The surname of LONGMAN was of the nickname group of surnames meaning 'the tall and lanky man'. Early records of the name mention Alice Longeman who was documented in County Surrey in the year 1296. Agnes Langeman, 1279, Berkshire. William Longeman was recorded in Surrey in 1292. Edward Langeman of Yorkshire, listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. Richard Langeman married Agnes Ebbes at St, Jame's, Clerkenwell, London in the year 1547. Lambert Howard married Elizabeth Longeman at St. George's, Hanover Square, London in 1758. The name is also spelt Langman. The associated arms are recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Ulster King of Arms in 1884. It has long been a matter of doubt when the bearing of coats of arms first became hereditary and it was not until the Crusades that Heraldry came into general use. Men went into battle heavily armed and were difficult to recognise. It became the custom for them to adorn their helmets with distinctive crests, and to paint their shields with animals and the like. Coats of arms accompanied the development of surnames, becoming hereditary in the same way. The rise of surnames, according to the accepted theory, was due to the Norman Conquest of 1066 when Old English personal-names were rapidly superseded by the new christian names introduced by the Normans. Of these, only a few were really popular and in the 12th century this scarcity of christian names led to the increasing use of surnames to distinguish the numerous individuals of the same name. Some Normans had hereditary surnames before they came to England, but there is evidence that surnames would have developed in England even had there been no Norman Conquest. The development of the feudal system made it essential that the king should know exactly what service each person owed. Payments to and by the exchequer required that debtors and creditors should be particularized, and it became official that each individual acquired exact identification. Most of the European surnames were formed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The process had started somewhat earlier and had continued in some places into the 19th century, but the norm is that in the tenth and eleventh centuries people did not have surnames, whereas by the fifteenth century most of the population had acquired a second name.
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