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The Albert Medal, No. 441, which was instituted also by Queen Victoria, dates from March 13, 1866, and is to distinguish those who save, or who at the peril of their own lives endeavour to save, life or perform other meritorious 294 acts of bravery. The Coronet is that of H.R.H. the late Prince Consort; and the Monogram consists of the Initials V. A., with an anchor. This Medal is executed in Silver and Bronze for two classes of recipients. The anchor in the Badge is omitted when awarded for land services.

Other Decorations are “The Royal Order of Victoria and Albert” (of four classes) and the Imperial Order of the Crown of India (of one class), both confined to ladies, the Kaisar-i-Hind Medal, the Volunteer Officers’ Decoration, the Territorial Decoration, the Edward Medal, the King’s Police Medal, the Royal Red Cross, and the Order of Mercy; whilst the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England receives official recognition.

8. The Arms of the Inner Temple of the present day are—Azure, a pegasus (or winged horse) argent, or sometimes or. This Coat is derived from the early Badge, the two horsemen having been mistaken in later times for wings. The Arms of the Middle Temple are—Argent, on a cross gules, the Agnus Dei.


Jar not with Liberty, but well consist.”

—Paradise Lost, Book V.

“The use of Arms was closely connected with the Study of Genealogy.” —Dallaway, Science of Heraldry (A.D. 1793).

When James I. succeeded to the Crown of England while he was actually the King regnant of Scotland, and accordingly became Sovereign of the two Realms, he found it necessary to produce a “Union Flag” for the whole of Great Britain, in consequence of the serious disputes for Precedence that arose between the natives of South and North Britain. Before the time of the peace-loving son of Mary Stuart, a Sovereign of another mould, Henry VIII., had felt the necessity of framing and establishing some definite system of Precedence amongst the various degrees, orders, and ranks of his subjects: and, in 1539, a statute to that effect was enacted. Other statutes afterwards were added; and, from time to time, Royal Letters Patent on the same subject have been issued; and thus the Precedence now recognised and in use amongst us has been established.

The General Scale of Precedence follows, but there are Special scales for use in (a) Scotland, (b) Ireland, (c) India, (d) Canada, (e) Colonies, (f) Army and Navy, (g) Diplomatic Service.


The Prince of Wales.

The Younger Sons of the Sovereign.

The Grandsons of the Sovereign.

The Brothers of the Sovereign.

The Uncles of the Sovereign.

The Nephews of the Sovereign.

The Archbishop of Canterbury.

The Lord Chancellor.

The Archbishop of York.

The Premier.

The Lord High Treasurer.

The Lord President of the Council.

The Lord Privy Seal.

The following Great Officers of State precede all Peers of their own Degree—that is, if Dukes, they precede all other Dukes; if Earls, all other Earls; &c.:—

The Lord Great Chamberlain.

The Lord High Constable.

The Earl Marshal.

The Lord High Admiral.

The Lord Steward of the Royal Household.

The Lord Chamberlain of the Royal Household.

The Master of the Horse.

The Peers of each Degree take Precedence in their own Degree, according to their Patents of Creation.

Dukes (a) of England, (b) of Scotland, (c) of Great Britain, (d) of Ireland, (e) of the United Kingdom and, if created since the Union, of Ireland.

Marquesses (vide Dukes).

Eldest Sons of Dukes.

297 Earls (vide Dukes).

Eldest Sons of Marquesses.

Younger Sons of Dukes.

Viscounts (vide Dukes).

Eldest Sons of Earls.

Younger Sons of Marquesses.

Bishops of (a) London, (b) Durham, and (c) Winchester.

Bishops, according to Seniority of Consecration.

Barons (vide Dukes).

The Speaker of the House of Commons.

Commissioners of Great Seal.

The (a) Treasurer and the (b) Comptroller of the Royal Household.

Vice-Chamberlain of the Household.

The Secretaries of State, when not Peers.

Eldest Sons of Viscounts.

Younger Sons of Earls.

Eldest Sons of Barons.

Knights of the Garter, Thistle, and St. Patrick, not being Peers.

Privy Councillors.

The Chancellor of the Exchequer.

The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.

The Lord Chief Justice.

The Master of the Rolls.

Lord Justices of Appeal and Pres. of Probate Court.

Judges of High Court.

Younger Sons of Viscounts.

Younger Sons of Barons.

Sons of Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (Life Peers).


Knights Grand Cross of the Bath.

Knights Grand Commanders of the Star of India.

Knights Grand Cross of St. Michael and St. George.

Knights Grand Commanders of Indian Empire.

298 Knights Grand Cross of Victorian Order.

Knights Commanders of the various Orders (in the same order of progression).

Knights Bachelors.

Commanders of Victorian Order.

County Court Judges.


Masters in Lunacy.

Companions of the various Orders.

Members of Fourth Class of Victorian Order.

Companions of Distinguished Service Order.

Eldest Sons of the Younger Sons of Peers.

Eldest Sons of Baronets.

Eldest Sons of Knights.

Members of Fifth Class of Victorian Order.

Baronets’ Younger Sons.

Knights’ Younger Sons.

Esquires:—Including the Eldest Sons of the Sons of Viscounts and Barons, the eldest Sons of all the younger Sons of Peers, and their eldest Sons in perpetual Succession: the younger Sons of Baronets: the Sons of Knights, the eldest Son of the eldest Son of a Knight in perpetual Succession: persons holding the King’s Commission, or who may be styled “Esquire” by the King in any Official Document.


THE PRECEDENCE OF WOMEN is determined, before marriage, by the Rank and Dignity, but not by the Office, of their Father.

All the unmarried Sisters in any family have the same Degree, which is the Degree that their eldest Brother holds (or would hold) amongst men. Thus:—Of the Sons of an Earl the eldest alone has an honorary Title of Nobility and is styled “My Lord,” while all the Daughters of an Earl have a similar honorary Title, and are styled “My Lady.”

299 By Marriage Women share the Dignities and Precedence of their Husbands: but, the strictly Official Dignity of a Husband is not imparted to a wife (except in India), in the case of the Archbishops and Bishops or holders of other offices.

The Dignities which Ladies have by Birth or by right of Inheritance, are not imparted by Marriage to their Husbands: nor does Marriage with an inferior in Dignity in any way affect the Precedence that a Lady may enjoy by Birth, Inheritance, or Creation—both her own Precedence and that of her Husband remain as before their Marriage, unless the Husband be a Peer.

In the Royal Family the following Precedence takes effect:—

The Queen.

The Queen Dowager.

The Princess of Wales.

The Daughters of the Sovereign.

The Wives of the Younger Sons of the Sovereign.

The Granddaughters of the Sovereign.

The Wives of the Grandsons of the Sovereign.

The Sovereign’s Sisters.

Wives of the Sovereign’s Brothers.

The Sovereign’s Aunts.

Wives of the Sovereign’s Uncles.

The Sovereign’s Nieces.

Wives of the Sovereign’s Nephews (Brothers’ and Sisters’ Daughters).

Granddaughters of the Sovereign not bearing the style of Royal Highness.

To whatever Precedence she may be entitled by Birth, the Wife of a Peer always takes her rank, and therefore takes her actual Precedence, from her Husband.

The Widow of a Peer, so long as she remains a Widow, retains the rank she enjoyed whilst married: but, should she contract a second Marriage, her Precedence then is determined either by the rank of her second Husband, or by the rank that was her own by Birth and which she enjoyed before her first Marriage.

The Wife of the Eldest Son of any degree precedes all her Husband’s Sisters, and also all other Ladies having the same degree of rank with them. Thus:—the Wife of the 300 Eldest Son of an Earl takes Precedence of all Daughters of Earls. In actual practice, however, by a principle of Precedence that is accepted and adopted in all families of the same degree amongst themselves, the Sisters in every case have their place immediately after the Wife of their own Eldest Brother.

GENEALOGIES. Genealogies, the Records of the Descents and Alliances of Families, are necessarily associated with the Armorial Ensigns borne by those Families, and by the several Members and Branches of them. Still, it does not apparently follow, in the same manner, as a matter of necessity, that the study and investigation of Genealogies should be interesting and even attractive, because interest and attractiveness are inseparable from Heraldry. And yet, I do not hesitate to claim for genealogical researches the favourable regard of students of Armory, on the very ground of the interest which they are certain to feel in such researches; and also in confident reliance on that inherent power of attraction, inseparable from the subject itself, that will not fail both to win their favourable regard, and to lead them on from one inquiry to another.

The very act of tracing up some eminent and illustrious personage, from generation to generation of his forefathers, noting down the alliances that have interwoven one thread of a brilliant line with others not less lustrous; or, the reverse of this process, the following the lineage of some worthy of the olden time onward down the stream, observing both the tributaries that flow into the main channel and the streamlets that issue from it—all this, when once it has been systematically undertaken, leads the student through the most picturesque regions of historical romance.

The popular idea of Genealogy may be, that it consists 301 in placing in a formal order of arrangement a series of dry names, connected with dates that (if it be possible) are even more dry. It is not uncommon to dispose of many things precisely in the same way, when an opinion is formed without even the slightest attempt to judge of a question by its true merits—it is so easy to decline the trouble and to avoid the effort attendant on inquiry and investigation, and so pleasant to become the possessor of an “opinion” and “views,” without any outlay in acquiring them. A Map has no value in the estimation of those who ignore Geography: the claims of Arch¿ology are disregarded by all who are content to remain in ignorance even of what it implies: and History itself becomes and continues to be a dead letter, so long as an acquaintance is formed only with the exterior of its volumes. And, in like manner, Genealogy appears under a very different aspect to those who know it only by name, and to lovers of Biography and History who are familiar with its lucid and yet ever suggestive guidance. Without written Genealogies, who can clearly understand the political and historical position of the rival Princes of the red and white Roses; or of Henry VII. and the “last of the Plantagenets”; or of Queens Elizabeth Tudor, Mary Stuart, and Jane Grey? Or who, without similar aid, will follow out the fortunes of the Houses of Beauchamp and Neville and Dudley, and connect them with the existing noble lord of Warwick Castle; or, when reading of the De Clares, the Bohuns, or the Percies, will see at a glance the connection between “Strongbow” and the “red Earl Gilbert,” or will understand the significance of the white swan Badge of the Staffords, or will read at sight the quartered Shield of the Duke of Northumberland, of to-day, and will discern the line that connects the living Earl Percy with the “Hotspur” whose fame was two centuries old when Shakespeare wrote of him? And further, who, that is 302 unable to accomplish such things as these, can appreciate History, can enjoy it and apply its lessons aright?

In arranging a Genealogy the utmost conciseness is essential, all details being left for full description elsewhere. All the members of the same family are placed side by side, on the same level, in their order of seniority; and all are connected by lines with one another and with their parents. Successive generations also, throughout all the branches of any family, or in allied families, have their places on the same levels; and the connecting and distinguishing lines are continued throughout. Examples of Genealogies treated in the most scientific and yet simple manner, easy to be understood, and perfect as models for students, may be obtained in any Part of the Herald and Genealogist, formerly edited by the late Mr. J. G. Nichols, F.S.A., Parliament Street, Westminster. I refer to this excellent Periodical, because it is not possible for me here in the space at my disposal to set forth a really useful example of a Genealogy: and, I must add, because it is most desirable that students of Heraldry should form such an acquaintance with Mr. Nichols, as may be acquired through his works. Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, now edited by Mr. W. B. Bannerman, is another Periodical, which ought to be in the hands of all Genealogists.

In Genealogies, this mark == denotes alliance by marriage, and it is placed between the names of a husband and wife: and the lines that proceed from this mark, thus,

point out their issue. The initials S. P. (of the Latin words Sine Prole, “without issue”) show where a line or a branch ceases. Other abbreviations and signs in general use will suggest their own signification.

As I began this Chapter with quotations, so with a quotation I conclude it. “There are some persons,” writes Mr. Lower, in his “Curiosities of Heraldry” (p. 292), “who 303 cannot discriminate between the taste for pedigree” (or genealogy) “and the pride of ancestry. Now these two feelings, though they often combine in one individual, have no necessary connection with each other. Man is said to be a hunting animal. Some hunt foxes; others for fame or fortune. Others hunt in the intellectual field; some for the arcana of Nature and of mind; some for the roots of words, or the origin of things. I am fond of hunting out a pedigree.” And, gentle reader, when you have joined the chase genealogical, I promise you, so also will you be.

304 CHAPTER XXI The College of Arms— The Lyon Office of Scotland— Grants of Arms— Tax on “Armorial Bearings,” and on “Arms Found”

“They were conspicuous for judgment, experience, learning, and elegance; they gained honour wherever they were employed.” —Noble, History of the College of Arms.

“What is your Crest and Motto?—Send name and county to ——’s Heraldic Office. For plain Sketch, 3s. 6d. In heraldic colours, 6s.” —Morning Newspapers.

I. The Heralds of England, who before had been attached to the Household either of the Sovereign or of some Personage of exalted rank, were incorporated as a Fraternity by Richard III., a Prince whose historical reputation is by no means in harmony with that early act of his reign, which has done such good service to English History—the Foundation and Establishment of the College of Arms, or, as it is commonly called, the Heralds’ College.

The Letters Patent, issued for this purpose by Richard III., bear date March the 2nd, 1483, the first year of his reign. Very important privileges and immunities, with high powers and authority, were granted to the incorporated Heralds: and the “right fair and stately house,” called “Pulteney’s Inn,” situate in the metropolitan parish of All Saints, was assigned to them as their permanent official residence. The Charter granted to the Heralds by the last Plantagenet Sovereign was confirmed by his successors.

The buildings of the College were destroyed by the great fire of 1666; but all the records and documents fortunately escaped, having been removed to Whitehall; 305 and the edifice was subsequently rebuilt, chiefly at the cost of the Heralds themselves, where it now stands between St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Thames. There, in the College of Arms, are still carefully preserved all that the early Heralds recorded and transmitted to our times. There, not the least valuable of the contents of the College, an unique Library is in the keeping of Guardians, who understand its true uses, as they appreciate its preciousness. And there also the Headquarters of English Heraldry are as duly established, as those of the British Army are at the Horse Guards in Whitehall.

The great change that has come upon London since the Heralds rebuilt their official home, has already caused some structural alteration in the building, and has resulted in the College of Arms now appearing out of place in its original position in the City. Other changes, which follow in such rapid succession in that busy neighbourhood, render it by no means improbable that the site of their College may be required for some great “City improvement”; and so the Heralds may be constrained to establish themselves in the more congenial regions of the metropolitan “far west.” This, as I am disposed to consider, is one of those consummations that are devoutly to be desired.

The times have been in which Heraldry could not number amongst its true friends the official Heralds of the College of Arms: but, happily, a very different, and in many most important respects a thoroughly satisfactory condition of things now obtains at the College. So far as the Heralds are concerned, as a body of learned, accomplished, and courteous gentlemen, Heraldry now is admirably represented amongst us, and faithfully supported. What still is deficient in the existing constitution of the College of Arms, as a National Institution, is adaptation to existing circumstances, sentiments, and requirements. It is but a truism to assert that, as a National Institution, the 306 College of Arms does not fill its proper position: and, to all who are familiar with the facts of the case, it is equally obvious that this is simply because the College does not vindicate its indisputable title to that position which really is its own.

Heraldry is decidedly popular. This popularity also is assuming a more practical, and at the same time a more enduring form, through gradually becoming the result of a correct appreciation of the true character of Heraldry, and of its intrinsic value. At a time in which people are beginning to feel and to admit that they ought to know something about Heraldry, the College of Arms ought to take the lead in making Heraldry still better understood, still more justly appreciated, still more popular. The time, also, is indeed come in which it is the bounden duty of the College of Arms to impress upon the community at large, that the sole source and fountain-head of authority in all matters armorial, under the Sovereign, centres in itself. This is to be accomplished by the same process, and only by the same process, by which the College of Arms may win for itself thorough popularity and universal confidence. If the College requires fresh or increased powers, application to that effect should be made to the Legislature. The Heraldry of Scotland has been dealt with by Parliament: and it would be equally easy to obtain such a statute as would enable English Heraldry to do justice to itself, while fulfilling its own proper duties.

Without abating or compromising in the slightest degree its own dignity or the dignity of Heraldry, the College of Arms requires to be transmuted from an exclusive into a popular Institution. It requires, not indeed to have its object and aim and system of action changed, but to have them expanded, and expanded so widely as to comprehend all the heraldic requirements of the age. This is a subject of too urgent importance not to be noticed here; but still, 307 it is not possible to do more than to notice it in very general terms.

Upon one specific point, however, a few plain words may be spoken without hesitation, and may be left by themselves without comment. The Fees and Charges of all kinds for granting, matriculating, confirming, and recording the rightful possession of armorial Insignia must be arranged upon a perfectly fresh system, with such provisions and modifications as may adapt them to every variety of circumstance and of requirement. This is a question which can be regarded only from one point of view by every true lover of Heraldry, and consequently by every true friend of the College of Arms.

II. The National Heraldic body in Scotland, entitled the Lyon Office, is under the presidency of the Lyon King of Arms. The Chief of the Scottish official Heralds from May 1796 to a recent period had been a Peer of that realm; and the duties of the office, accordingly, had been discharged for seventy years by a Lyon Depute. But, on the death of the Earl of Kinnoul, in February 1866, it was determined to remodel in some respects the arrangements of the Lyon Office; and Mr. George Burnett, who had long been “Lyon Depute,” was appointed by Her Majesty to be “Lyon King.” He has been succeeded by Sir J. Balfour Paul. The Arms of the Lyon Office I have already given, No. 266.

The action of the Scottish Lyon King of Arms, and of the Institution over which he presides, after having degenerated from the worthy standard of earlier days, has revived under far happier conditions, and with prospects that are eminently gratifying. It may be fairly expected, indeed, that the most salutary results will be produced by the very decided “tendency” that for some time has existed, “to cultivate the rules and principles of that earlier age, to which”—writes Mr. Seton—“we are indebted for a 308 system of Scottish Heraldry, whose purity certainly has not been surpassed in any other corner of Christendom.” These words occur in a highly interesting memoir of the Lyon Office, in the fourth chapter of the work entitled “The Law and Practice of Heraldry in Scotland,” an able and admirable volume, published in 1863 in Edinburgh, which shows the growing popularity of a true Heraldry north of the Tweed, and proves that in the author, Mr. Seton, Scottish Heraldry possesses an advocate no less powerful than zealous and judicious.

III. Arms and Armorial Insignia are granted only through the College of Arms in England, and through the Lyon Office in Scotland, in both realms with the direct sanction of the Crown expressed in England by the Earl Marshal. In Ireland all Grants are made by Ulster King of Arms with the same sanction.

It is to be observed and kept in remembrance that the sole right to Arms is a Grant from the College or the Crown, or Inheritance by lineal descent from an ancestor to whom a Grant was made or in whom a right to bear Arms has been officially recognised and registered by the Crown.

All “Grants” and “Confirmations of Arms” (Confirmations, that is, of the Claims of certain individuals to bear certain Arms, by some uncertain right and title duly set forth and approved and thereafter legalised by the Crown) are formally and regularly recorded, with a full blazon of the insignia, at the College or Offices of Arms.

It is very greatly to be desired that, in addition to this time-honoured usage of the Heralds in making these records, some simple plan could be adopted for the periodical registration at the College of Arms of all armorial insignia that are borne by right. Almost equally desirable, also, it would be to make a corresponding registration, as far as might be possible, of whatever insignia are borne without any right. The contents of both registers would 309 form unquestionably useful publications of a periodical character. In connection with any such project as I have just suggested, it appears to me that good service might be rendered to the cause of true Heraldry amongst us, if Badges and Mottoes (without any other insignia whatever) were formally granted by the College, under certain conditions, and at the cost of a small Fee.9

In new Grants of Arms, as in so many formal documents, something of the early form of Expression, with some traces of its piquant quaintness, are still retained. Very quaint indeed, and very extravagant also, is the style that was generally adopted by the Heralds of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and yet characteristic of both the men and their times. As an example of one of these old documents, an example of no common interest in itself, I now give the Grant of Arms to John Shakespere, the Poet’s father, in the year 1596. Two draft copies of the original Grant are preserved in the College of Arms; the following transcript is printed from the later of the two copies, the earlier having been used to supply any word or passage that now is wanting in the other. The insertions thus obtained are printed in brackets.

Grant of Arms to John Shakespere, A.D. 1596. To all and singuler Noble and Gentelmen of what estate [or] degree bearing arms to whom these presentes shall come, William Dethick alias Garter principall King of Armes sendethe greetinges. Know yee that, whereas by the authoritie and auncyent pryveleges perteyning to my office from the Quenes most excellent Mate and by her highnesse most noble and victorious progenitors, I am to take generall notice and record and to make declaration and testemonie for all causes of arms and matters of Gentrie thoroughe out all her Majestes Kingdoms, Domynions, Principalites, Isles, and Provinces, To th’ end 310 that, as manie gentelmen, by theyre auncyent names of families, kyndredes and descentes, have and enjoye certeyne enseignes and cotes of arms, So it is verie expedient in all ages that some men for theyr valeant factes, magnanimite, vertu, dignites, and desertes, may use and beare suche tokens of honour and worthinesse, whereby theyre name and good fame may be the better knowen and divulged, and theyre children and posterite in all vertu (to the service of theyre Prynce and Contrie) encouraged. Wherefore being solicited and by credible report informed that John Shakespeare of Stratford uppon Avon in the counte of Warwik, whose parentes and late antecessors10 were for theyre faithefull and va[leant service advaunced and rewarded by the most prudent] prince King Henry the Seventh of [famous memorie, sythence which tyme they have continewed at] those partes, being of good reputacion [and credit; and that the] said John hathe maryed [Mary, daughter and one of the heyrs of Robert Arden, of Wilmcote, in the said] counte, esquire.11 In consideration whereof, and for the encouragement of his posterite, to whom such Blazon [or Atchevement] by the auncyent custome of the lawes of armes maie descend, I the said Garter King of Armes have assigned, graunted and by these presentes confirmed this shield or cote of arms, viz. Gould, on a bend sables a speare of the first, steeled argent; and for his crest or cognizance a falcon, his winges displayed, argent, standing on a wrethe of his coullors, supporting a speare gould, steeled as aforesaid, sett upon a helmett with mantelles and tasselles as hath ben accustomed and dothe more playnely appeare depicted on this margent. Signefieng hereby, and by the authorite of my office aforesaid ratifieng, that it shalbe lawfull for the sayd John Shakespeare gent. and for his cheldren, yssue and posterite (at all tymes and places convenient) to bear and make demonstracion of the said Blazon or Atchevement uppon theyre Shieldes, Targets, Escucheons, Cotes of arms, Pennons, Guydons, Ringes, Edefices, Buyldinges, Utensiles, Lyveries, Tombes or Monumentes, or otherwise, for all lawfull warrlyke factes or civile use and exercises, according to the lawes of armes, without let or interruption of any other person or persons for use or bearing the same. In witnesse and perpetuall remembrance hereof I have hereunto subscribed my name, and fastened the seale of my office endorzed with the signett of my armes, At the Office of Armes, London, the xx. daye of October, the xxxviij. yeare of the reigne of our Soveraigne Lady Elizabeth, by the grace of God Quene of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faythe, etc. 1596.

311 Like other documents of its class, in this Grant the language is framed after certain regular forms; so that it is to be read without that exact observance of particular expressions, which is rightly bestowed upon legal and historical records. The interest inseparable from this Grant is enhanced in no slight degree by the strong probability that John Shakespere made his application to the College of Arms by the advice and in consequence of the request of his son. Had the worthy Garter been able to divine the “dignities and desertes” of the son, he might possibly have employed formal language of a still more complimentary character, when drawing up a Grant of Arms for the father.

A much more curious specimen of the heraldic style and form of expression (and also of the spelling) of the earlier days of the Queen Elizabeth era, is a Grant of Augmentation and Crest, by Lawrence Dalton, Norroy King of Arms, to John Bennett, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, Gentleman, A.D. 1560. The Preamble to this Grant, which is printed in full in Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica (p. 48), is thus written:—

To All and Singuler as well nobles and gentles as kings herauldes and officers of Armes as others wch thes presentes shall see Reade or heare Lawrence Dalton Esquire Al’s Norrey Kinge of Armes of thest and west p’tyes of Englande fro the Ryver of trent northwarde Sendythe Due and humble comendacons and greatinge fforasmuche as awncyentlye fro the begynnynge and not wthowt great Delyberacon Equitie and Reason hyt hathe byn by the moste noble and famous princes Constytutyd and ordeynyd that men of wysdom knoledge vertue and of noble lyefe and Coorage haue byn notoryowslye commendyd to the Woorlde wth Sonndrye monumentes and Remembrances wth tokens of honnor for A testamonye of theyre good Desertes As Amonge the Romayns ye Erecc’on of Statues and Images wth tytles and Appellac’ons of honnour And of more latre Dayes wth the moste p’te of nac’ons bearinge of Signes and tokens in Shyldes callyd Armes wch be the Demonstrac’ons and Evidences of noblenes vertue and woorthynes that to eu’ry man accordinge to theyre Desertes be Dyu’slye Dystrybutyd 312 Wherby such signes and tokens of the woorthye and cooragyous might appeare before the cowarde vnwoorthye and Ignorant Even so yt ys yet obs’vyd that suche wch have merytyd or donne com’endable s’vice to theyre prince or countrye or by theyre woorthye and Lawdable lyefe Do Daylye encrease in vertue wysdom and knowledge shulde not be forgoten and so put in oblyvyon but rewardyd wth som token of honnor for the same the Rather to move and styrre other to the Imytac’on of lyke noblenes vertue and woorthynes ffor wch purpose hyt was not therefor wthowt great provydence ordeynyd and yet ys that there Shulde be officers and herauldes of Armes to whose office hyt shulde be appropryate to kepe in Regestre tharmes pedegrees and Descentes of nobles and gentles wth theyre woorthye and valyant actes and to have power and awethorytye to allowe and Ratefye vnto the woorthye Som awgmentac’on token or Remembrance of noblenes for theyre seyde woorthynes And now beinge Desyryd—

And so forth, worthy Mr. Norroy having forgotten such “signes and tokens” as stops, while carefully showing what style and form it is not desirable for us to adopt, however excellent may be his system of building up honourable insignia upon a foundation of nobleness, virtue, and worthiness.

I add one other early document of another kind, which is an excellent model for present use by the Heralds of our own days, the orthography having by them been duly corrected.

Example of a Confirmation or Record of Arms:—Theis are the anncient Armes and Creast, belonging to the name and famely of Leechforde in the County of Surrey, descended from the Leechfords in Buckinghamsheire. Which at the request of Sr Richard Leechforde of Shelwood in the County of Surrey Knight, I Will’m Segar Garter, Principall King of Armes have blasoned, and sett forth in coullors, according as they are here depicted in the margent. Viz.” (here follows a written blazon).... “Testifying hereby the saide armoryes to belong vnto the saide Sr Richard Leechford and to his yssue, to vse, beare, and shewe forth at all tymes, and in all places, at their free lib’ty and pleasure. In Witnes wherof....

&c. &c., with Seal and Signature, and the Date 3rd of James I.

313 I presume that an argument in support of the abolition of all Taxation of “Armorial Bearings,” on the plea of the utter absurdity of a tax upon an honourable distinction, would be met with the reply that “Armorial Bearings” are taxed purely as “luxuries,” and without the slightest reference to their intrinsic character. If the validity of this plea must be admitted, still this tax might be levied with what may be styled a becoming heraldic discrimination.

For example:—Arms distinguished by “Augmentations of Honour” might be altogether exempted; a higher rate might be fixed in the case of Arms that are ensigned with Coronets, and that display Supporters. Arms borne by unquestionable right, and which are duly recorded at the College, might be rated at a comparatively low charge, certainly not to exceed five shillings a year. On the other hand, all Arms or armorial insignia borne with a very questionable right, or without even the pretence of any right whatever, might be subjected to the ordinary tax for “Armorial Bearings” of their class multiplied (according to circumstances) by four, six, or ten.

The tax estimated by the aid of the multiplication-table, that has just been suggested, would extend, under a special schedule possessing a high multiplying power, to any self-constituted “Establishment” or “Office,” which, powerless to “grant” Arms, undertakes—in consideration of a very trifling fee—to “find,” and either to “sketch” or to “colour” them. Exceedingly simple is the process, by means of which this undertaking is accomplished. It consists in consulting a printed Armory; and, when the desired “Arms” have been “found” in its well-stored columns, they then at once are assigned to the applicant, in conformity with the comprehensive and beautifully simple theory, that all persons having the same surname and who also live (or were born) in the same county are equally 314 entitled to bear the same Arms. Probably it does not occur to the patrons of advertising Heraldry-dealers, that upon precisely the same principle every person who has the same “name and county” with any officer who may be “found” in the Navy or the Army List, might assert a right to whatever rank and title such an officer may enjoy by virtue of his commission.

The almost universal desire to possess some kind of armorial insignia, implies a corresponding recognition of the necessity to obtain them from some Institution or Personage, supposed to be competent and authorised both to determine what they should be, and to impart a right to accept and to assume and bear them. It rests with the Heralds of the College of Arms to take the initiative in a course of action, which would direct all aspirants for heraldic distinctions, as a matter of course, to their own doors. The Heralds, who really are Heralds, and who alone are real Heralds, may rely on the support of Public Opinion. If a fictitious Heraldry is not only prevalent, but in some sense actually in the ascendant, it is not because the counterfeit is preferred to the genuine, but because it is unconsciously mistaken for it. In very many instances, indeed, a determination to obtain “Arms” is coupled with an ignorance of Heraldry so complete, as to ignore the existence of any such thing as a Heraldry that is fictitious.

A popular College of Arms, without any serious difficulty, might establish its own authority with all classes of the community; and, at the same time, it would not fail to impress upon the public mind the very decided difference that exists between the heraldic and the non-heraldic acceptation of the expression—“an escutcheon of pretence.” Much real good would certainly result from the rude shock that would be given to many a complacent display of armorial insignia, by showing the proud blazonry 315 to be abated with the baton sinister of heraldic untruth and unwarrantable assumption. And better still it would be to show to all who possess, or who desire to possess and to bear “Arms,” that the “Pride of Heraldry” is a worthy and a noble pride, because it is the Pride of Truth and Right.

9. I leave this sentence as it has hitherto stood in the book. Badges are now granted and recorded, but a prior right to arms is required. —A. C. F.-D. 1908.

10. Above the word antecessors is written Grandfather.

11. Gent. was first written, and it is altered to esquire.

316 CHAPTER XXII Miscellaneous:— Coins— Seals— Heraldry in Architecture; in Monuments; in Illuminations; in Encaustic Tiles— Heraldic Personal Ornaments, and various Heraldic Decorations— Conclusion.

“The Spandrels over the Wall-arcading are exquisitely beautiful... Those in the western arm contained Shields of a large number of the great men of the day ... the few which remain are nobly executed.” —Gleanings from Westminster Abbey, by G. G. Scott, R.A.: 2nd Edition, p. 33.

I. The Heraldry of the Coinage, in addition to the Shields of Arms of successive Sovereigns, exemplifies the changes that have taken place in the form and adornment of the Crown, and it also is rich in various Badges and Devices having an historical significance.

In Coins the Royal Shield is sometimes quartered by a cross charged upon it, as in the silver penny of Edward VI. A medi¿val ship, having a sail covered with heraldic blazonry, appears on the Noble—a coin worthy of its name. A figure of the King in armour (not particularly well proportioned to the size of the vessel), his sword in one hand, and his Shield of arms in the other, is also represented in these fine examples of medi¿val numismatic art. A ship without any sail, but in its stead charged with the Royal Shield heightened by a Cross, forms the reverse of another excellent coin, the Angel, the obverse bearing a figure of St. Michael with his lance thrusting down the dragon. The Angel of Edward IV. on either side of the Cross has the initial E and the white rose of York; and the legend is—PER : CRVCEM : TVA : SALVA : NOS : XTE : REDEMPT : (“By thy Cross save us, O Redeemer 317 Christ!”). A Crowned Rose, with a Royal Cypher, is another favourite device; as in the Shilling of Henry VIII., with the legend—POSVI : DEV : ADIVTOREM : MEVM : (“I have placed God (before me as) my helper”).

Such are a few examples of the early Heraldry of English Coins. More recently, and particularly in our own Coinage, Heraldry and Art have declined together, so that feeble designs, but too commonly executed with lamentable consistency, are associated with heraldic inaccuracies which continue uncorrected to this day—witness the tressure of Scotland often incorrectly blazoned on the Royal Shield; and poor Britannia, in her old position, sitting forlorn on the copper and bronze coinage, as if conscious of being constrained to display on her oval Shield an obsolete blazonry, that placed the reign of Queen Victoria in the eighteenth century!12

II. To what has been already said on the value of heraldic Seals I desire here to add a few words, in the hope of inducing all students of Heraldry to study them with the most diligent care.

Casts of fine impressions are not difficult to obtain. Almost every accessible fine Seal has been copied by Mr. Ready, of the British Museum, who supplies admirable casts at a very moderate cost. The Scottish Seals of the late Mr. H. Laing, of Edinburgh, were purchased on his decease by the authorities of the British Museum. The most satisfactory casts are made in gutta-percha, which may be gilt by simply rubbing a gold powder with a soft brush upon them, after slightly warming their surfaces. Moulds for reproducing casts or impressions may be made in gutta-percha; and from 318 these moulds casts, also in gutta-percha, may be obtained. The process is very simple: the gutta-percha, softened by immersion in hot water, is pressed upon an impression in relief, until a perfect intaglio is formed. When this mould is cold and hard, it will stamp an impression upon gutta-percha softened in the same manner.

No. 442.— Seal of Lord Bardolf.

I add to the examples of fine heraldic Seals that I have already given, the richly traceried Seal bearing the armorial Shield of John, Lord Bardolf, of Wormegay in Norfolk, about A.D. 1350; No. 442. This most beautiful Seal, which in the original in diameter is only one and one-sixth inches, has been somewhat enlarged in the engraving, in order to show the design more plainly. The arms of Bardolf are—Az., three cinquefoils or.

No. 443.— Seal of William Mure. No. 444.— Seal of Thomas Monypeny.

The liberality and kindness of Mr. Laing enable me to associate with the Seal of Lord Bardolf a small group of additional examples of Scottish Seals: two of them are good illustrations as well of English as of Scottish Heraldry, and they exemplify the usage of introducing Gothic traceries into the composition of Seals with Shields of Arms: in both these examples, however, the leading outlines only of the traceries remain, and the rich cusping 319 (which is so perfect in the Seal of Lord Bardolf) is lost. No. 443, the Seal of William Mure, A.D. 1397, has a Shield bearing—Arg., on a fesse az. three mullets of the field. No. 444, the Seal of Thomas Monypeny, A.D. 1415, has the Shield couchée charged with Az., a chevron between three crosses crosslets fitchée issuing from as many crescents arg.: the Crest, on a helm, is a bird, probably a popinjay or parrot. The Seal of Richard Stuart, No. 445, probably about 1350, may be compared with No. 414, p. 249: in the smaller and earlier example, the solitary individual who represents the crew may be assumed to be Richard Stuart himself; his vessel displays two banners which are evidently affected by contrary currents of air, and a pennon.

No. 445.— Seal of Richard Stuart. The noble Seal, No. 446 (see Frontispiece), engraved from a most perfect impression recently discovered appended to a document in the guardianship of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, represents its illustrious owner, Thomas de Beauchamp, K.G., third Earl of Warwick, in armour, with his shield and jupon charged 320 with the armorial insignia of Beauchamp (gu., a fesse between six crosses crosslets or), and with the same insignia repeated upon the bardings of the charger upon which the Earl is mounted. The engraving of the Seal itself appears on the Frontispiece to this Volume: and the Counter-Seal, one of the most beautiful and most perfect examples in existence of the early seal-engraver’s art, is here represented in No. 447. The Shield displayed on this Counter-Seal is charged only with the Arms of the Newburghs (chequée or and az., a chevron erm.), from whom the Earldom of Warwick passed by inheritance to the House of 321 Beauchamp. The inscription is commenced on the Seal, No. 446, and continued on the Counter-Seal, No. 447, and is as follows:— S : THOE : COMITIS : WARRWYCHIE : ANNO : REGNI : REGIS : E : T’CII : POST : CÔQVESTV̄ : ANGLIE : SEPTIO : DECIO : ET : REGNI : SVI : FRANCIE : QVARTO—“The Seal of Thomas, Earl of Warwick, in the seventeenth year of the reign of King Edward III. (of that name) after the Conquest of England, and the fourth of his reign over France.” Thus, the date of the execution of this fine Seal is the year 1344. The Earl himself died in 1369.

No. 447.— Counter Seal of Earl Thomas de Beauchamp, A.D. 1344.

A second Beauchamp Seal is also represented in the Frontispiece. This is the Seal of Richard de Beauchamp, K.G., fifth Earl of Warwick, who died in the year 1439. The Heraldry in this example is particularly interesting. The Shield, charged with Newburgh and Beauchamp quarterly, is couchée from the helm of the Earl which is ensigned with his coronet and crest; and on either side is a bear with a ragged staff, the famous Badges of the Beauchamps: No. 448 (see Frontispiece). The Inscription is— SIGILL : RIC : DE : BELLO : CAMPO : COMIT : WARWICH—“The Seal of Richard de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick” (see pages 223 and 224).

III. In Gothic Architecture Heraldry is always a consistent, beautiful, and most effective accessory. Indeed, so thoroughly is the spirit of Heraldry in harmony with the great Architecture which grew up in the Middle Ages, that Heraldry must be considered rather as an element of its nature than as an allied Art. Gothic Architecture is essentially heraldic; and hence, as well as from its elastic nature and its equally consistent and happy applicability to every use and requirement, it is peculiarly appropriate as our own national style.

From the earliest years of its existence as a definite Science, Heraldry is found to be most intimately associated with the Gothic Architecture of England: and happy it 322 was for the early Heralds, that in their days the English Gothic was at work in the full strength of its first maturity. And this alliance was never interrupted, or permitted to decline from its original cordiality. As long as the Gothic flourished, Heraldry held its own place in Architecture. And in the finest works that exist amongst us, relics of the grand Gothic Ages of English Architecture, Heraldry is ever present to adorn them with its graphic records. In the spandrels of arcades, in panels, upon bosses in vaulting, in stained glass, in encaustic floor-tiles, and indeed in almost every position in which such ornamentation could be admissible, the early Herald is found to have been the fellow-worker with the early Gothic architect. Gothic Architecture, accordingly, has preserved for us very noble collections and specimens of the most valuable illustrations of our national Heraldry. Canterbury and York Cathedrals, and the Abbey Churches of Westminster and St. Alban’s, with the Chapel of King’s College, Cambridge, are especially rich in heraldic treasures: and Westminster Hall and the northern Castles of Alnwick and Warkworth may be specified as noble examples of secular Architecture, which retain their heraldic enrichments.

IV. Gothic Monuments, and in common with them their successors of the Renaissance era, abound in every variety of armorial blazonry. And fine examples of heraldic Monuments are no less abundant, than are the Shields and other insignia that appear on particular memorials. The principles which directed the selection of Shields to be introduced into the composition of early Monuments are worthy of careful consideration: and the same remark is no less applicable in the case of Architecture. I must be content to specify a very small group of heraldic Monuments of especial interest and value. In Westminster Abbey: the Monuments of Queens Alianore of Castile, Philippa of Hainault, Elizabeth Tudor, and Mary Stuart; the Monuments of King Edward III. and King 323 Henry VII.; and those of Alianore de Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester, the Countess of Lennox, the Countess of Derby, the two De Valences, Earls of Pembroke, Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, Lord Bourchier, and Sir Giles Daubeney, K.G. In Canterbury Cathedral: the Monuments of the Black Prince, and of Henry IV. and Joanna of Navarre. In Salisbury Cathedral: the Monument of Earl William Longespée. In St. Alban’s Abbey Church: the Monuments of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and of the Abbots Wheathamstede and Ramryge. Also, other fine Monuments in the Churches at Elsyng in Norfolk, Ewelme and Northleigh in Oxfordshire, King’s Langley in Hertfordshire, and Cobham in Kent; in Beverley Minster, and in the Beauchamp Chapel at Warwick.

V. In the Illuminations of the Middle Ages Heraldry has a place of honour: and in the revival of that early Art, which is held in such high estimation at the present day, Heraldry ought to occupy a position of corresponding prominence. This implies in the Illuminators of to-day some knowledge of Heraldry, and at least some degree of familiarity with good early examples. I venture to suggest, therefore, to students of Illumination the study both of the Herald’s Art and his Science, as no unimportant part of their preparation for the practice of the Art of Illumination on the principle of the sagacious maxim of a great modern painter, quoted by Mr. Ruskin in his “Seven Lamps of Architecture”—“Know what you have to do, and then do it.”

VI. In the ornamentation of early Encaustic or Inlaid Pavement Tiles, Shields of Arms and various heraldic devices frequently occur: and in many examples the Shields of Arms are arranged with much skill and in excellent taste, to form decorative compositions in combination with foliage and traceries. Numerous heraldic Tiles of a very interesting character remain in the Cathedrals of Worcester, Gloucester, and Exeter; and in the Churches of Great Malvern, King’s 324 Langley, the Abbey Church of St. Alban, and many others. The student will observe that the devices upon these Tiles are frequently reversed, evidently the result of the neglect to reverse the designs upon the original dies or stamps.

VII. Heraldic blazonry was highly esteemed in the Middle Ages as a becoming decoration for Personal Costume. The Knights wore their Coats of Arms, and they carried and used their Shields of Arms, and their armorial insignia were displayed upon their weapons and upon the various accessories of their personal equipment. The Ladies adapted this usage to their own Costume, and they also wore Mantles and Dresses of Arms; and many of their personal ornaments were strictly heraldic. Without even suggesting now to our Ladies any revival of heraldic costume, properly so called—such as dresses, mantles, or shawls emblazoned with the bearings of armorial shields—I certainly do desire to see Heraldry exercising a powerful influence in all designs for personal ornaments, the works of the goldsmith and the jeweller more especially. Badges also may supply the motive for designing many patterns that are to adorn fabrics used for costume: and, in like manner also, the designs woven into carpets, curtains, and various other fabrics may be derived with the greatest advantage from the same source. The loom is employed in blazoning heraldic insignia in white damask: why should it not work, under judicious and cautious guidance, in silk and velvet, in satin and every woollen fabric?13

It must be understood, however, that heraldic ornaments and devices, unless they be of such a character that they are universally applicable, must have a reference to the wearer, or they degenerate at once into heraldic parodies. 325 Personal ornaments, costume, furniture, if heraldic, must display devices that have a significance as well as a beauty: such costume and ornaments must be, not “becoming” only to the wearer, but (in the heraldic acceptation of that term) “belonging” also. And so in every instance.

For purposes of universal decoration and adornment, Heraldry is no less applicable now than when Edward III. or Henry IV. reigned in England. Happily, a taste for furniture and all the appliances of every-day life in the Gothic style is gradually becoming prevalent; and this is inseparable from the use of Heraldry for the purposes of ornamentation. I presume that the fallacy of regarding the Gothic style of Art as exclusively ecclesiastical in its associations and uses, or as no less necessarily inseparable from medi¿val sentiments and general usages, is beginning to give way to more correct views, as the true nature of the Gothic and its original universal employment are better understood. I consider it to be unnecessary for me, therefore, to enter here, in support of my own sentiments, into any detailed explanations to show that the revival of a Style of Art which flourished in bygone ages, and with it the revival of Heraldry as it was invented and grew into its early dignity and popularity, are in no way or degree whatever connected with an implied return to the mode of life of four, five, or six centuries ago. We have used Roman and even what we intended to be Greek Architecture in nineteenth-century England; we are still in the habitual use of Roman and Greek designs for every variety of decoration; and of late we have added Egyptian and Scandinavian works of Art to the deservedly prized collections of models, that we have formed for the express purpose of imitating them: and yet we do not consider that we thus in any way bind ourselves to adopt Roman, or Greek, or Egyptian, or Scandinavian costumes or customs; nor in our use of the Arts of Antiquity do we perceive any demonstration of retrogression in ourselves.

326 It is the same with Medi¿val Heraldry and Gothic Art. We may apply to our own times, our own uses, our own delight, what the old Heralds and the Gothic Artists have taught us, without even dreaming of wearing armour or re-establishing the feudal system. True Heraldry (for it is with Heraldry that I am now more especially concerned) is a Science, and it also is an Art, for all time—for our times, and for future times, as well as for the times that are past. If we understand and appreciate it, we shall not fail to use and to apply it aright.

No. 449.— Seal of Sir Walter Scott, of Branxholm and Kirkurd, A.D. 1529. (Laing).

From the initial-letter of my first Chapter I suspended the Shield borne by that Sir Walter Scott, of Abbotsford, whose name will ever be a household word with every lover of what is chivalrous and knightly. Here I place the Seal, No. 449, of an earlier Sir Walter Scott, of Branxholm and Kirkurd—a Knight of another branch of the same distinguished House, who differenced the Shield of Scott so as to bear—Or, on a bend azure a mullet and two crescents gold.

12. The specimens of the existing Coinage of Europe, displayed at the Universal Exposition, at Paris, showed that if the art of the English Mint is now at a low ebb, the prevailing standard of numismatic art is not a single degree higher, the coins of France alone being in many respects an honourable exception to the general rule.

13. I have lately seen a design for the embroidery of a dress for a young lady of the Clan Campbell; its characteristic features are the Scottish Thistle and the Myrtle, the latter the Badge of the Campbells. I may express my approval of the motive of this design: others, as I have reason to believe, have approved the treatment of it.

327 CHAPTER XXIII PEERAGE DIGNITIES The Dignity of Earl— Of Baron— The Parliament of 1295— Landed Qualifications— Creation of the Title Duke of Cornwall— The Title of Marquis— The Premier Baron of England— The Peerage of Scotland— Scottish remainders— Daughter Inherits in her own right— Determination of an Abeyance— The Right to Create Peers of Ireland— Rights and Privileges of a Peeress— The Daughters of Peers— Anomalies of the English Scale of Precedence.

Although the name of the dignity of Earl is derived from a Saxon word, the dignity itself, like all others, is more Norman than Saxon in its character. At the period of the Conquest, and whilst the Norman dynasty was on the throne, there were a number of people who bore this title. At that time and for long afterwards, certainly well into the Plantagenet period, an Earl within his earldom was little short of a petty sovereign. Issues of justice and many other rights of regality were in his hands, and he occupied a position very much akin to a viceroy for the King, seeing that what he did he did in his own name and as Earl, or “comes,” of the County. The High Sheriff was the “vice-comes.” Some of the earldoms had more extensive rights of regality than others, some were actual palatinates, and all earldoms originally were honours in fee heritable by the heir-general. Earldoms had a territorial nature, and the Earl took his “third penny” in the issues of the Courts in his earldom.

The only other dignity at that period was that of Baron, and just as the Earls of to-day have little in common save 328 dignity and title with the Earls of the past, so the Barons originally were very unlike the latest creations of modern Prime Ministers in the name of the King. At the Norman Conquest, and for long afterwards, the Barons, an indeterminate number, were those who held their land in barony.

It is a matter of much uncertainty at what date Parliament came into being. The word goes back to a much earlier period, and is used concerning a variety of meetings which are now generally regarded as meetings of different Councils and not of Parliament, but historians are agreed that whether or not any earlier meetings can be properly described as Parliaments, the Parliament of 1295 was properly and fully constituted in all its elements. To this Parliament all those who were personally summoned by the King in their own names and were not nominated or elected by other people are Peers, and of these Peers those who are not described as Earls are Barons. It should, however, be noted that Bishops and Abbots were summoned by right of the offices they held, and there are certain other officials who were summoned also because of their offices and could be distinguished from the Barons and Earls. There is no shadow of doubt that the reason for the summoning of the Barons was the fact that they were great subjects and important because of their ownership of land. It was landowners who had to provide the military services for the country, and Parliament was chiefly concerned, not in law-making, but in authorising and consulting as to military expeditions, or in providing the subsidies necessary for these expeditions, and the other services of the Crown. In addition to this Peers exercised some of the judicial functions of the Crown. But law-making was done by the King and his Council until a later period. The landed qualifications which justified the summoning of a man to Parliament as a Baron usually descended to his heir and similarly justified the summoning of that heir; and in 329 that way, but without any intention to that end, the right of summons and the right of peerage became hereditary. Originally it had been arbitrary and at the discretion of the Crown. It was not until the reign of Edward IV. that the hereditary peerage character of a barony was fully recognised, and with that recognition came the divorce of the territorial idea from the right of peerage. Like ancient earldoms, ancient baronies were honours in fee heritable by the heirs general. Save that William the Conqueror was Sovereign Lord of the Duchy of Normandy and as such Duke, the dignity of duke did not exist in England until 1337, when Edward the Black Prince was created Duke of Cornwall with remainder to his heirs the eldest sons of the Kings of England. That was the creation of the title now enjoyed by the Prince of Wales, but this Duchy of Cornwall and the Duchy of Lancaster are really Duchies as distinguished from the Dukedoms enjoyed by other people having the designation of Duke.

The title of Marquis dates from 1386, when Richard II. created Robert de Vere Marquis of Dublin; and the title of Viscount from 1440, when the Viscounty of Beaumont was created. The first Barony by Letters Patent was created in 1387, but the oldest surviving barony by patent now in existence dates from 1448, when Sir John Stourton was created Baron and Lord Stourton of Stourton, co. Wilts. The present Lord Mowbray, Segrave and Stourton, who has inherited the barony of Stourton, also claims, as Lord Mowbray, to be the premier baron of England although the barony of Mowbray is placed on the roll of precedence after the baronies of Le Despenser and De Ros. Although earldoms were granted by charters from the earliest period, because, attached to the earldom, were also material rights which needed to be conveyed, patents did not come into use for baronies until it was desired to limit the succession of the peerage to the heirs male of the body of the grantee, 330 which is a limitation and a less heirship than is comprised in the enjoyment of an honour in fee simple. Privilege of peerage with all it entails has been a slow growth of accretion; and save for place and precedence and the right of any peer or peeress to be tried in the House of Lords, and the now limited and threatened right of peers to legislate, little of privilege of peerage remains.

The peerage of Scotland is very similar to that of England, and, before the Union, the principal difference between the two countries was the persistency with which the Scottish peerage remained attached to the land. Until a late date a patent creating a Scottish peerage erected certain lands into a barony or earldom as the case might be, and entailed those lands with the dignity. The difference arising from this form of procedure was more than counterbalanced by the recognised and constantly-adopted procedure of resigning a Scottish inheritance into the hands of the Crown, and then obtaining what is known as a “Novodamus,” with either the same or different limitations.

The many Scottish remainders, which are quite unknown to English peerage law, are all a consequence of this territorial nature of a Scottish peerage. One of the chief differences at the present time between an English and a Scottish peerage is to be found in those which are heritable by females. Unless governed by special remainder contained in the instrument of creation, a Scottish peerage, which in the event of failure of a male heir devolves upon a female heir, differs from an English one in its manner of descent. In Scotland the elder daughter inherits as of right, standing in the line of heirship next after her youngest brother and before any uncle or a younger sister. On the other hand, such an inheritance is only known by virtue of a special remainder in England. All Baronies by writ are Baronies in fee in England, and 331 heritable by the heir general, which means that they can if necessary devolve upon females. If the only child of a peer having such a peerage be a daughter she inherits in her own right, but if his issue is two daughters, then the peerage falls into abeyance between them, because under the law of England there is no seniority amongst daughters, and as both of them cannot enjoy one single peerage, neither of them has it, and it remains in abeyance until the Crown interferes or until by the natural course of events one line becomes extinguished by the extinction of all issue of the one daughter, when the peerage then at once devolves upon the heir of the other. Sometimes an abeyance will last several hundred years, sometimes it may end with the lapse of one or two; but at any time during the continuance of an abeyance the Crown may, at its entire pleasure, signify that any co-heir shall enjoy the peerage. This is what is termed the determination of an abeyance, and this is effected by the issue of a writ of summons to Parliament if the co-heir be a male or by the issue of letters patent in the case of a lady. The co-heir in whose favour the abeyance is determined then at once enjoys the peerage with the same designation and precedence as those who have held it hitherto, and his or her heir succeeds in due course.

Although there is one judgment to the contrary, it is now pretty universally admitted that there is no such thing as an Irish Barony by writ. With the union of England and Scotland, no further peerages of either country were created, and subsequent peerages were either of Great Britain or of Ireland; and it has been already judicially decided by the House of Lords that the power to create a Scottish peerage does not now exist in the Crown. There is no similar judgment in relation to a peerage of England, but the fact is that no attempt has since been made to create one, and though the point up to the 332 present time still has to be decided, it is certainly a matter for argument whether or not such a right remains. Since the union of Great Britain with Ireland no further peerages of Great Britain or of England have been created, but the right to create peers of Ireland was specifically retained under certain conditions and has been constantly taken advantage of. Other peerages since created have, however, been of the United Kingdom. Whether or not we shall ever have peerages of the Empire remains a matter for the future.

Since the latter part of the seventeenth century it has been the custom for peers and peeresses in their own right to sign simply by the designation of their peerage. The peeress by marriage prefixes her Christian name or initials to her husband’s title. It is statute law in Scotland, but not in England, that no person may sign his surname without prefixing a Christian name or initials. A peeress by marriage who is also a peeress in her own right signs first her husband’s title, adding her own afterwards; for instance, the signature of the Countess of Yarborough is Marcia Yarborough, Fauconberg and Conyers. One cannot call to mind in recent times any instances in which the peeress in her own right has married a peer of lower rank than her own, and until such a case occurs it is difficult to forecast what the signature should be. A peeress by marriage after re-marriage loses all privilege of peerage and precedence, and all right which she acquired by marriage, but as a matter of courtesy she usually retains her peerage designation if her subsequent marriage is to a commoner.

The daughter of a peer if married to another peer takes the precedence of her husband and relinquishes her own, but she retains it if she marries a commoner; and one of the anomalies of the English scale of precedence is to be found in the following circumstances. If the two elder 333 daughters of a Duke were to marry an Earl and a Baron respectively, whilst the youngest daughter were to run away with the footman, she would, nevertheless, rank as the daughter of a Duke above her sisters ranking as wives of an Earl and a Baron.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 335 INDEX Missing or incorrect punctuation has been regularized.



Abated, Abatement, 100, 207

Abbotsford, 1, 326

Abased, 100

Aberdeen, Earl of: Arms, 68

Abergavenny, Earl of: Arms, 187

Abeyance, 330, 331

Accollée, 100

Accosted, 100

Accrued, 82

Achievement, Achievement of Arms, 100

Addorsed, 86, 100

Admirals, 256; “Admiral of England,” 250

Admiralty, Flag of, 256

¯schylus, 6

Affrontée, 100

Aggroupment of Arms, 158, 163

Agnes de Percy: Seal, 160

Agnus Dei, as a Badge, 147, 276

Alant, Aland, 100

Albany, Duke of, 271

Albemarle, Earl of: Supporters, 92

Albert, H.R.H., the late Prince. See Prince Consort

Albert Medal, 293

Alerion, 96, 100

Alianore de Bohun. See Bohun

Alianore of Aquitaine: Arms, 259

Alianore of Castile and Leon: Arms, 162, 166; Monument, 322

Alianore, Daughter of Edward I., 77

Alice of Hesse, H.R.H., the Princess, 271

Alliance, Heraldic Record of, 159, 164; Feudal, 194

Allusive Heraldry, 15

Alnwick Castle, 322

Alphabet, the Letters of the, in Heraldry, 135

Aluminium, 47

Ambulant, 100

Angels, Heraldic figures of, 75; as Supporters, 75, 247

Anglo-Saxon Shields and Standards, 5, 55

Anglo-Saxon Sovereigns, Arms attributed to the, 18, 259

Anjou, Geoffrey, Count of, 188

Anjou, Queen Margaret of, 97

Annandale, Arms in, 198

Anne Boleyn, Queen, 229

Anne Stuart, Queen, 253; Arms, 260, 262; Badge, 229; Motto, 265

Annulet, Annuletté, 72, 100, 101, 120; in Modern Cadency, 193

Antelope, 80, 101

Anthony, Saint; his Cross, 101, 154

Antique Crown, 101

Anvers, Sir T. de: Arms, 202

Appaumée, 101

Aquitaine: Arms, 259

Archbishop, 101; Marshalling his Arms, 173

Archdeacon, L’Ercedeckne: Arms, 196

Arched, Archy, 101

Arderne, Sir J.: Arms, 201

Argent, 40, 101

Argyll, Duke of: Supporters, 91; Duchess of, 271

Arm, Armed, 80, 101, 102

Armagh, See of: Arms, 141

“Armes Parlantes,” 16, 76, 102

Armorial Bearings, 39, 101; Tax on, 313

Armory, 2, 101

Arms, Shields and Coats of, 2; Aggroupment of, 158; Attributed, 18; Combination of, 158; of Community, 102; of Dominion, 102; of Heiress and Co-heiress, 170, 172; of Herald Kings, 173; of Husband and Wife, 167, 171; of Knight, 174; of Office, 102; Official, 174; of Parlante, 102; of Peeress in her own right, 173; of Prelate, 173; of Royal Personages, 174, 258; of Unmarried Lady, 173; of Widow and Widower, 173

Arms, Grants and Confirmations of, 308

“Arms found,” 313

Arms, right to bear, 308

Arragon, Queen Catherine of: Arms, 229

Arrow, 102

Art, Heraldic, 24, 27, 326

Art, Gothic, 325

Artificial Figures and Devices in Heraldry, 78

Arthur Plantagenet, 190

Arthur Tudor, The Prince: Badge, 231

336 Arundel: Arms, 17, 203

Arundel, Fitz Alans, Earls of, 89, 191, 215

Arundel, Thomas Fitz Alan, Earl of, 118

Arundel, Radulphus de: Arms 191

Arundel, the Baron: Supporters, 92

Ascania, Bernhard of, 113

Ashton: Badge, 147

Ashwelthorpe: Monument, 215

Asscheby (Ashby), Sir R. de: Arms, 203

At gaze, 80, 81, 102; At speed, 81

Athole, Duke of: Supporters, 91

Attires, Attired, 81, 102

Attributed Arms, 18

Aubernoun, Sir J. d’: Pennon and Arms, 143, 246

Augmentation, Augmented, 102

Augmentations of Honour, 204; by “Royal Favour,” 206

Austria, The Emperor of, 97

Avellane, 57, 102

Aventinus, 6

Azure, 41, 47, 102

B Back to top

Badge, 102, 103, 175, 220; Varieties of, 221, 222; Examples of, 224, 241; marked for Cadency, 192, 226; in Seals, 164, 225; peculiarly appropriate for present use, 227; to supersede Crests, 218, 227; borne by Ladies, 277; Royal, 220; in Modern Heraldry, 309

Badge, of Ostrich Feathers, 230; of Garter, 278; of Thistle, 280; of St. Patrick, 281; of Bath, 283, 284, 285; of Star of India, 288

Badge, Yorkist, 121

Badges, granted and recorded, 309

Badges, worn by, 251

Badlesmere, Sir B. de: Arms, 202

Balliol: Arms, 66; Sir Alexander de, Seal, 103, 210

Balliol College, Oxford, 66

Bannebury, Sir R. de, 202

Branded 103

Banner, Armorial, 3, 103, 247; blazoning of, 39; made on field of Battle, 248; Royal, 266; marked for Cadency, 192, 252; on Seals, 239; at Sea, 250; of Leicester, 14; of Templars, 13, 276

Banneret, 103; creation of, 248

Bannerman, W. Bruce, 302

Bar, 51, 103; examples of, 201

Barbarossa, The Emperor, 113

Barbed, 103

Barbel, 77, 103

Barded, Bardings, 103

Bardoff: Arms, 182; John Lord, 318

Barkele. See Berkeley

Barnacles, Breys, 103

Baron, 103, 104, 328; Baroness, 104

Baronet, 104

Barre, de: Arms, 103, 162; Joan de, 162, 224; Henry de, 162; John de, 77

Barrulée, Barruly, 52, 104

Barrulet, 51, 106, 182

Barry, 52, 104

Barry Bendy, 60, 104

Bars Gemelles, 52, 103, 126

Bar-wise, 53, 104

Base, 33, 105

Basilisk, 105

Basinet, 105, 218

Basingborne, Wm. de: Arms, 70

Bassett: Arms, 62

Bat in Heraldry, 79

Bath Herald, 131

Bath, Order of the, 283; Knights of, 284; Companions of, 284; Insignia of, 284; Stalls of Knights, 286

Bath, Marquess of, 92

Baton, 105; Sinister, 190, 191

Battled, or Embattled, 105

Bayeux Tapestry, 5

Beacon, Fire Beacon, 105

Beaked, 105

Bear, in Heraldry, 76; Bear and Ragged Staff, 221, 321

Bearer, 105

Bearings, Armorial Bearings, 39, 105. See Arms

Beasts, in Heraldry, 76

Beatrice, H.R.H., The Princess, 271

Beauchamp, Earl Richard de, 164, 171, 208, 319; his Badges, 221; at Jousts at Calais, 223

Beauchamp, Earl Thomas de, 169, 319, 320

Beauchamp, K.G., Earl Richard, 146

Beauchamp, of Warwick: Arms, 169, 171, 183; Badges, 146

Beauchamp, of Bletshoe: Arms, 183

Beauchamp, of Elmley: Arms 183

Beauchamp, at Carlaverock: Arms, 183

Beauchamp: Differences, 187

Beauchamp Chapel, the, at Warwick, 169, 187, 322

Beaufort: Arms and Differences, 189, 190, 192; Badge, 140, 233

Beaufort, Margaret de, 169, 170, 233

Beaufort, John de, 189, 190, 236

Beaufort, Henry de, 189

Beaumont, Bishop Lewis de: Effigy and Arms, 159

Beaumont, Sir J.: Crest, 216

Beaumont, Viscount, 329

Beausseant, 13, 276

Bec, Bishop Anthony, 56

Beckyngton, Bishop: Rebus, 147

Bedford, Isabelle, Countess of, 223

Bedford, John, Duke of, 181

Bedford, the Duke of: Supporters, 91

Bees, in Heraldry, 79

Beeston, Arms, 79

Bell, 105

337 Belled, 105

Bend, 58, 105, 191; Examples, 201; Sinister, 60

Bendlet, 58, 105, 191; in Cadency, 182; Sinister, 191

Bendwise, or Bendways, distinction between, 59

Bend-wise, In Bend, 59, 105

Bendy, 59, 105

Bennett, John: Grant of Arms to, 311

Bere, Sir de la: Crest, 206

Berham, Sir Wm. de, 202

Berkeley: Arms, 183, 196, 241; Badge, 138, 224, 241; Crest, 138, 241

Berkeroles, Sir Wm. de: Arms, 202

Bermyngham, Sir Wm. de: Arms, 201

Bernhard, of Ascania, 113

Beverley Minster, 27, 106, 159

Bezant, 71, 105; Bezantee, 72

Bilbesworth, Sir H. de: Arms, 97

Billet, Billettée, 64, 70, 105

Birds, in Heraldry, 76, 105

Birds of prey, 80

Bird-bolt, 102, 105

Bishop, 105, 173

Bishops, Suffragan, 106

Black Prince, See Edward

Blasted, 82, 106

Blazon, 31, 106; Epithets and Terms in, 80, 106; modern refinement of, 52

Blazoning, 31, 39, 45, 106; Descriptive, 46, 106; in Tinctures, 47

Blazonry, 31, 106

Blondeville, Ranulph de: Arms, 195

Blue Ensign, 256

Bluemantle, 130

Bluet, Sir Wm.: Arms, 202

Blundell: Arms, 65

Blyborough, Monument at, 106

Boar, in Heraldry, 106; Boar’s Head, 76

Bohemia, the King of, 230

Bohun, De, Earl of Hereford: Arms, 59, 89; Crest, 91; Badge, 155, 164, 251

Bohun, Alianore de, 162, 169, 323

Bohun, Mary de, 153

Bohun, Earl Humphrey de, 59, 83

Bohun, Sir Gilbert de, 59

Bohun, Oliver de, 201, 225

Boleyn, Queen Anne: Arms, 207, 229

Bolingbroke, the Viscount: Supporters, 99

Bologne, Godfrey de, 96

Bordet, Sir R.: Arms, 202

Bordoun, Sir J.: Arms, 17, 106, 141

Bordure, 43, 68, 106; Examples, 26, 181; Quartered and Impaled, 169; Componée, 192; Wavy, 192; of France, 124

Bostock, Hugo: Arms, 97

Boterels, Sir R. de: Arms, 203

Botiler, Le: Arms, 50, 58, 115. See Butler

Botonée, Botonée Fitchée, 56, 106

Bottetourt: Arms, 241

Bottreaux, Margaret: Seal, 240

Bouget, Water Bouget, 106

Bourchier, Lord: Arms, 241, 323

Bourchier, Sir H. de: Arms, 110, 216

Bourchier Knot, 106, 133

Bourdon, 17, 106

Bow, Bowed, 107

Bowen Knot, 107, 133

Braced, 107

Bradestone, Sir T. de: Arms, 223

Brewys, Sir Wm. de, 187

Brey, Sir Reginald de: Badge, 60, 104

Breys, 107

Brian, Bryan, Sir Guy de: Arms, 62

Brittany: Arms, 14, 165

Brittany, John, Duke of, 163

Brivere, Sir W. de: Badge, 135, 138

Brisure, Brizure, 107

Bromesgrove, 217

Bronscombe, Bishop, 125

Broom-plant, 17

Brownlow, the Earl: Supporters, 92

Bruce, de: Arms, 161, 198

Bruce, Margaret, Lady de Ros: Seal, 164

Bruce, King Robert de, 150

Bruce, Robert de, Earl of Carrick: Seal, 224

Brunswick: Arms, 262

Brus, Sir Bernard de: Arms, 50

Buccleuch, Duke of: Difference, 191

Buck, 116

Buckle. See Fermail

Burgh, de: Arms, 164

Burgh, Elizabeth de: Arms, 164

Burgh, Hubert de: Arms, 69

Burgh, William de: Arms, 163

Burgonet, 107

Burke, Sir B.: his “Peerage,” 98

Burnett, George, Esquire, Lord Lyon, 307

Burton, Abbot: Rebus, 147

Butterflies, in Heraldry, 79

Buttons, Heraldic, 222

Bygod, Sir R., 202

Byron: Arms, 119

C Back to top

Cabossed, or Caboshed, 81, 107

Cadency, 107, 178; Marked, 179; Marks of, 107, 179; by Label, 179; by Bordure, 181, 192; by Bendlet, 181, 189; by Canton, 182, 191; by Change of Tinctures, 182; by Change of Charges, 182; by Small Charges, 182; by Official Insignia, 184; by Single Small Charge, 186; of Illegitimacy, 187, 192; Marked on Badges, Banners, Crests, Mantlings, Standards, and Supporters, 192, 22, 249; Modern, 193

Cadency, King Richard II. on, 200

Cadency, unpierced mullet, 139

338 Cadet, 107

Calais, Citizens of, 198

Calf, 76

Caltrap, 107

Calvary Cross, 55

Calveley: Arms, 76

Cambridge, H.R.H., the Duke of, 270

Camden, 139, 230

Camoys, Eliz., Lady, 169

Camoys, Thos., Lord de, 110, 169

Camoys, the Baron: Supporters, 92

Campbell: Arms, 71; Badge, 324

Canterbury: Arms of See, 141; Arms of Deanery, 135; Archbishop of, 101; Heraldry of the Cathedral, 236, 322

Canterbury, Wm. de Courtenay, Archbishop of, 184

Canting Heraldry, 16, 107

Canton, Cantoned, 64, 107; in Cadency, 180, 190

Canton and Quarter distinction, 65

Cantons, Chiefs and Inescutcheons of, 204

Canvyle, Sir G. de: Arms, 204

Caple, Sir R. de: Arms, 202

Carbuncle. See Escarbuncle

Carew, Sir Nicholas: Arms, 89

Carlaverock, Roll of, 12, 258

Carlisle, 13

Carlisle, Earl of: Supporters, 92

Carnarvon, Earl of: Supporters, 92

Carrick, Earl o, 224

Carru, Sir N., 204

Cartouche, 37, 107

Castile and Leon: Arms, 17, 102, 166

Castile and Leon, Queen Alianore of, 166

Castile and Leon, Ferdinand III., King of, 166; Pedro, King of, 248

Castle, 102, 107

Castle-acre Priory, 44

Catherine, Queen, of Arragon, 229

Catherine Parr, Queen, 229

Cavalry Standards, 256

Cave: Motto, 138

Cavendish: Motto, 138

Celestial Crown, 107

Centaur, Sagittarius, 108, 258

Cercelée, Recercelée, 56, 108

Chaffinch, 76

Champagne: Arms, 124

Chandos, Sir P. de, 62; Sir John, 248

Chapeau, 108, 213, 215

Chaplet, 108

Charge, 38, 108; Miscellaneous, 70; Secondary, 183; Single Small, 186

Charlemagne: his Crown, 262

Charles I., 191, 279; Arms, 260; Badge, 229; Crown, 266

Charles II., 103, 192, 205, 279; Arms, 260; Badge, 229

Charles V., of France, 78, 122

Charlestone, Sir. J.: Arms, 96

Charteris, 139

Chartham, 120

Chastillon: Arms, 163, 168; Guy de, 163

Chaucer, Geoffrey, 200

Chaworth, De: Arms, 164; Matilda de, Seal, 164

Chequée, Chequy, Checky, 43, 108

Chess-rook, 109

Chester, County Palatine of, 195; Arms, 195, 267; Ranulph, Earl of, 195

Chester, Earls of, 195

Chester Herald, 130

Chevron, Chevronel, Chevronnée, Chevrony, 61, 109; Examples, 203

Chief, 33, 49, 109; Examples, 201

Childrey, Brass at, 154

Chivalry, High Court of, 200, 201; Order of, 275

Cholmondeley: Motto, 139

Christchurch, Oxford, 236

Church-Bell. See Bell

Cinquefoil, 109

Cinque Ports: Arms, 168

Civic Crown, 109

Clare, De: Arms, 61, 196; Badge 109

Clare, Gilbert de, the “Red Earl,” 95

Clare, in Suffolk, 196

Claremont Nesle: Arms, 169

Clarence, Lionel, Duke of, 164, 180

Clarence, Thomas, Duke of, 181

Clarenceux, 109, 130, 131; Arms, 131

Clarendon, K.G., Earl of, 57

Clarendon, Sir Roger de: Arms, 191

Clarendon, the Earl of, Supporters, 99

Clarion, 109

Clasps, 290

Clechee, 57, 109

Cleveland, Duke of: Difference, 191

Clifford, Lord, 50, 51

Clintone, Clinton, Sir J. de, 50, 201; of Maxtoke, 201; Badge, 224

Close, 109, 116

Closed, 81

Closet, 109

Clouée, 71, 109

Coat of Arms, 3, 109, 324

Coat Armour, 109

Cobham Monuments, 323

Cockatrice, 79, 110

Cockayne: Arms, 76

Co-Heiress: Arms, 170

Coinage, Heraldry of the, 316

Coleville, Sir R. de: Arms, 201

Collar, 110, 130; of the Garter, 278; of the Thistle, 200; of St. Patrick, 281; of the Bath, 283; of the Star of India, 287

College of Arms or Heralds’ College. See Herald

College of Arms, Arms of, 131

Colour, 40, 41, 47, 110

339 “Colours,” 110, 265

Combattant, 86, 110

Combination of Arms, 158, 165

Compartment, 110

Complement, 111

Componée, Compony, or Gobony, 43, 111; Bordure, 191

Compound Badges, 133

Compound Quartering, 34, 111

Compounded Arms, 111, 158, 164

Confessor, the, 206. See St. Edward

Confirmation of Arms, 308; Example, 312

Conjoined in Eure, 111

Connaught, H.R.H. Duke of, 271

Consort, H.R.H., the late Prince: Arms, 266; Difference, 266; Coronet, 267, 294; Crest, 267; Supporters, 267; Motto, 267

Contoise, 111, 211

Contournée, 111

Controversy, the Scrope and Grosvenor, 200

Corbet: Arms, 17

Cork, Earl of: Supporters, 92

Cornish Chough, 111

Cornwall, Edmund, Earl of, 94; Richard, Earl of, 68, 83, 94, 204

Cornwall, Piers Gaveston, Earl of, 95

Coronet, 111

Costume, Heraldry of, 324

Cosynton, Sir S. de: Arms, 223

Cotise, Cotised, 53, 58, 111

Couchant, Dormant, 86, 111

Couchée, 38, 111

Count, Countess, 112

Counter, 112

Counter-changing, 44, 112, 254

Counter Componée, 43, 112

Counter Embattled, 112

Counter Passant, 86

Counter Potent, 41

Counter Rampant, 86

Counter Salient, 86

Counter-Seal, 112

Counter-Vair, 41

Couped, 54, 87, 112

Couple-Close, 112

Courant, 81, 112

Courtenay, William de, Archbishop, 184; Peter de, Bishop, 226

Courtenay Earl Edward de, 141, 214; Badge, 226

Courtesy, Titles of, 112

Courthope, William, Esq., late Somerset Herald, 9

Coventry, Earl of: Supporters, 99

Coward, Cowed, 86, 112

Crampet, 112

Crancelin, 112

Crawford, Deverguilla: Seal, 239

Crenelated, 113

Crescent, 68, 113; in Modern Cadency, 193

Cresset, 113

Crest, 113, 174, 208; Early, 213; Marked for Cadency, 193; Differenced, 216; as originally worn, 218; two or more, 219; superseded by Badge, 218, 227; of England, 90, 264; of Scotland, 90, 264; of English Princes, 90, 266; of Edward III., 99; German, 212

Crest-Coronet, 113, 119

Crest-Wreath, 113, 120, 123

Crests, Inheritance of, 219

Cretinge, Sir J. de: Arms, 202

Crined, 114

Crombe, de: Arms, 62

Cross, 54, 114; Throughout, 54; Couped, or Humettée, 54; Voided, 55; Fimbriated, 54; of St. George, 54, 253; of St. Andrew, 61, 253; of St. Patrick, 61, 253; of St. Anthony, or Tau, 55; Greek, 55; Latin, 55; Quarter-pierced, 54; Quarterly-pierced, 55; on Degrees, 55; Calvary, 55; Heraldic Varieties of, 55; Quadrate, 55, 145; Patriarchal, 55, 142; Fourchée, 55, 125; Moline, 55, 138, 193; Recercelée, 56, 150; Patonce, 56, 142; Fleury, 56, 125; Fleurettee, 56, 125; Pommée, 56; Botonée, or Treflée, 56, 106; Crosslet, 56; Clechée, 57, 109; Patee, or Formée, 57, 142; Maltese, and of eight points, 57; Potent, 57, 144; Avellane, 57, 103; Fitchée, 58, 121

Crosslet, Crossed Crosslet, 56

Crown, 114, 139, 266

Crown of India, Order of, 294

Crozier, 114

Crusader Kings, The: Arms, 43

Crusades, 4

Crusilée, Crusily, 56, 115

Cubit-Arm, 115

Cumberland, H.R.H. Duke of, 271

Cummin: Arms, 95

Cup, Covered Cup, 115

“Curiosities of Heraldry,” by Mr. M. A. Lower, 303

Cushion, Pillow, Oreiller, 115

Cyclas, 153

Czar, The: Arms, 92

D Back to top

Dacre Knot, 115, 134

Dageworth, Sir J.: Arms, 51, 201

Dalmenhurst: Arms, 269

Dancetté, 35, 70, 115, 157

Danse. See Dancetté

Darcy, D’Arcy: Arms, 65

Darnley, Lord: Arms, 68

Daubeney, Sir Giles, K.G., 323

D’Aubigny: Arms, 170

Debased, 115

Debruised, 115

Decoration, Heraldic, 324

340 Decrescent, In Detriment, 80, 115

Deer, 80, 115

Degrees, 55, 116

Deincourt: Arms, 70

Delamere, Sir John, 96; Sir G., 202

Demembered, Dismembered, 116

Demi, 116

Demi-Eagle, 99

Demi-Lion, 87

Denbigh, Earl of, 98

Denmark: Arms, 83, 268

Dependency, Feudal, 194

Depressed, 116

Despencer, Le: Arms, 171; Barony, 329

Despencer, Isabelle le, 171; Bishop Henry le, 186, 215; John le, 150

Devon, Earl of, 214

Dexter, 32, 33, 116

Deyville, Sir J. de, 202

Diaper, Diapering, 44, 116

Difference, Differencing, 116, 177, 190, 194

Differenced Shields, 186, 200

Differences, Temporary, 177; Permanent, 177; for Distinction only, 199; of Illegitimacy, 187

Dignities, 31

Dimidiation, Dimidiated, 116, 162, 167

Disclosed, 116

Displayed, 81, 116

Disposition, Disposed, 45, 116

Distinguished Service Order, 292

Ditzmers: Arms, 269

Dividing and Border Lines, 34, 116

Dolphin, 7, 77, 78, 82, 116

Dormant, 86, 116

Double-queued, 116

Doubling, 116

Douglas: Arms, 74; Crest, 149; Badge, 224; Augmentation, 206

Douglas Sir James, 74; Lord William, 74; the first Earl, 74

Douglas and Mar William, Earl of, 94

Dove-tail, 35, 116

Doyle, 139

Dragon, 79, 116

“Dresses of Arms,” 324

Dreux, De: Arms, 116, 165

Dreux, J. de, Duke of Brittany, 163, 165

Drummond, John: Seal, 244

Drury: Arms, 154

Dublin, De Vere, Marquess of, 136, 329

Dublin: Arms of, See, 141

Ducal Coronet, 117

Duchess, 117

Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster, 329

Dudley, Earl Robert, 208

Dudley, Thomas: Seal, 216

Duke, 116, 329

Dunboyne, the Baron: Supporters, 92

Durem, Sir G. de, 202

Durham, 14

E Back to top

Eagle, 117; Heraldic, 25, 76; in Stained glass at York, 92; sculptured in Westminster Abbey, 92; with one Head, 92; with two Heads, 93; Imperial, crowned, 95; with Nimbus, 95; Drawing of, 98; Austrian, 98; French, 98; as Supporter, 99; as Badge, 148

Eagles and Hawks, 81

Eaglet, 95, 99, 117

Earl, 117, 327

Earl Marshal, the, 131

Eastern, Radiated, or Antique Crown, 118

Ecclesal Ekeleshale: Arms, 197

Ecclesiastics, Heraldic decoration of their Vestments, 159

Echingham, De: Arms, 71

Edinburgh, H.R.H., the Duke of, 280

Edmond, Son of Edward I., 181

Edmund, Saint: Arms, 19, 206, 259

Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, 94

Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, 123, 179, 181, 323

Edward, Saint, the Confessor: Arms, 19, 181

Edward I.: Label as Prince Royal, 178; Arms, 259; Badge, 228; Barding of Charger, 103; Rolls of Arms of his era, 13

Edward II.: Label as Prince Royal, 178; Arms, 259; Badge, 228; Roll of Arms of his era, 13

Edward III.: Label as Prince Royal, 178; Arms, 259; quarters France Ancient, 123; Crest, 90, 99, 213, 263; Badges, 227, 232; Supporters, 237; Heraldry of his Monument, 26, 169; Roll of Arms of his era, 13; Heraldry in his time, 9; his love of Heraldry, 223; founds the Order of the Garter, 276

Edward IV.: Arms, 260; Supporters, 91, 264; Badges, 229; Coins, 317; grants Augmentations, 213

Edward V.: Arms, 260

Edward VI.: Arms, 260; Supporters, 264; Badges, 229; bears the Ostrich Feather Badge, 230; Coins, 316

Edward VII. Vide King

Edward the Black Prince: Arms, 134, 178, 191; Crest, 91, 215; Badge, 230, 231; Motto, 234; First English Duke and Prince of Wales, 116, 234, 329; at Navaret, 248; his Will, 234; his Monument, 26, 233

Eglesfield, Robert de: Arms, 97

Eglintoun, Earls of, 11

Eleanor. See Alianore

Electoral Bonnet, 118, 263

Elford, Monuments at, 215

Elizabeth, Queen: Arms, 260; Supporters, 264; Badges and Mottoes, 229, 265; Changes Colour of Ribbon of the Garter, 126, 279; her Monument, 322

341 Elizabeth, Countess of Holland and of Hereford, 161

Elsyng, Brass at, 216, 323

Eltham, Prince John of, 26, 124, 165, 181, 250

Embattled, and Counter Embattled, 34, 118

Emblazoning, 47

Emblems, 9

Embowed, 82, 118

Embrued, 118

Endorse, Endorsed, 53, 118

Enfiled, 118

England: Arms, 27, 83, 89, 258; Royal Heraldry of, 258, 267; Patron Saints of, 19; Lions of, 87, 258; Crest, 90, 263; Supporters, 91, 264; Badges, 149, 228; Crowns, 266; Flags, 253

England, Bordure Wavy, 191, 192

Engrailed, 34, 118, 197

Enhanced, 118

Ensign, 255; Red, 255; White, 256; Blue, 256

Ensigned, 119

Entire, Entoire, Entoyre, 119

Enveloped, Environed, 119

Epithets, Heraldic, and Descriptive Terms, 80

Equipped, 119

Eradicated, 82, 119

Erased, 87, 119

Ermine, Ermines, Erminois, 41, 42, 119

Erne, 96, 119

Erneford, Wm. de: Arms, 96

Erskine: Arms, 53

Escallop or Escallop-Shell, 59, 77, 78, 120

Escarbuncle, 15, 119

Eschales: Arms, 17

Escroll, 119

Escutcheon, 119; of Pretence, 120, 170, 314

Esquire, 120

Essex, Henry, Earl of, 216

Essex, Earl of, Geoffrey de, 15

Essex, the Earl of: Supporters, 92

Estate, 120

Estoile, 120

Estoteville, Sir N. de: Arms, 202

Estwick: Motto, 139

Etone, Sir N. de: Arms, 96

Eureux, D’, of Salisbury, 188

Ewelme, 323

Exeter Cathedral, 111, 231

Exeter, Hollands, Dukes of, 181; John Grandison, Bishop of, 184

Exeter, Marquess of: Supporters, 92

Expression, Styles and Forms of, 30

F Back to top

Fabulous Beings, in Heraldry, 79

Fairfax: Motto, 138

Falconer: Arms, 17

False, 120; False Cross, 55; False Escutcheon, 66; False Roundle, 72, 120

Fan, or Winnowing Fan, or Vane, 120

Fan-Crest, 120, 210

Faroe Islands: Arms, 264

Fauconberg, Sir Wm.: Arms, 203

Feathers, in Heraldry, 120. See Ostrich Feathers

Fees, for Grants of Arms, &c., 308, 310

Felbrigge, Sir S. de, K.G., 121

Felbrigg, Brass at, 121

Femme, 120

Fenwick, John: Arms, 44

Fer-de-Moline, or Mill rind, 120

Fermail, Fermaux, 121

Ferrers, De: Arms, 185; Anne, de, 185; Margaret, de, 170; William, Lord, of Groby, 185; Lord, of Chartley, 215

Fess or Fesse, 50, 121; Examples, 201

Fesse-Point, 33, 121

Fesse-wise, In Fesse, 51, 121

Fessways, 105

Fetter-lock, 121

Feudal Alliance and Dependency, Heraldic Record of, 159, 194

Feudal Influence, in Heraldry, 201

Feudal Tenure, 274

Field, 38, 121; Varied Fields, 42; “Of the Field,” 43

Fife, H.R.H. Duchess of, 271

File, 121

Fillet, 121

Fimbriation, Fimbriated, 54, 121

Finned, 82

Fish, in Heraldry, 77, 82, 103, 121

Fishbourne, Giles de: Arms, 78

Fitched, 57

Fitchee, 58, 121

Fitton: Motto, 138

Fitz Alan, of Bedale, 52

Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, 83, 89, 118, 215

Fitz Parnel, Earl Robert, 195

Fitz Payne, Sir R. le: Arms, 204

Fitz Ralph: Arms, 196

Fitz Walter, Robert Le: Arms, 51

Fitz Warine, Fitz Waryn: Arms, 14; Sir Fulk de, 186

Fitz Urse: Arms, 76

Flags, 257; Military, 256, 257; Four remarks upon, 257

Flanches, Flasques, 68, 69, 122

Flanched, 191

Fleur de Lys, 122; quartered by Edward III, 124; Removed from Royal Shield of England, 262; in Modern Cadency, 193

Fleurie, or Fleury, 56, 125

Fleurettée, Florettée, 56, 125

Flexed, 125

Flighted, 102, 125

Flodden Field, 205

Fly, 125

Flory-counter-flory, 35

Foliated, 125

Formée, 57

Forneus, Sir R. de: Arms, 62

342 Forth, Viscount: Seal, 244

Fountain, 72, 125

Fourchée, Queue Fourchée, 55, 86, 125

Fraise, 193

“France Ancient,” 122, 124; “France Modern,” 122, 125; “Bordure of France,” 124; “Label of France,” 123; Imperial Eagle of, 99

Fraser, Wm.: Seal, 193

Frederick II., Emperor: Arms, 92

Frere: Arms, 58

Fret, Frette, Frettée, Fretty, 64, 71, 125, 133

Froissart, 248, 273

Fructed, 82, 125

Furs, 40, 42, 125

Furnival, De: Arms, 182, 203

Fusil, Fusillée, Fusily, 70, 125

Fylfot, 125

Fynderne, Wm., 156

G Back to top

Gad, Gadlyng, 125

Galley, 125

Gambe. See Jambe

Garb, 125, 195, 201

Garnished, 125

Garter, Order of the, 125, 276; Insignia of the, 125, 278; Stalls and Garter Plates of Knights, 278; Officers, 278

Garter King-of-Arms, 126, 130; Arms, 131

Gaveston, Piers: Arms, 95

Gemelles. See Bars Gemelles

Gem-Ring, 126

Genealogies, 300

Genet, 126

Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, 188

George, Saint: Arms, 19, 126, 253; Chapel of, 103

George, The, of the Garter, 126, 278; The Lesser, 126, 278

George I.: Arms, 263

George II.: Arms, 263

George III.: Arms, 263

George IV.: Arms, 263

Gerattyng, 126

German Empress, 271

Germany, the Emperor of: Arms, 92

Germany, the King of: Arms, 92

Geytone, Sir J. de: Arms, 201; Sir P. de, 202

Ghent, Prince John of, 179, 189, 232, 235, 241

Giffard: Arms, 152

Giffard, Sir A., 72; Sir J., 89, 204

Gimmel-Ring, 126

Girt, Girdled, 126

Gliding, 82

“Glossary of Heraldry,” The Oxford, 31

Glossary of Titles, Names, and Terms, 100

Gloucester, Alianore, Duchess of, 323. See De Bohun

Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of, 181, 236, 323; Thomas, Duke of, 232, 235, 322

Gloucester, Thomas le Despencer, Earl of, 171

Gloucester, Ralph de Monthermer, Earl of, 95

Gloucester Cathedral, Tiles at, 323

Gold, 42, 47

Golpe, 72

Gonfannon, 126

Gorged, 127

Gorges, R. de: Arms, 127

Gothic Architecture, Heraldry in, 321

Gothic Art, its Heraldic Character, 325

Gothic Monuments, Heraldry of, 322

Gough, Lord: Arms, 23

Gouttée, Guttée, 127

Grafton, Duke of: Supporters, 91; Differences, 191

Graham, Robert: Seal, 242

Grand Quartering, Grand Quarters, 35, 127, 166

Grandison: Arms, 5, 96, 184

Grandison, Bishop John de, 184

Grants of Arms, 308; Example, 309

Great Malvern, Tiles at, 323

Great Yarmouth: Arms, 168

Greek Cross, 55

Greenland: Arms, 269

Greville, Earl of, 208

Grey: Arms, 52; Crest of Sir Richard de Grey, K.G., 215

Grieces, 127

Griffin. See Gryphon

Grosvenor: Arms, 195; Sir R. de, 58, 200

Gryphon, Griffin, 79, 80

Guardant, 85, 127

“Guide to the Study of Heraldry,” by Mr. Montagu, 2, 9, 191

Guige, 127

Gules, 41, 48, 127

Gurges, Gorges, 127

Gyron, Gyronnée, Gyronny, 34, 64, 70, 127

H Back to top

Habited, 127

Hainault, the Counts of: Arms, 83

Hainault, Queen Philippa of, 230, 232

Hames, Haimes, 127

Hamilton, Crest, 150, 213

Hamilton, Duke of, 150

Hamilton, Sir Gilbert de, 150

Hammer, or martel, 127

Hanover, 263; Arms, 262

Harcourt, Sir R.: Arms, 217; Harecourt, or Harcourt: Arms, 51, 182

Hardinge, Viscount: Supporters, 92

Hardwick, Earl of: Supporters, 92

Harp, 127

Harris: Arms, 76

343 Harington Knot, 133

Harsyck, Sir J.: Crest, 216

Hart, 81, 116, 127

Hastilude, 128

Hastings, the Earl, 196; Edmund de, 196; Edward, Lord, 133;


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Last Updated: Dec. 1st, 2021

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