This surname LYGO was a habitation name from Linlithgow, between Edinburgh and Falkirk, which was probably named with the British words related to LLYN (lake, pool) and LLAITH (damp hollow). In the 13th and 14th centuries the name appears both with and without the first syllable. It has been assumed that Lithgow was the name of the settlement and Linlithgow was that of the lake. Lith and Lythgoe are now commonly found in Lancashire. Magister Symon de Lynlithcu witnessed a charter between the church of Cargil and another person in 1225, and Petrus de Linlithqw was a canon of the priory of St. Andrews in 1245. Robert Lithew, a native of Scotland was granted a safe conduct to travel into England in 1440. Alba, the country which became Scotland, was once shared by four races; the Picts who controlled most of the land north of the Central Belt; the Britons, who had their capital at Dumbarton and held sway over the south west, including modern Cumbria; the Angles, who were Germanic in origin and annexed much of the Eastern Borders in the seventh century, and the Scots. The latter came to Alba from the north of Ireland late in the 5th century to establish a colony in present day Argyll, which they named Dalriada, after their homeland. The Latin name SCOTTI simply means a Gaelic speaker. James Lith in Dundee was charged with aiding the English in 1552, and Robert Lynlygow was a merchant of Glasgow in 1599. The name has numerous variant spellings which include LEYTHQUOW, LITHGOUW, LITHGOU, LYTH, LYTHEW and LYTHTGOW. Surnames as we know them today were first assumed in Europe from the 11th to the 15th Century. They were not in use in England or in Scotland before the Norman Conquest, and were first found in the Domesday Book. The employment in the use of a second name was a custom that was first introduced from the Normans. They themselves had not long before adopted them. It became, in course of time, a mark of gentler blood, and it was deemed a disgrace for gentlemen to have but one single name, as the meaner sort had. At first the coat of arms was a practical matter which served a function on the battlefield and in tournaments. With his helmet covering his face, and armour encasing the knight from head to foot, the only means of identification for his followers, was the insignia painted on his shield and embroidered on his surcoat, the flowing and draped garment worn over the armour.
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