The surname of NIEMANN is an English surname which was derived from the Old English word 'neowe', meaning the newcomer to the town or village. The name was derived from the Anglo-Saxon word 'niwe' and was very familiar to medievel records and documents. Early records of the name mention Noueman (without surname) 1166 County Norfolk. Robert Niweman was documented in County Cambridge in the year 1273. Herbert le Niweman, County Oxford, ibid. John le Neuman of Yorkshire was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of the year 1379. Later instances of the name include Matthias Newman and Mary Rouse who were married at St. George's, Hanover Square, London in the year 1785. John Henry Newman (1801-1890) was a theologian and author, and Anglican clergyman, one of the founders of the Tractarian movement (to restore the high church ideals of the seventeenth century). He was created cardinal in 1789. At first the coat of arms was a practical matter which served a function on the battlefield and in tournaments. With his helmet covering his face, and armour encasing the knight from head to foot, the only means of identification for his followers, was the insignia painted on his shield, and embroidered on his surcoat, the draped and flowing garment worn over the armour. The name has numerous variant spellings which include NEWMAN, NAUMANN, NIUWMAN, NUMAN, NYMAN and NEYMAN. This is one of the more numerous surnames of English origin found in Ireland, but the name is rare in Ulster. It has been in Irish records as early as the 13th century. The lion depicted in the arms is the noblest of all wild beasts, which is made to be the emblem of strength and valour, and is on that account the most frequently borne in Coat-Armour. A notable member of the name is Bruce NAUMAN, born in 1941, the American sculptor from Indiana. He studied mathematics and art at Wisconsin University. In the 1960's he became a leading exponent of Conceptual Art, using neon lights and holograms. Paul NEWMAN, born in 1925 is the American film actor and director. He was been nominated seven times for the Academy Award, finally winning for 'The Colour of Money' (1986).
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