This Sussex surname LANDGRICH was of the early Middle Ages and borne by the builder of Bodiam Castle, Sir Edward Dalyngrigge, who married Elizabeth, the daughter and heiress of the Wardeux family, who owned the manor of Bodiam. Sir Edward was a distinguished soldier of his day, and fought in Normandy and Brittany under Sir Robert Knollys. On his return to England in the reign of King Richard II (1377-1399) he settled at Bodiam, having amassed a considerable fortune in France. In 1385 he was granted a royal licence to strengthen and crenellate his manor house and make thereof a castle. The name is also spelt LANGRIDGE and LANGRICK. Originally the coat of arms identified the wearer, either in battle or in tournaments. Completely covered in body and facial armour the knight could be spotted and known by the insignia painted on his shield, and embroidered on his surcoat, the draped garment which enveloped him. Between the 11th and 15th centuries it became customary for surnames to be assumed in Europe, but were not commonplace in England or Scotland before the Norman Conquest of 1066. They are to be found in the Domesday Book of 1086. Those of gentler blood assumed surnames at this time, but it was not until the reign of Edward II (1307-1327) that second names became general practice for all people. The name was originally a locational name from places so called in Somerset, near Bath and there was a tithing in the parish of Petersfield, from where the original bearer may have derived his name. Stephen de Langerigg was documented in 1273, County Kent, and Walter de Langereche was documented during the reign of Edward III (1327-1377). Thomas Langrish married Sarah Cole at St. George's, Hanover Square, London in 1765, and Joseph Porter wed Jane Langridge at the same church in 1775. It has long been a matter of doubt when the bearing of coats of arms first became hereditary and it was not until the Crusades that Heraldry came into general use. Men went into battle heavily armed and were difficult to recognise. It became the custom for them to adorn their helmets with distinctive crests, and to paint their shields with animals and the like. Coats of arms accompanied the development of surnames, becoming hereditary in the same way.
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