The surname of SCHULTZ is of German origin, an official name 'the magistrate or sheriff' a steward or overseer. It was also a status name for a village headman, from a contracted form of the Middle German word SCHULTHEIZE. The term denoted a man responsible for collecting dues and paying them to the lord of the manor. The first hereditary surnames on German soil are found in the second half of the 12th century, slightly later than in England and France. However, it was not until the 16th century that they became stabilized. The practice of adopting hereditary surnames began in the southern areas of Germany, and gradually spread northwards during the Middle Ages. Early instances record one Rudolfus SCHOLZEL, who was registered in the city of Strassburg in 1226. and in 1476 Klaus and Heinrich SCHULZ were Town Councillors in Stolp, Germany. A notable member of the name was Max Shultze (1825-74) the German zoologist, born in Frieburg. He studied at Greifswald and Berlin, and taught zoology at Bonn. Theodore William Shultz, born in 1902 was the American economist, born in Arlington. He held professorships at Iowa State College (1930-43) and the University of Chicago from 1943 until 1972. He was awarded the Nobel price in economics in 1979 (with Sir Arthur Lewis) for the importance of the human factor in agriculture. During the Middle Ages, when people were unable to read or write, signs were needed for all visual identification. For several centuries city streets were filled with signs of all kinds, public houses, tradesmen and even private householders found them necessary. This was an age when there were no numbered houses, and an address was a descriptive phrase that made use of a convenient landmark. At this time, coats of arms came into being, for the practical reason that men went into battle heavily armed and were difficult to recognise. It became the custom for them to adorn their helmets with distinctive crests, and to paint their shields with animals and the like. Coats of arms accompanied the development of surnames, becoming hereditary in the same way. The associated arms are recorded in Rietstaps Armorial General. Registered in Germany. The lion depicted in the arms is the noblest of all wild beasts which is made to be the emblem of strength and valour, and is on that account the most frequently borne in Coat-Armour.
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