This name of PINKARD derives from the Jewish surname of PINCHAS from the Hebrew given name 'PINECHAS' (of Egyptian origin). The English spelling of PINCH and PINCHES (from the Yiddish form 'Pinkhes' are variants of PINK. When traditional Jews were forced to take family names by the local bureaucracy, it was an obligation imposed from outside traditional society, and people often took the names playfully and let their imaginations run wild by choosing names which corresponded to nothing real in their world. No one alive today can remember the times when Jews took or were given family names (for most Ashkenazim this was the end of the 18th century or the beginning of the 19th) although many remember names being changed after emigration to other countries, such as the United States and Israel in recent years. There are many variations on this name amongst which are PINHAS, PINCHASI, PINHASSI, PINHASY, PINKO, PINHASSOVITZ, PINHASSOVITCH, PINKASON, PINKOFFS, and PINCUS. Early records of the name show that Adam PINK was listed in county Norfolk in the year l273. John PYNKE was registered in county Somerset in the reign of Edward III (l327-l377), Elizabeth, daughter of John PINCKE was baptised at St. James's Clerkenwell in the year l665. A famous member of the name was Gregory Goodwin PINCUS (l9033-67) American physiologist, born in Woodbine, New Jersey, the man who introduced the oral contraceptive pill. Educated at Cornell, Harvard, Cambridge and Berlin, he then founded his own consultancy in experimental biology at Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Synthetic hormones became available in the l950s and PINCUS organized field trials of their antifertility effects in Haiti and Puerto Rico in l954. The results were successful and 'the pill' has since been widely used. Surnames as we know them to-day were first assumed in Europe from the llth to the l5th century. The employment in the use of a second name was a custom that was first introduced from the Normans. They themselves had not long before adopted them. It became a mark of gentler blood and it was deemed a disgrace for gentlemen to have but one single name.
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