blended."

So with that solemn scene ended many a century of stirring Scottish history. From thenceforward the reigning family were prayed for in the Scottish Episcopal Churches. The monument erected to him, his father, and brother, the work of Canova, in St. Peter's, and by desire of George IV., has been justly deemed the most graceful tribute ever paid by Royalty to misfortune. It is inscribed thus :







War Cry: "Ceann na drochaide bige" (A bridge at Dunrobin).

Clan Pipe Music: Gathering "Piobaireachd nan Catach" ("The Sutherland's

Pibroch"). March "Spaidsearachd an larla Chatalch" ("The

Earl of Sutherland's March").

Badge: Calg-bhealaidh (Butcher's Broom); or Canach or Canaichean (Cotton Sedge).

HIS tribe is descended from the remnants of the Celtic population who retired before } the Scandinavian invaders ; and Hugh, designed the son of Friskin, is said to have i obtained a charter of the clan territory from William the Lion in 1197, and was the founder of the powerful line of Sutherland. To this Hugh, Douglas gives several predecessors, taken from Gordon's " History of Sutherland," and other writers.

Hugh's son William was created Earl of Sutherland before 1236, and died 1248. William, second Earl of Sutherland, in the reign of Alexander II., won another victory over the Danes and Norwegians at a place called Ree-cross, where the Danish leader was buried. William, third Earl, fought at Bannockburn, and was one of the nobles who in 1320 signed th famous letter to the Pope, asserting the independ- ence of the Crown. His son, Earl Kenneth, fell in defence of his country at Halidon Hill.

Robert, sixth Earl, fought at Otterburn ; and Nicholas, the seventh Earl, had a long and rancorous feud with the MacKays, which he bequeathed to his son Robert.

John, twelfth Earl of this long line of warriors, fought at the battle of Corrichie in 1562, and was banished in consequence of his attachment to Queen Mary. The fifteenth Earl was made Lord Privy Seal in 1649, and Colonel of a regiment of 1200 men, raised in the North to avenge the death of Charles I. His grandson John, seventeenth Earl, joined William of Orange, and led a regiment of foot.

William, nineteenth Earl, was a Captain in the 56th Regiment of the line, in 1759, when an invasion from France was threatened, lie proposed to the Ministry to raise a battalion among his own clan and followers, which was readily accepted. He completed the regiment in two months, and it remained in the service till the conclusion of peace. The fighting force of the clan was given at 2000 men in 1745.

He left issue, an only daughter, Elizabeth, Countess in her own right, who married George Grannlle, Marquis of Stafford, and was ancestress of the Dukes of Sutherland. She held the Earldom for seventy-two years and seven months, dying in 1839.

" One thousand men of Sutherland have been embodied four or five years together, at different periods-from 1759 to 1763, from 1773 to 1779, and from 1793 to 1798 without any instance of military punishment."

The Lords Duffus, the first of whom was created in 1050, are a branch of the Sutherland family, and latterly suffered much for their loyalty. Eric, Lord Duffus, who died 28th August 1768, was the son of Kenneth, Lord Duffus, who succeeded his father, the second Lord, in 1715 ; and having been engaged in the insurrection of 1715, made his escape, and was provisionally attainted by the Act I. George I., Session i. ; after which he was taken at Hamburg, brought to London, and committed to the Tower in 1716 ; but being next year released by the Act of Grace he served as a flag-officer in the Muscovite fleet. He married Charlotte, daughter of Eric de Sioblade, Governor and Admiral of Gottenburg, in Sweden, by whom he had Eric above mentioned, who married Miss Dunbar, daughter of Sir James Dunbar of Hempriggs, Bart., by whom he had two sons.

The honours of the family were restored by Act of Parliament on the 26th May 1826. The burial place of the old Earls of Sutherland was at the Church of Golspie in the wall which is a plain stone bearing the following epitaph : -

"7n hoc-diruto ccemtterio Sutherlandia plurimorum comitum cineres conquietcunt." The Church waa transferred from Culmalie to Golspie in 1619.




Badge: Lus Leth-an-t-Samhraidh (Wallflower, Gillyflower).

(HIS clan most probably takes its name from the district so called in Inverness! lire. There are several charters to persons of the name in Robertson's Index. Among them, one to Adam Urqnhart, under David II. (1340-70), of the lands of Fohestery in Buchan, cum Fortyre ; one to Ada Urquhart of Combathie, given by Hugli another to the same, and one charter under the same monarch, " confirnmns conces- sum per Willielmnm Comitum de Ross," of certain lands, dated at the castle of the Lord of Urquhart, 4th July 1342, and among the witnesses was adam de Urqnhart

In 1449 a Thomas Urquhart was Bishop of Ross. In 1463 Helen Unjuhart, daughter of Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty by his wife, a daughter of Lord Forbes, was married to James Baird of the Baird family.

In some accounts of the battle of Pinkie, 1547, it is stated that there fell the seven sons of Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty. If so, their names are not given in the Douglas " Baronage."

The last Dean of Ross in 1585 was Alexander Urquhart. He was deprived of his post in that year, and the rents bestowed upon Robert Moiiro of Foulis's son Hector.

In the Roll of Landlords in 1587, John Urquhart of Craigfintry and Culbo appears as guardian to his grand-nephew, afterwards the eccentric and learned Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty. John, called the Tutor of Cromarty, built Craigston Castle about the years 1604 and 1607. He married the heiress of Seton of Meldrum.

Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty, if he did not reside in the parish of King Edward, seems to have taken an interest in it ; for the inscription on the massive silver communion cups show that they were a joint present from him and John Urquhart of Craigfintry, the former name of Craigston.

In the army of Gustavus Adolphns, under date 1026, we find Colonel John Urqnhart of Cromarty, "a valiant souldier, expert commander, and learned scholar."

In 1649 the Castle of Inverness was nearly demolished by Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty and other cavaliers. He was one of the most quaint writers of the seventeenth century, and is chieily known as the translator of Rabelais. He was knighted by Charles I. at Whitehall, and accompanied the Scottish army to Worcester in 1651.

In 1678 the Laird of Cromarty and Alexander Urquhart of Newhall were Commissioner* it Parliament.

In 1(580 there were complaints laid before the Council against bis kinsman, Urquhart of Meldrum, commanding a troop of the King's Horse.

Mary, daughter and heiress of William Urquhart of Craigston, married William Pollard, and their son, Francis Pollard-Urquhart, now has Craigston Castle.

Major Beauchamp Colclough- Urquhart, of Meldrum and Byth, Aberdeenshire, was head of the family, but he was killed in action in 1898.

j3t*V*V i**\*X






Two views of the same Skirt.

The NORTH BERWICK Skirt is sufficiently long to be graceful, yet clears the ground. The back fits to the waist without any fulness, develop- ing some few inches below into flutes.

It is made of light weight Reversible Tweeds, and can be worn either side out.

It is sketched in plain navy with reverse of Cameron of Erracht Tartan, 79th Highlanders, but it can be had in many self-colours, with tartan or fancy checked reverse.


The NORTH BERWICK, not reversible, is made in Harris Tweeds at 52/6, also in plain and checked Tweeds, lined Linenette, at 37/6 and 42/-.




The EDINBURGH Coat is smart and serviceable, and will be found useful for general wear as well as for travelling.

It is sketched in a new Herring-Bone Tweed, with woven tartan lining, at

The EDINBURGH Coat is made in over 500 Hand-woven double- texture Tweeds, from 59/6 to 84/-. It is also made in Scotch, Harris, and Shetland Tweeds, lined Glace Silks, at 3 and 4 Guineas.

The EDINBURGH Motor Cap is quite new, and can be had to match any Coat, also in cream and a great variety of colours, at




Not represented in Messrs W. & A. K. Johnston's book, but which we have in stock.

In addition to the 96 tartans illustrated in this book, we stock the following


All of these we can supply from stock in Silk Poplins, Blouses, Shirts, Ties, Poplin and Wool Tam o' Shanters, etc., and nearly all of them in Travelling Rugs, Capes, Coats, and other articles.

Any particular tartan not in stock in Rugs or Capes, we can weave specially to order in 21 days.
























ERSKINE, Bl. & Wh.



FRASER, Hunting

GORDON, Ancient




GRANT, Hunting















MENZIES, Anc'nt Dress

MENZIES, Bl. & Wh.

MENZIES, Hunting




MAcCRAE, Hunting











SCOTT, Black & White

SCOTT, Hunting



SHAW, Hunting



STEWART, Bl. & Wh.







Patterns of any of these on request.




Stocked in over 200 combinations of tartans and plain colours, including all the tartans illustrated in this book.

Size including fringe 80 inches x 60 inches.

The illustration represents our Rugs in His MAJESTY'S TARTAN Hunting Stewart with the reverse side of the Prince of Wales' Tartan the Duke of Rothesay.

CLASS 240. Weight about 3$ Ibs., in loo Tartans . . 21/9 241. 4 125 *. . 29/6

A detailed list of tartans stocked in each quality sent on request.



The BLAIR ATHOLL is a Woollen Knitted Tarn o' Shanter, with Velvet lined Head Band. It is trimmed with Silver Mounted Claw, and real Golden Eagle's Quill, and can be had in many self-colours, Heather Mixtures, fancy checks, and Scotch Tartans, at

8/11 and 10/11

The same shape, untrimmed, with soft, flat Head Band, can be had as follows :

In self-colours and Heather Mixtures .... 2/11 In Tartans, fine super quality, 150 Clans .... 3/6 In Tartans, rather smaller in crown, 60 Clans .

We have many trimmed Tam o' Shanters and Toque-Tammies from 4/6 to 12/6, illustrations of which will be sent Post Free on request.



103, Silk Handkerchiefs, 23 in. sq. in 130 Tartans, sketched in Campbell, 3/6

120, Silk Poplin Ties, 37 x i 200

122, Same shape in Surah Silk, 103

121, Silk Poplin Ties, 45x2 ,,200

123, Same shape in Surah Silk, 103 140, Matted Silk Scarfs, 45x44 ,,150

226, Silk Poplin Bags, 1 1 x 10 200

227, Poplin Bags, Filigree Mounts, 200

Clan Crest Rings

Clan Crest Rings

Orders over $90 qualify for Free Shipping within the U.S.
(Use coupon code: FREESHIP).



Last Updated: Dec. 1st, 2021

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