The surname of KELLOWAY was a locational name 'of Kellaways' a spot in Wiltshire. The name was brought into England during the wake of the Norman Invasion of 1066, from a place which was named CAILLOUET-ORGEVILLE in Eure. Local names usually denoted where a man held his land, and indicated where he actually lived. Almost every city, town or village existing in the Middle Ages has served to name one or more families. Where a man lived was his means of identification. When a man left his birthplace or village where he had been known, and went elsewhere, people would likely refer to him by the name of his former residence or birthplace, or by the name of the land which he owned. During the Middle Ages, when people were unable to read or write, signs were needed for all visual identification. For several centuries city streets in Britain were filled with signs of all kinds, public houses, tradesmen and even private householders found them necessary. This was an age when there were no numbered houses, and an address was a descriptive phrase that made use of a convenient landmark. At this time, coats of arms came into being, for the practical reason that men went into battle heavily armed and were difficult to recognise. It became the custom for them to adorn their helmets with distinctive crests, and to paint their shields with animals and the like. Coats of arms accompanied the development of surnames, becoming hereditary in the same way. Early records of the name mention Philip de Chailewai, who was recorded in 1165 in Gloucestershire. Thomas de Kaillewey appears in 1242 in County Wiltshire and William Calleweye appears in the same document. Elyas de Kaylewe 1255, County Wiltshire. William Caloway and Alice Cower were married in London in 1524 (no church given). Robert, son of John Calwaie was baptised at St. Columbus Church in 1549. Most of the European surnames were formed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The process had started somewhat earlier and had continued in some places into the 19th century, but the norm is that in the tenth and eleventh centuries people did not have surnames, whereas by the fifteenth century most of the population had acquired a second name.
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