In the 8th century, Spain fell under the control of the Moors, and this influence, which lasted into the 12th century, has also left its mark on Hispanic surnames. A few names are based directly on Arabic personal names. The majority of Spanish occupational and nickname surnames, however, are based on ordinary Spanish derivatives. In Spain identifying patronymics are to be found as early as the mid-9th century, but these changed with each generation, and hereditary surnames seem to have come in slightly later in Spain than in England and France. As well as the names of the traditional major saints of the Christian Church, many of the most common Spanish surnames are derived from personal names of Germanic origin. For the most part these names are characteristically Hispanic. They derive from the language of the Visigoths, who controlled Spain between the mid-5th and early 8th centuries. The surname of MARTORELL is of Spanish origin, a baptismal name 'the son of Martin' belonging to Mars, the God of war. This name was borne by a famous 4th century saint, Martin of Tours, and consequently became extremely popular throughout Europe in the Middle Ages. It is one of the few saints' names other than the name of Old English saints that was found in England before the Norman Conquest of 1066. MARTELL, MARTEAU, MARTELIER, MARTELLI, MARTIELLO AND MARTELET. Gregorio Sierra MAERTINEZ (1881-1947) was the Spanish novelist and dramatist. He was a theatre manager, and an original and creative producer as well as publisher. Another notable was Charles MARTEL, 'the Hammer' (c.688-74l) ruler of the Franks from 7l9, progenitor of the Carolingian dynasty, and grandfather of Charlemagne. He was the illegitimate son of Pepin II of Heristal and in 7l4 he was chosen duke by the Austrasian (eastern) Franks, defeated the Neustrian (western) Franks in 7l6 and in 7l9 became 'mayor of the palace' of Austrasia and real ruler of all the Frankish kingdom. He earned his nickname by his defeat of the Moors in a desperate battle at Tours, near Poitiers in 732, thus turning back the tide of Arab conquest in Europe, then drove the Saracens out of Burgundy and Languedoc (737). He died in 74l.
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