This French, Italian, English, Catalan, Polish, Czech and Danish name was from a medieval given name meaning 'honourable, upright'. The name was rendered in ancient documents in the Latin form JUSTUS. There were several early saints of this name, among them a 4th century bishop of Lyons and a 6th century bishop of Urgell in Catalonia. The name has numerous variant spellings which include JUSTIN, JUSTE, JUT, YUST, YUSTER, GIUSTO, JUTEAU, JOTOT and JUSTENS, to name but a few. It was not until the 10th century that modern hereditary surnames first developed, and the use of fixed names spread, first to France, and then England, then to Germany and all of Europe. In these parts of Europe, the individual man was becoming more important, commerce was increasing and the exact identification of each man was becoming a necessity. Even today however, the Church does not recognise surnames. Baptisms and marriages are performed through use of the Christian name alone. Thus hereditary names as we know them today developed gradually during the 11th to the 15th century in the various European countries. St. JUSTIN, known as the Martyr (circa. 100-165) was the Greek theologian and one of the Fathers of the Church. Born in Sichem in Samaria, he was successively a Stoic and a Patonist; after his conversion to Christianity he travelled about on foot defending its truths. His feast day is 14th April. JUSTIN II (died 578) was the Byzantine emperor from 565. He succeeded his uncle JUSTINIAN I and married and was ruled by Sophia, his wife. He yielded part of Italy to the Lombards, and was unsuccessful against the Persians and Avars, and became insane. When the first immigrants from Europe went to America, the only names current in the new land were Indian names which did not appeal to Europeans vocally, and the Indian names did not influence the surnames or Christian names already possessed by the immigrants. Mostly the immigrant could not read or write and had little or no knowledge as to the proper spelling, and their names suffered at the hands of the government officials. The early town records are full of these mis-spelt names most of which gradually changed back to a more conventional spelling as education progressed.
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