SURNAMES as we know them today were first assumed in Europe from the 11th to the 15th Century. They were not in use in England or in Scotland before the Norman Conquest, and were first found in the Domesday Book. The employment in the use of a second name was a custom that was first introduced from the Normans. They themselves had not long before adopted them. It became, in course of time, a mark of gentler blood, and it was deemed a disgrace for gentlemen to have but one single name, as the meaner sort had. It was not until the reign of Edward II (1307-1327) it became general practice amongst all people. At first the coat of arms was a practical matter which served a function on the battlefield and in tournaments. With his helmet covering his face, and armour encasing the knight from head to foot, the only means of identification for his followers, was the insignia painted on his shield and embroidered on his surcoat, the flowing and draped garment worn over the armour. LYNCH is a family of great antiquity in Connacht, one of the Tribes of Galway. The name was derived from the Gaelic Loingseach, meaning a mariner. In Galway, remoter forebears were named de Lench, of Norman origin. The verb 'to lynch' comes from a member of this family. Colonel Charles Lynch (1736-1796) who settled in North America and gained a reputation for his administration of harsh and summary justice. Early records of the name in England include Simon de Lynche, who was documented during the reign of Edward III (1327-1377) and John Uppelynch appears at the same time in Somerset. William Lynch and Martha Richa were married at St. George's, Hanover Square, London in the year 1780. The associated arms are recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Ulster King of Arms in 1884. Registered in Ireland. Many Highland families migrated from Scotland to Ireland during the 17th and 18th centuries, and were granted the lands of the native Catholic Irish. People heard of the attractions of the New World, and many left Ireland to seek a better life sailing aboard the fleet of ships known as the 'White Sails', but much illness took its toll with the overcrowding of the ships which were pestilence ridden. From the port of entry many settlers made their way west, joining the wagons to the prairies, and many loyalists went to Canada about the year 1790, and became known as the United Empire Loyalists.
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