This English locational name MARKLEW was from an unidentified place,perhaps named with the Old English MEARC (boundary) and HLOWE (hill). Alternatively the second element could conceivably be a river name (there is a river Lliw) in Wales, and a Lew in Devon, the name of which are derived from the Celtic element meaning 'bright and shining'. Habitation names are derived from names denoting towns, villages, farmsteads or other named places, which include rivers, houses with signs on them, regions, or whole counties. The original bearer of the name who stayed in his area might be known by the name of his farm, or the locality in the parish; someone who moved to another town might be known by the name of his village; while someone who moved to another county could acquire the name of that county or the region from which he originated. The name was probably originally brought into England in the wake of the Norman Invasion of 1066, from Normandy or one of the Scandinavian countries, and was noted in medieval documents in the Latin form of Marcus the Roman God of War. Prior to the Invasion of William the Conqueror in 1066, no one had surnames, only christian or nicknames in England. Based on this, and our physical attributes, we were given surnames incorporating tax codes to show trades, areas in which we lived, as today we have street names and numbers. Surnames were used in France and like speaking countries from about the year 1000, and a few places had second names even earlier. Even early monarchs had additions to show attributes and character, for example Ethelred (red-hair) the Unready (never prepared). Edward I. was named 'Long shanks' because of his long legs, and Richard III. was called 'Crouchback' owing to his deformed shoulder. In the Middle Ages heraldry came into use as a practical matter. It originated in the devices used to distinguish the armoured warriors in tournament and war, and was also placed on seals as marks of identity. As far as records show, true heraldry began in the middle of the 12th century, and appeared almost simultaneously in several countries of Western Europe.
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