This German surname of LUHRS was an occupational name for a player on the lute. The name was originally derived from the word LUT, and is also spelt LUTHER, LUTHKE, LUERSON, LEUTHER, LUTTER, LUTHIER, LUTERAND, LUDDERS, LAUTERO, LAUTE, LAUTENSCHLAGER and AUDENSLAYER. Many of the modern family names throughout Europe reflect the profession or occupation of their forbears in the Middle Ages and derive from the position held by their ancestors in the village, noble household or religious community in which they lived and worked. The addition of their profession to their birth name made it easier to identify individual tradesmen and craftsmen. As generations passed and families moved around, so the original identifying names developed into the corrupted but simpler versions that we recognise today. A notable member of the name was Martin LUTHER (1483-1546) the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Germany. He was the translator (1522-34) of the Bible into German and author of many hymns. The LUTHERANS are the followers of the Lutheran church, especially in Germany and Scandinavia, which accept the doctrines of the Augsburg Confession (1530) and whose cardinal doctrine is that of justification by faith alone. Because of the close relationship between the English and German languages, some Germans are able to transform their names to the English form just by dropping a single letter. Many Germans have re-spelt their names in America. A great number of immigrants from Germany settled in Pennsylvania. After the start of the first World War, Germans in great numbers Anglicized their names in an effort to remove all doubt as to their patriotism. Afterwards some changed back, and then during World War II the problem became acute once more, and the changing started all over again, although not with as much intensity. German or Teutonic heraldry extended its sphere of influence over central Europe and spread into Scandinavia. It is most notable for its design and treatment of crests, most of which reflect the arms in the charge or tinctures (colours) or both, which is unknown in British heraldry. Teutonic Europe assembled many arms on a single shield, each bearing its corresponding crest on a helmet.
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