The surname of NEUMAN is an English surname which was derived from the Old English word 'neowe', meaning the newcomer to the town or village. The name was derived from the Anglo-Saxon word 'niwe' and was very familiar to medieval records and documents. Early records of the name mention Noueman (without surname) 1166 County Norfolk. Robert Niweman was documented in County Cambridge in the year 1273. Herbert le Niweman, County Oxford, ibid. John le Neuman of Yorkshire was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of the year 1379. Later instances of the name include Matthias Newman and Mary Rouse were married at St. George's, Hanover Square, London in the year 1785. John Henry Newman (1801-1890) was a theologian and author, and Anglican clergyman, one of the founders of the Tractarian movement (to restore the high church ideals of the seventeenth century). He was created cardinal in 1789. At first the coat of arms was a practical matter which served a function on the battlefield and in tournaments. With his helmet covering his face, and armour encasing the knight from head to foot, the only means of identification for his followers, was the insignia painted on his shield, and embroidered on his surcoat, the draped and flowing garment worn over the armour. The name has numerous variant spellings which include NEWMAN, NAUMANN, NIUWMAN, NUMAN, NYMAN and NEYMAN. This is one of the more numerous surnames of English origin found in Ireland, but the name is rare in Ulster. It has been in Irish records as early as the 13th century. The lion depicted in the arms is the noblest of all wild beasts, which is made to be the emblem of strength and valour, and is on that account the most frequently borne in Coat-Armour. In many parts of central and western Europe, hereditary surnames began to become fixed at around the 12th century, and have developed and changed slowly over the years. As society became more complex, and such matters as the management of tenure, and in particular the collection of taxes were delegated to special functionaries, it became imperative to distinguish a more complex system of nomenclature to differentiate one individual from another.
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