The surname of MONTGOMERY is of French origin, the medieval Hiberno-Norman families of the name in Cork are probably now extinct. The well-known families of Ulster are of 17th century introduction. It was a territorial origin from the ancient castle of Saint-Foi-de-Montgomery in the diocese of Lisieux in Normandy. The first of the name recorded in Scotland appears to have been Roger de Montgomery (died 1094) who was a Norman nobleman who took part in planning the invasion of England in 1066, but remained in Normandy as regent. The following year, however, he was summoned to England by William, being created Earl of Arundel and granted the castle of Arundel with vast estates in Sussex. Later he also received the earldom of Shrewsbury. His father, Roger de Montgomery, was seigneur of St. Germain-de-Montgomery in Calvados. It is also the name of a Scottish family who were granted the earldom of Eglinton in 1506. They are descended from a certain Robert de Montgomerie, who was granted lands by Walter, High Steward of Scotland, in the latter half of the 12th century. Through his relationship with the Seton family, the 13th Earl, Archibald Montgomery (born 1812) also became Earl of Winton in 1859. A branch of the Scottish family was established in Donegal, Ireland in 1628. A descendant of this branch (born in Australia) was Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery (1887-1976) created Viscount Montgomery of Alamein. The first people in Scotland to acquire fixed surnames were the nobles and great landowners, who called themselves, or were called by others, after the lands they possessed. Surnames originating in this way are known as territorial. Formerly lords of baronies and regalities and farmers were inclined to magnify their importance and to sign letters and documents with the names of their baronies and farms instead of their Christian names and surnames. The abuse of this style of speech and writing was carried so far that an Act was passed in the Scots parliament in 1672 forbidding the practice and declaring that it was allowed only to noblemen and bishops to subscribe by their titles.
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