The surname of ROXBOROUGH was from the town of the name in Roxburghshire. Sometime before 1153, Adam de Rogesburg, witnessed a charter by David II in favour of Cambuskenneth Abbey, and between 1163-85, Walter of Rokesburg witnessed charters by Richard, bishop of St. Andrews. Alba, the country which became Scotland, was once shared by four races; the Picts who controlled most of the land north of the Central Belt; the Britons, who had their capital at Dumbarton and held sway over the south west, including modern Cumbria; the Angles, who were Germanic in origin and annexed much of the Eastern Borders in the seventh century, and the Scots. The latter came to Alba from the north of Ireland late in the 5th century to establish a colony in present day Argyll, which they named Dalriada, after their homeland. The Latin name SCOTTI simply means a Gaelic speaker. Later instances of the name mention William of Roxburgh, who was a cellarer of Newbattle Abbey in 1291, and John od Rokesburg was procurator (lawyer, advocate) for the monks of Kelso in a dispute in 1295. William of Rokesburgh was master of the 'Maison Dieu' of Berwick in 1332, and John Rokesburgh was charged with breaking parole in 1358. Surnames as we know them today were first assumed in Europe from the 11th to the 15th Century. The employment in the use of a second name was a custom that was first introduced from the Normans. They themselves had not long before adopted them. It became, in course of time, a mark of gentler blood, and it was deemed a disgrace for gentlemen to have but one single name, as the meaner sort had. At first the coat of arms was a practical matter which served a function on the battlefield and in tournaments. With his helmet covering his face, and armour encasing the knight from head to foot, the only means of identification for his followers, was the insignia painted on his shield and embroidered on his surcoat, the flowing and draped garment worn over the armour. The associated coat of arms is recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Ulster King of Arms in 1884. (Rokesborough).
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