The surname of PARKES was derived from the Old French word Parc - a dweller in the park enclosure or a nickname for one who looked after the deer-park. The name was brought to England in the wake of the Norman-Invasion of 1066. Local names usually denoted where a man held his land, and indicated where he actually lived. Early records of the name mention Henry del Parck, 1272 County Kent. Agnes del Parkes, was documented in the year 1304 in the County of Worcestershire and Thomas Parke of Yorkshire, was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. Elizabeth Parkes was baptised St. James's, Clerkenwell, London in 1611. A notable member of the name was Alexander Parks (1813-1890) the English chemist and inventor born in Birmingham. He invented a form of celluloid first patented in 1855. Sir Henry Parke (1815-96) was the English born Australian statesman, born the son of a Yeoman in Warwickshire. He emigrated to New South Wales in 1839, and became eminent as a journalist. He was a member of the colonial parliament in 1845, and held various offices, from 1872 was repeatedly prime-minister and was identified with free trade. Surnames having a derivation from nicknames form the broadest and most miscellaneous class of surnames, encompassing many different types of origin. The most typical classes refer adjectivally to the general physical aspect of the person concerned, or to his character. Many nicknames refer to a man's size or height, while others make reference to a favoured article of clothing or style of dress. Many surnames derived from the names of animals and birds. In the Middle Ages ideas were held about the characters of other living creatures, based on observation, and these associations were reflected and reinforced by large bodies of folk tales featuring animals behaving as humans. The associated arms are recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Ulster King of Arms in 1884. A family called Parker have been established for centuries in Lancashire; Browsholme Hall, near Clitheroe, was first built by Richard le Parker in 1380, and is still the family seat. The name is extremely widespread; another well-known family are established in Cheshire, where their ancestors were keepers of the royal park.
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