This surname of HOLLENDER is an Engish, German, Flemish and Dutch regional name from Holland, a county of the Holy Roman Empire in the Netherlands. The name is generally assumed to be from the Low German elements HOL (hollow) + LAND (land). The name has numerous variant spellings which include HOLLAND, HOLLANDS, HOWLAND, HOYLAND, HOLLAENDER, HOLANDER, GOLAND, GOLENDER and HOLLENZER. Then name was also a locational name 'of Holland' the name of two places in Lancashire. Early records of the name in England mention William de Holond, 1273 County Oxford. Johannes de Holand was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. Thomas Holland of Downholland, Lancashire, was listed in the Wills at Chester in 1545. Sir Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland (1590-1649) was the English courtier and soldier. He was a favourite of James VI and I of Scotland and England, and in 1624 he negotiated the marriage between the future Charles I and Henrietta Maria. Before the outbreak of the Civil War (1642-51) he deserted Charles and joined the Parliamentarians, but eventually attempted a royalist rising in 1648, and was captured and executed. A notable member of the name was Henry Holland (1746-1806) the English architect, pupil and son-in-law of Lancelot (Capability) Brown. He designed Old Carlton House in London, the original Brighton Pavilion, Brook's Club and many other buildings. In many parts of central and western Europe, hereditary surnames began to become fixed at around the 12th century, and have developed and changed slowly over the years. As society became more complex, and such matters as the management of tenure, and in particular the collection of taxes were delegated to special functionaries, it became imperative to distinguish a more complex system of nomenclature to differentiate one individual from another. In the Middle Ages heraldry came into use as a practical matter. It originated in the devices used to distinguish the armoured warriors in tournament and war, and was also placed on seals as marks of identity. As far as records show, true heraldry began in the middle of the 12th century, and appeared almost simultaneously in several countries of Western Europe. The lion depicted in the arms is the noblest of all wild beasts which is made to be the emblem of strength and valour, and is on that account the most frequently borne in Coat-Armour.
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