The surname of LONGDON was a locational name 'of Longden' parishes in the diocese of Hereford, Lichfield and Worcester. Local names usually denoted where a man held his land, and indicated where he actually lived. Following the crusades in Europe in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, a need was felt for a family name to replace the one given at birth, or in addition to it. This was recognized by those of noble birth, and particularly by those who went on the Crusades, as it added prestige and practical advantage to their status. Early records of the name mention Robert de Longedon, 1273, County Salop. Roger de Longedon, was documented in Yorkshire in the the year 1300. Philip Longden of County Somerset, was documented during the reign of Edward III (1327-1377) and Edward Longdon of Yorkshire, appeared in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. William Longdon of County Somerset, registered at Oxford University in 1577. George Longden, of Derby, registered at Oxford in 1599. At first the coat of arms was a practical matter which served a function on the battlefield and in tournaments. With his helmet covering his face, and armour encasing the knight from head to foot, the only means of identification for his followers, was the insignia painted on his shield, and embroidered on his surcoat, the draped and flowing garment worn over the armour. It has long been a matter of doubt when the bearing of coats of arms first became hereditary and it was not until the Crusades that Heraldry came into general use. Men went into battle heavily armed and were difficult to recognise. It became the custom for them to adorn their helmets with distinctive crests, and to paint their shields with animals and the like. Coats of arms accompanied the development of surnames, becoming hereditary in the same way. Translation of arms : Argent (silver) azure (blue) and Or (yellow or gold). The escallop shell was a badge much used by pilgrims, and is a common bearing in coat armour. The eagle is emblematical of fortitude and magnaminity of mind. The Romans used the figure of an eagle for their ensign, and their example has been often followed. It is the device of Russia, Austria, Germany and the United States of America.
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