This Italian surname of MAZZONI was from the English given name James, which spread widely throughout Europe in many forms including MAZZINI, JAQUEME, GIAMMELLI, IACOMELLI, MAZZEI, COMELLO, and COMINOLI. The result of the popularity as a given name was largely due to the Authorized Version of the Bible (1611) the form James is used in the New Testament as the name of two of Christ's apostles (James the brother of John and James the brother of Andrew) whereas in the Old Testament the brother of Esau is called Jacob. The form James comes from the Latin JACOBUS. As the agricultural depression of southern Italy worsened towards the end of the 19th century, people began to escape to the New World. The exodus started in earnest in 1887 with Brazil and other parts of Latin America being the original destinations. By 1893, the economy had improved in the United States and people headed there from Italy in greater and greater numbers. In 1898 there were more Italian immigrants to the USA than from any other country. In the post war era, more than a quarter of Italians left the country for a new life. They joined a flood of immigrants to America which was averaging a million a year in the pre war years. The origins of Italian surnames are not clear, and much work remains to be done on medieval Italian records. It seems that fixed bynames, in some cases hereditary, were in use in the Venetian Republic by the end of the 10th century. The typical Italian surname endings are 'i' and 'o', the former being characteristic of northern Italy. The singular form 'o' is more typical of southern Italy. In the Middle Ages heraldry came into use as a practical matter. It originated in the devices used to distinguish the armoured warriors in tournament and war, and was also placed on seals as marks of identity. As far as records show, true heraldry began in the middle of the 12th century, and appeared almost simultaneously in several countries of Western Europe. Giuseppe MAZZINI (1805-72) was the Italian patriot and a leader of the Risorgimento, born in Genoa. He agitated for the liberation of Italy, and spent many years in exile.
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