This German and Ashkenazic Jewish surname of LANDESMAN was a name given to a Talmudic scholar, derived originally from the Hebrew word LAMDAN. The name is also spelt LANDMANN, LANDESMANN, LANSMAN and LANDMAN. In England the name was an occupational name 'the landman' one who looked after the launde, especially the beasts of chase that found safety and shelter in the woods or forests. The earliest of the name on record appears to be Richard le LANDMAN, who was recorded in the year 1300 in County Yorkshire. Surnames as we know them today were first assumed in Europe from the 11th to the 15th Century. The employment in the use of a second name was a custom that was first introduced from the Normans. They themselves had not long before adopted them. It became, in course of time, a mark of gentler blood, and it was deemed a disgrace for gentlemen to have but one single name, as the meaner sort had. At first the coat of arms was a practical matter which served a function on the battlefield and in tournaments. With his helmet covering his face, and armour encasing the knight from head to foot, the only means of identification for his followers, was the insignia painted on his shield and embroidered on his surcoat, the flowing and draped garment worn over the armour. Later instances of the name mention Richard LANDEMAN and Martha Darby, who were married in London in the year 1609 (no church recorded). In Hotten's 'The Original Lists of Persons of Quality' which includes emigrants, religious exiles, political rebels, serving men sold for a term of years, apprentices, children stolen, maidens pressed and others, who went to America from Great Britain to the American Plantations between 1600 and 1700 is included John LANDEMAN, who was living in Virginia in the year 1623. In the Middle Ages heraldry came into use as a practical matter. It originated in the devices used to distinguish the armoured warriors in tournament and war, and was also placed on seals as marks of identity. As far as records show, true heraldry began in the middle of the 12th century, and appeared almost simultaneously in several countries of Western Europe.
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