This Italian surname of MANFELLOTO was a personal name composed of the elements MAGIN (strength, might) and FRID (peace). Since the dawn of civilisation the need to communicate has been a prime drive of all higher mankind. The more organised the social structure became, the more urgent the need to name places, objects and situations essential to the survival and existence of the social unit. From this common stem arose the requirements to identify families, tribes and individual members evolving into a pattern in evidence today. In the formation of this history, common usage of customs, trades, locations, patronymic and generic terms were often adopted as surnames. The demands of bureaucracy formally introduced by feudal lords in the 11th century, to define the boundaries and families within their fiefdoms, crystallized the need for personal identification and accountability, and surnames became in general use from this time onwards.
MANFRED (1232-1266) was the King of Sicily from 1258. He was a natural son of the emperor Frederick II, and was made Prince of Tarentum. For his half-brother, Conrad IV, he acted as regent in Italy, and subsequently for his nephew Conradin of Swabia bravely defended the interests of the empire against the aggression of Pope Innocent IV, who however, compelled Manfred to flee for shelter to the Saracens. With their aid he defeated the papal troops, and became, in 1257, master of the whole kingdom of Naples and Sicily. During the Middle Ages, when people were unable to read or write, signs were needed for all visual identification. For several centuries city streets in were filled with signs of all kinds, public houses, tradesmen and even private householders found them necessary. This was an age when there were no numbered houses, and an address was a descriptive phrase that made use of a convenient landmark. At this time, coats of arms came into being, for the practical reason that men went into battle heavily armed and were difficult to recognise. It became the custom for them to adorn their helmets with distinctive crests, and to paint their shields with animals and the like. Coats of arms accompanied the development of surnames, becoming hereditary in the same way.
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