SURNAMES as we know them today were first assumed in Europe from the 11th to the 15th Century. They were not in use in England or in Scotland before the Norman Conquest, and were first found in the Domesday Book. The employment in the use of a second name was a custom that was first introduced from the Normans. They themselves had not long before adopted them. It became, in course of time, a mark of gentler blood, and it was deemed a disgrace for gentlemen to have but one single name, as the meaner sort had. It was not until the reign of Edward II (1307-1327) it became general practice amongst all people. MacINNES was of territorial origin from the barony of the same name in the parish of Urquart, Moray. Part of the barony is formed by two branches of a stream running through it, hence the name from the Gaelic 'Innes' meaning island. This clan is of ancient origin, and is found in Moray in the 12th century. The first of the name on record was a Fleming named Berowald, who obtained from Malcolm IV. a charter of the lands of Innes at Ethercurecard in the province of Elgin. The existence of this Berowald is confirmed by a charter to his grandson, Walter de Ineys, granted in 1226. Alexander, 13th of Innes, had granted large land and received many charters between the years 1493-1533. At first the coat of arms was a practical matter which served a function on the battlefield and in tournaments. With his helmet covering his face, and armour encasing the knight from head to foot, the only means of identification for his followers, was the insignia painted on his shield and embroidered on his surcoat, the flowing and draped garment worn over the armour. Alba, the country which became Scotland, was once shared by four races; the Picts who controlled most of the land north of the Central Belt; the Britons, who had their capital at Dumbarton and held sway over the south west, including modern Cumbria; the Angles, who were Germanic in origin and annexed much of the Eastern Borders in the seventh century, and the Scots. The latter came to Alba from the north of Ireland late in the 5th century to establish a colony in present day Argyll, which they named Dalriada, after their homeland. The Latin name SCOTTI simply means a Gaelic speaker.
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