During the Middle Ages surnames were first used in order to distinguish between numbers of people bearing the same christian name. As taxation, under William The Conqueror, who invaded England in 1066, became the law, documentation became essential, and names were chosen from a man's trade, his father's name, some personal physical characteristic, or from his place of residence. In the case of the name MANCHESTER it was a locational name from the place of the name in Lancashire. The name was rendered in the Old English form MAMUCUIN + CEASTER. The earliest of the name on record appears to be MAMUCIO (without surname) who was recorded in 1196, and MANECESTRE (without surname) was documented in the year 1296. Surnames derived from placenames are divided into two broad categories; topographic names and habitation names. Topographic names are derived from general descriptive references to someone who lived near a physical feature such as an oak tree, a hill, a stream or a church. Habitation names are derived from pre-existing names denoting towns, villages and farmsteads. Other classes of local names include those derived from the names of rivers, individual houses with signs on them, regions and whole countries. Later instances of the name include John de MANCHESTRE, who was a Freeman of York, during the reign of Edward II (1307-1327) and Richard MANCHESTER appears in the Wills at Chester in 1660. David Allen and Mary MANCHESTER were married at St. George's, Hanover Square, London in the year 1787. In the Middle Ages heraldry came into use as a practical matter. It originated in the devices used to distinguish the armoured warriors in tournament and war, and was also placed on seals as marks of identity. As far as records show, true heraldry began in the middle of the 12th century, and appeared almost simultaneously in several countries of Western Europe. A notable member of the name was William MANCHESTER, born in 1922. He is the American novelist, foreign correspondent and contemporary historian. His magnum opus is 'The Death of the President' (1967) written at the behest of the Kennedy family.
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