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Duke. The highest rank and title in the British Peerage; first introduced by Edward III. in the year 1337, when he created the Black Prince the first English Duke (in Latin, “Dux”). A Duke is “Most Noble”; he is styled “My Lord Duke,” and “Your Grace”; and all 117 his younger sons are “Lords,” and all his daughters “Ladies,” with the prefix “Right Honourable.” His eldest son bears, by courtesy, his father’s “second title”; and, accordingly, he generally bears the title of Marquess. Whatever his title, however, the rank of the eldest son of a Duke is always the same, and it assigns to him precedence between Marquesses and Earls. The Coronet of a Duke, arbitrary in its adornment until the sixteenth century was far advanced, is now a circlet, heightened with eight conventional strawberry-leaves, of which in representations three and two half-leaves are shown; No. 237. It encloses a velvet cap. The present ducal coronet is represented in the portrait of Ludovick Stuart, K.G., Duke of Richmond and Lennox, who died in 1624; the picture, the property of the Crown, is at Hampton Court.

Ducal Coronet. A term commonly, but not very accurately, applied to a Crest Coronet. No. 232.

Duchess. The wife of a Duke. She is “Most Noble,” and is styled “Your Grace.” Her coronet is the same as that of a Duke.

Eagle. See Chapter IX., page 92.

Eaglet. An Eagle on a small scale.

Earl. In Latin, “Comes”; in French, “Comte” or “Count.” Before 1337, the highest, and now the third degree of rank and dignity in the British 118 Peerage. An Earl is “Right Honourable”; he is styled “My Lord”; his eldest son bears his father’s “second title,” generally that of Viscount; his other sons are styled “Honourable,” but all his daughters are “Ladies.” The circlet of an Earl’s Coronet has eight lofty rays of gold rising from the circlet, each of which supports a large pearl, while between each pair of these rays there is a golden strawberry-leaf. In representations five of the rays and pearls are shown; No. 238. Elevated clusters of pearls appear in an Earl’s coronet—that of Thomas Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel—as early as 1445; but the present form of the coronet may be assigned to the second half of the following century.

No. 238.— Circlet of an Earl’s Coronet. No. 239.— Eastern Crown.

Eastern, Radiated, or Antique Crown. No. 239.

No. 240. Electoral Bonnet. Electoral Bonnet. A cap of crimson velvet guarded with ermine, borne, in the Royal Arms, over the inescutcheon of the arms of Hanover from 1801 till 1816. No. 240.

Embattled, and Counter-Embattled. A term applied to a fess or bar when so depicted both above and below.

Embowed. Bent. An arm embowed has the elbow to the dexter, unless blazoned to the contrary.

Embrued. Stained with blood.

Endorse. A diminutive of the pale.

Enfiled. Pierced, e.g. with a sword, or surrounded, e.g. with a coronet.

Engrailed. The border-line, No. 38D.

Enhanced. Raised towards the chief. Thus the arms of Byron, No. 241, are—Arg., three bendlets enhanced gu.

No. 241.— Shield of Byron.

119 Ensigned. Adorned; having some ensign of honour placed above—as a coronet above a shield.

Entire. Said of a charge when it is necessary to express that it extends to the border lines of a shield, coat, or banner; also of a shield, coat, or banner of arms, when borne without any difference or mark of cadency.

Entoire, Entoyre. A bordure charged with a series of inanimate figures or devices, as crosslets, roundles, &c.; to a similar bordure of living figures the term Enaluron is applied. These are not terms ordinarily in use.

Enveloped, Environed. Surrounded.

Equipped. Fully armed, caparisoned, or provided.

Eradicated. Torn up by the roots.

Erased. Torn off with a ragged edge; the contrary to Couped.

Ermine, Ermines, Erminois. Nos. 57-60 and 57A. The animal, the ermine, sometimes appears in blazon, and an ermine spot is borne as a charge.

Erne. An eagle. (See p. 96.)

Escarbuncle. No. 19.

Escroll. A ribbon charged with a motto; also a ribbon, coiled at its extremities, borne as a charge.

Escutcheon. An heraldic shield: Nos. 39-40: also No. 27. An Escutcheon, when borne as a charge, is usually blazoned as an “Inescutcheon”: thus, the Arms of Hay are,—Arg., three inescutcheons gu.: see also Nos. 131, 133.

120 Escutcheon of Pretence. A shield charged upon the centre of the field of another shield of larger size, and bearing a distinct Coat-of-Arms.

Escallop, or Escallop-Shell. A beautiful and favourite charge; No. 165.

Esquire. A rank below that of Knight. Besides those Esquires who are personal attendants of Knights of Orders of Knighthood at their installations, this title is held by most attendants on the person of the Sovereign, and all persons holding or having held the Sovereign’s commission in which they are so styled.

No. 242. Estoile. Estate. Dignity and rank.

Estoile. A star with wavy rays or points, which are six, eight, or sometimes even more in number: No. 242. (See Mullet.)

False. Said of any charge when its central area is removed—thus, an Annulet is a “false roundle.”

Fan, or Winnowing Fan, or Vane. The well-known implement of husbandry of that name, borne by the Kentish Family of De Sevans or Septvans—Az., three fans or (E. 2). This shield appears in the Brass to Sir R. de Sevans, A.D. 1305, at Chartham, in Kent, and in the cloisters at Canterbury.

Fan Crest. An early form of decoration for the knightly helm, exemplified in the 2nd Great Seal of Richard I., and in many other Seals, until about A.D. 1350. (See Chapter XIV.)

Feathers. Generally those of the Ostrich, sometimes of the swan, the turkey, and a few other birds, borne generally as Crests and Badges, both singly and in plumes or groups. (See Ostrich Feather, Panache, and Chapter XIV.)

Femme. The Wife, as distinguished from the “Baron,” the Husband.

Fer-de-Moline, or Mill-rind. The iron affixed to the centre 121 of a mill-stone; No. 243: a modification of the Cross-moline; No. 97.

Fermail (plural Fermaux). A buckle: No. 244. Several varieties of form appear in blazon, it being usual to specify them as round, oval, square, or lozenge-shaped. They are always blazoned as buckles.

No. 243.— Fer-de-Moline. No. 244.— Fermails. No. 245.— Fetter-lock.

Fess, or Fesse. One of the Ordinaries: Nos. 76-80. Fesse-wise, In Fesse. Disposed in a horizontal line, side by side, across the centre of the field, and over the Fesse-Point of a shield: No. 27, M.

Fetter-lock. A shackle and padlock—a Yorkist Badge: No. 245; is from the Brass to Sir S. de Felbrigge, K.G., at Felbrigg, Norfolk, A.D. 1414; this, however, being a very unusual shape.

Field. The entire surface of a Shield or Banner, or of an Ordinary.

File. A Label, from the Latin filum, a narrow ribbon.

Fillet. A diminutive of a Chief.

Fimbriated. Bordered—the border (which is narrow) lying in the same plane with the object bordered: No. 89.

Fish. Numerous Fish appear in blazon, and generally in their proper tinctures. They are borne as allusive charges, and also as types of some connection between those persons who bear them and the sea or lakes or rivers. Mr. Moule has published an admirable volume on the “Heraldry of Fish,” beautifully illustrated with examples drawn by his daughter. (See p. 77.)

Fitchée. Pointed at the base, as in No. 110.

122 Flanches, Flasques. Subordinaries: Nos. 141, 142.

No. 246. Fleur de lys. Fleur de lys. The beautiful heraldic device so long identified with the history of France: No. 246 (from the monument of Edward III.?). The fleur de lys, derived, it would seem, from the flower of a lily resembling the iris, was adopted by Louis VII. (A.D. 1137-1180) as his royal ensign, and in due time it was regularly charged upon a true Shield of Arms. Originally the Royal Shield of France was—Az., semée of fleurs de lys, or; the fleurs de lys scattered freely over the field, and the Shield itself having the appearance of having been cut out of a larger object, over the whole surface of which the flowers had been semée. This Shield of France is distinguished as “France Ancient”: No. 247. About A.D. 1365, Charles V. of France reduced the number of the fleurs de lys to three; 123 and this Shield is now known as “France Modern”: No. 248.

No. 247.— France Ancient. No. 248.— France Modern.

In the year 1275, Edmund, first Earl of Lancaster, the second son of Henry III., married Blanche of Artois, when he differenced his shield of England with a label of France—a blue label charged on each point with three golden fleurs de lys. No. 249, thus, for the first time did the armorial insignia of England and France appear together upon the same Shield. In 1299 Edward I. married his second Queen, Margaret of France, and then this royal lady placed on one of her Seals a Shield of England and France dimidiated: No. 250. On another of her Seals, a very noble example of the Seal-engraver’s art, Queen Margaret displayed the Shield of King Edward I., her husband, surrounded, 124 on the field of the Seal, with her father’s fleurs de lys: No. 251. On the Seals of Isabelle of France, Queen of Edward II., the same dimidiated shield, and another shield quartering the arms of England with France Ancient and two other French coats (Navarre and Champagne) appear. Then Prince John of Eltham charged a “bordure of France” upon his shield, No. 24; thus applying the suggestion of the Seal of Queen Margaret, No. 251, in such a manner as was consistent with the advanced condition of heraldic art.

No. 249.— Edmund, Earl of Lancaster. No. 250.— Margaret, Queen of Edward I.

No. 251.— Seal of Margaret, second Queen of Edward I.

On his accession in 1327, Edward III. placed a fleur de lys on each side of the Shield of England upon his Great Seal: and in 1340, when he claimed the crown of France, Edward quartered France Ancient with his lions of England: No. 252. Shortly after his accession, perhaps in 1405, in order to conform to the altered blazonry of the French sovereigns, Henry IV. quartered France Modern on his shield: No. 253. The position of the three fleurs de lys was more than once changed in the Royal Shield of England (as I shall hereafter show more particularly) after the accession of the Stuarts; and they were not finally removed till the first year of the nineteenth century. The fleur de lys is also borne on many English Shields, disposed in various ways. In modern 125 cadency the fleur de lys is the difference of the sixth son, or house.

No. 252.— Shield of Edward III., A.D. 1340. No. 253.— Shield of Henry IV., about A.D. 1405.

Fleurettée, Florettée. Terminating in, or bordered with, fleurs de lys; also, semée de lys.

Fleurie, or Fleury. Ending as No. 100; also, semée de lys.

Flexed. Bowed, bent.

Flighted. Feathered, as arrows are.

Fly. The length, and also the side of a flag farthest from the staff.

Foliated. Crisped, or formed like a leaf.

Fountain. No. 153.

Fourchée, Queue Fourchée. A term applied to a lion with a forked tail.

Fret, or Frette. A subordinary: No. 148. Frettée, Fretty: covered with fretwork: No. 149.

Fructed. Bearing fruit or seeds.

Furs. See p. 41: Nos. 57-65.

Fusil. An elongated Lozenge: No. 20A, p. 70. Fusillée, or Fusilly. A field entirely composed of Fusils, all lying in the same plane.

Fylfot. A peculiar cruciform figure, supposed to have a mystic signification, found in military and ecclesiastical decorations in England, and on Eastern coins, &c.: Nos. 254, 255; the latter example is from the monument of Bishop Bronscombe, in Exeter Cathedral.

No. 254. No. 255. Fylfot.

Gad, Gadlyng. A spike, knob, or other figure, projecting from the knuckles of gauntlets.

Galley. An ancient ship. (See Lymphad.)

Garb. A sheaf of wheat; if of any other grain, this to be specified.

Garnished. Adorned in a becoming manner.

Garter, Order of the. See Chapter XIX.

126 Garter King-of-Arms. The chief of the official Heralds of England, and officer of arms of the Order of the Garter. (See Herald.)

Gemelles. See Bars Gemelles.

Gem-Ring. A ring for the finger, set with a jewel.

Genet. A spotted animal, somewhat like a marten: a badge of Queen Joanna of Navarre.

George, Saint. The Patron Saint of England. The circumstances which led to his association with England are unknown. His Shield of arms, a red cross on a silver field, first appears in English Heraldry in the fourteenth century: No. 1.

George, The. A mounted figure of the Saint in the act of piercing the dragon with his lance, and worn as a pendant to the collar of the Order of the Garter; added to the insignia of the Order, with the Collar, by Henry VII. The Lesser George has the same group on an enamelled field, and surrounded by the Garter of the Order, the whole forming a “jewel,” generally oval in shape: it was introduced by Henry VIII., and is now worn pendent from the dark-blue ribbon of the Order, the ribbon passing over the left shoulder and the jewel hanging on the right side of the wearer. Originally, this “Lesser George” was worn from either a gold chain or a black ribbon: by Queen Elizabeth the colour of the ribbon was changed to sky-blue, and it assumed its present darker hue in the reign of Charles II.

Gerattyng. Differencing by the introduction of small charges. It is an early term, now obsolete.

Gimmel-ring. Two annulets, interlaced.

Girt, Girdled. Encircled, or bound round.

Gonfannon. A long flag, pointed or swallow-tailed at the fly, and displayed from a transverse bar attached to a staff.

127 Gorged. Encircled round the throat.

Gouttée, Guttée. Sprinkled over with drops either of gold—gouttée d’or; of silver—d’eau; of blue—de larmes (tears); of red—de sang (blood); or of black—de poix (pitch).

Grand Quarters. The four primary divisions of a Shield, when it is divided quarterly: Nos. 30, 36, 37. The term “Grand Quarter” may be used to signify a primary quarter or division of a quartered Shield or Coat, and to distinguish such a quarter when it is quartered.

Grieces. Steps.

Guardant. Looking out from the field: Nos. 172, 174, 176, 187.

Guige. A Shield-belt, worn over the right shoulder, and frequently represented in heraldic compositions as if sustaining a Shield of arms: Nos. 48, 49.

Gules. Red: No. 53.

Gurges, or Gorges. A charge formed of a spiral line of blue on a white field, and supposed to represent a whirlpool: borne (H. 3) by R. de Gorges: No. 256.

No. 256.— Shield of R. de Gorges.

Gyron. A Subordinary. Gyronny. A field divided into Gyrons: No. 147. (See page 70.)

Habited. Clothed.

Hames, Heames. Parts of horses’ harness.

Hammer, or Martel. Represented in blazon much in the same shape as the implement in common use (H. 3).

Harp. A device and badge of Ireland. The Irish Harp of gold with silver strings on a blue field forms the third quarter of the Royal Arms.

Hart. A stag, with attires; the female is a Hind: page 81.

128 Hastilude. A tournament.

Hatchment. An achievement of arms in a lozenge-shaped frame, placed upon the front (generally over the principal entrance) of the residence of a person lately deceased. In the case of the decease of an unmarried person, or of a widower or widow, the whole of the field of the hatchment is painted black; but in the case of a married person, that part only of the field is black which adjoins the side of the achievement occupied by the armorial insignia of the individual deceased. Thus, if a husband be deceased, the dexter half of the field of the hatchment is black, and the sinister white; and so, in like manner, if the wife be deceased, the sinister is black and the dexter white.

Hauriant. A fish in pale, its head in chief.

Hawk’s bells, jesses, and lure. A falconer’s decoy, formed of feathers with their tips in base, and joined by a cord and ring, No. 257; also bells with straps to be attached to hawks, No. 258.

No. 257.— Hawk’s Lure. No. 258.— Hawk’s Bells and Jesses.

Heightened. Raised; placed above or higher.

Heights. Applied to plumes of feathers which are arranged in rows or sets, one rising above another. See Panache.

Helm, Helmet. Now placed as an accessory above a Shield of arms, and bearing its Crest after the fashion in which, in the Middle Ages, both Helm and Crest were actually 129 worn in tournaments. A modern usage distinguishes Helms as follows:—The Sovereign—Helm of gold, with six bars, set affrontée, No. 259; Noblemen—Helm of silver, garnished with gold, set in profile, and showing five bars, No. 260; Baronets and Knights—of steel with silver ornaments, without bars, the vizor raised, set affrontée, No. 261; Esquires and Gentlemen—of steel, the vizor closed, and set in profile, Nos. 262, 263. The Helms that appear on early Seals and in other heraldic compositions till about A.D. 1600, are all set in profile, and the shield generally hangs from them couchée, as in No. 49. In these early compositions, the shield is small in proportion to the helm and its accessories.

Helms of No. 259.— the Sovereign. No. 260.— Nobles.

No. 261. No. 252. No. 263. Baronets and Knights. Esquires and Gentlemen. 130 Hemp-brake, Hackle. An instrument having saw-teeth, used for bruising hemp.

Heneage Knot. No. 264.

No. 264.— Heneage Knot. No. 265.— Arms of the Heralds’ College.

Herald. An officer of arms. The Heralds of England were incorporated by Richard III.; and from Queen Mary, in 1555, they received a grant of Derby House, on the site of which, between St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Thames, stands their present official residence, Heralds’ College, or the College of Arms. The college now consists of three Kings-of-Arms—Garter, Clarenceux, and Norroy; six Heralds, who have precedence by seniority of appointment—Chester, Lancaster, Richmond, Windsor, York, and Somerset; and four Pursuivants—Rouge Dragon, Portcullis, Rouge Croix, and Bluemantle. The official habit is a Tabard, emblazoned with the Royal Arms, and the Kings and Heralds wear a Collar of SS. The Kings have a Crown, formed of a golden circlet, from which rise sixteen oak-leaves, nine of which appear in representations; and the circlet itself is charged with the words, Miserere mei Deus secundum magnam misericordiam tuam (“Have mercy on me, O God, according to thy great loving-kindness”).

The supreme head of the English Heralds, under the 131 Sovereign, is the Earl Marshal, an office hereditary in the family of the Duke of Norfolk. The Arms of the College are—Arg., a cross gu., between four doves their dexter wings expanded and inverted az.: No. 265; Crest—From a crest-coronet or, a dove rising az.; Supporters—Two lions ramp. guard. arg., ducally gorged or. Each of the Kings has his own official arms, which he impales with his paternal coat on the dexter side of the shield. The Arms of Garter are—Arg., a cross gu.; on a chief az., a ducal coronet encircled with a Garter of the Order, between a lion of England and a fleur de lys, all or. Clarenceux and Norroy have the same shield, but the former has a lion of England only, crowned, on a chief gules; and the latter, on a chief per pale az. and gu., has a similar lion between a fleur de lys and a key, all of gold.

There is also another King styled “Bath,” who is specially attached to the Order of the Bath; he is not a member of the College.

No. 266.— Arms of Lyon Office. “Lyon King-of-Arms” is the chief Herald of Scotland; and the establishment over which he presides is styled the “Lyon Office.” The Arms of the Office are—Arg., a lion sejant erect and affronté gu., holding in his dexter paw a thistle slipped vert, and in the sinister an escutcheon of the second; on a chief az., a saltire of the first: No. 266.

Ireland is the heraldic province of “Ulster King-of-Arms.” His official armorial ensigns differ from those of Garter only in the charges of the chief, which are a lion of England between a golden harp and a portcullis.

Herison. A hedgehog.

Hill, Hillock. A mound of earth.

132 Hirondelle. A swallow.

Hoist. The depth of a flag from chief to base. See Fly.

Honour Point. No. 27, L.

Humettée. Cut short at the extremities.

Hurst. A clump of trees.

Hurt. A blue roundle.

Illegitimacy. See Chapter XII.

Imbrued, or Embrued. Stained with blood.

Impaled. Conjoined per pale.

Impalement. The uniting of two (or more) distinct coats per pale, to form a single achievement.

Imperially Crowned. Ensigned with the Crown of England.

Incensed, Inflamed. On fire; having fire issuing forth.

Increscent. No. 166, B. See Decrescent.

Indented. No. 38, A.

Inescutcheon. An heraldic Shield borne as a charge. This term is sometimes used to denote an Escutcheon of Pretence.

In bend. Disposed in the position of a bend; In Chevron, In Chief, In Cross, In Fesse, &c. Disposed after the manner of a chevron, or in the chief of the shield, or in the form of a cross, &c.

In Foliage. Bearing leaves.

In Lure. Wings conjoined in the form of a hawk’s lure.

In her piety. A term applied to a pelican feeding her young.

In Pretence. A term applied to a single inescutcheon placed upon and in the centre of a larger escutcheon.

In Pride. Having the tail displayed, as a peacock’s.

In Quadrangle. When four charges are so disposed that one is in each quarter of the shield.

In Splendour. The sun irradiated.

Irradiated. Surrounded by rays of light.

Issuant. Proceeding from, or out of.

Jambe, Gambe. The leg of a lion, or other beast of prey: No. 185.

133 Jelloped. Having wattles and a comb, as a cock.

Jesses. Straps for hawk’s bells.

Jessant. Shooting forth. Jessant de lys.—A combination of a leopard’s face and a fleur-de-lys: No. 267.

Joust. A tournament.

Jupon. A short, sleeveless surcoat, worn over armour from about 1340 to about 1405. It is often charged with armorial insignia, and thus is a true “coat of arms.”

No. 267. Jessant de lys. No. 270. Hastings Badge. No. 268, 269.— Heraldic Keys.

Key. When represented in early blazon, Keys have always elegant forms. No. 268 is from Peterborough Cathedral, and No. 269 from Exeter.

King-of-Arms. See Herald.

Knighthood, Orders of: Knights. See Chapter XVI.

Knot. An intertwined cord, borne as a badge. The varieties of this device are—The Bourchier, No. 219; the Bowen, No. 220; the Harington (the same as a Frette), No. 148; the Heneage, No. 264; the Lacy, No. 274; the Stafford, No. 304; and the Wake and Ormond, No. 313. Cords were sometimes intertwined about other figures and devices, and so formed what may be regarded as Compound Badges, which significantly declared the union of two houses: thus, the knot of Edward Lord Hastings unites the Hungerford sickle with the Peverel garbe: 134 No. 270; and the Dacre knot is entwined about the Dacre escallop and the famous “ragged staff” of Beauchamp and Neville: No. 235.

Labels.— No. 271. No. 272. No. 273.

Label, or File. A narrow ribbon placed across the field of a shield near the chief, and having three, five, or sometimes other numbers of points depending from it, its object being to mark Cadency. In the early Labels the number of the points was arbitrary, the usual numbers being five and three; and, subsequently, three points were almost universally used; the object always was to render the Label conspicuous. In blazon a Label is supposed to have three points; but, if more, the number is to be specified; thus, No. 271 is simply “a Label,” but No. 272 is “a Label of five points.” Labels appear early in the thirteenth century, and in the next century they are in constant use. Various charges may be placed on the “points” of Labels to extend their capacity for “differencing.” Since the time of Edward the Black Prince the Label of the Prince of Wales has been plain silver. The Label is almost exclusively (now without any exception) used in Royal Cadency; but, in modern Heraldry, in the case of all other persons it is the peculiar mark of the eldest son. The Label is also found as a charge. It has become a usage in the degenerate days of Heraldry to represent the Label as in No. 273, instead of the earlier and far preferable forms of Nos. 271, 272.

No. 274. Lacy Knot. Lacy Knot. No. 274.

135 Lambrequin. A mantling.

Langued. A term which refers to the tincture of an animal’s tongue.

Leaves. Their peculiarities are to be blazoned, as laurel leaves, oak leaves, &c.

Leopard, Leopardé. See page 84.

Letters of the Alphabet sometimes are Charges. Thus, the Arms of the Deanery of Canterbury are—Az., on a cross arg., the letter “x” surmounted by the letter “i” sable: the “x” is on the cross at the intersection of its limbs, and the “i” is above it.

Line, or Border Line. No. 38.

Lined. Having a cord attached: also, having a lining.

Lion. See page 83.

Lioncel. A lion drawn to a small scale, and generally rampant, Nos. 114, 115, 197.

Livery Colours. Of the Plantagenets, as one family, white and scarlet; of the house of York, blue and murrey; of the house of Lancaster, white and blue; of the house of Tudor, white and green. The present Royal Livery is scarlet and gold. In the Middle Ages, all great families had their own livery colours, which had no necessary relation to the tinctures of the shield.

Lodged. A term denoting animals of the chase when at rest or in repose, Nos. 25, 26.

Lozenge. A square figure set diagonally, No. 47 (also see page 69). The armorial insignia of unmarried ladies and widows, with the sole exception of a Sovereign, are blazoned on a Lozenge instead of an Escutcheon.

Lozengy. A field divided lozengewise: No. 145.

No. 275. Lymphad. Luce, or Lucy. The fish now called pike. See page 77 and No. 164.

Lure. See In Lure.

Lymphad. An ancient galley, No. 275. It was the feudal ensign of the Scottish lordship of Lorn, and as such quartered by the Duke of Argyll.

136 Maintenance, Cap of. See Chapeau.

No. 276.— Arms of Hastings. Manche, Maunche. A lady’s sleeve with a long pendent lappet, worn in the time of Henry I., and borne as an armorial charge by the families of Hastings, Conyers, and some others. Hastings (H. 3)—Or, a manche gu.: No. 276.

Mantle. A flowing robe worn over the armour, or over their ordinary costume, by personages of distinction of both sexes: the mantles of ladies were commonly decorated with armorial blazonry.

Mantling, or Lambrequin. A small mantle of some rich materials, attached to the knightly basinet or helm, and worn hanging down. It is usually represented with jagged edges, to represent the cuts to which it would be exposed in actual battle: No. 199. (See Panache.) Mantlings blazoned with achievements of arms are sometimes adjusted in folds to form a background to the composition, and they are also occasionally differenced with various charges.

No. 277.— Circlet of the Coronet of a Marquess. Marquess, Marquis. The second order of the British Peerage, in rank next to that of Duke. This rank and title were introduced into England in 1387, by Richard II., who then created his favourite, Robert De Vere, Marquess of Dublin. The next creation was by Henry VI. 137 A Marquess is “Most Honourable”; he is styled “My Lord Marquess”: all his younger sons are “Lords,” and his daughters “Ladies”; his eldest son bears his father’s “second title.” The Coronet, apparently contemporary in its present form with that of Dukes, has its golden circlet heightened with four strawberry leaves and as many pearls, arranged alternately: in representations two of the pearls, and one leaf and two half-leaves are shown, No. 277. The wife of a Marquess is a “Marchioness”; her style corresponds with that of her husband, and her coronet is the same.

Marshalling. The disposition of more than one distinct coat of arms upon a shield, so forming a single composition; or the aggroupment of two or more distinct shields, so as to form a single composition; also the association of such accessories as the helm, mantling, crest, &c., and of knightly and other insignia with a shield of arms, thus again forming a single heraldic composition. See Chapter XI.

Martel. A hammer.

Martlet. The heraldic Martin, usually represented without feet: Nos. 160, 161, and 70 and 86.

Mascle. Lozenge voided: No. 143. Masculée. A field divided mascle-wise.

Masoned. Representing brickwork.

Membered. To denote the legs of a bird.

Merchant’s mark. A device, adopted as early as 1400 by merchants, as a substitute for heraldic ensigns which were not conceded to them. Such marks are the predecessors of the Trade-brands and Marks of after times.

Mermaid, Merman, or Triton. The well-known fabulous creatures of the sea, borne occasionally as charges, but 138 more frequently as supporters, badges, or crests. A mermaid was the device of Sir William de Brivere, who died in 1226, and it is the badge of the Berkeleys.

Metal. The Tinctures Or and Argent: Nos. 50, 51.

Mill-rind. See Fer-de-Moline.

Mitre. The ensign of archiepiscopal and episcopal rank, placed above the arms of prelates of the Church of England, sometimes borne as a charge, and adopted by the Berkeleys as their crest. The contour of the mitre has varied considerably at different periods, the early examples being low and concave in their sides, the later lofty and convex. See No. 159.

Moline. A cross terminating like a Fer-de-moline, No. 97. In modern cadency it is the difference of the eighth son.

Moon. No. 166, page 80.

Motto. A word, or very short sentence, placed generally below a shield but sometimes above a crest, an idea perhaps derived from the “war-cries” of early times. A motto may be emblematical, or it may have some allusion to the person bearing it, or to his name and armorial insignia; or it may be the epigrammatic expression of some sentiment in special favour with the bearer of it. As a matter of course, allusive mottoes, like allusive arms, afford curious examples of mediæval puns. I give a few characteristic examples:—“Vero nil verius” (nothing truer than truth, or, no greater verity than in Vere)—Vere; “Fare, fac” (Speak—act; that is, a word and blow)—Fairfax; “Cave” (beware)—Cave; “Cavendo tutus” (safe, by caution, or by Cavendish)—Cavendish; “Set on,” says Seton; “Fight on,” quoth Fitton; “Festina lente” (On slow—push forward, but be cautious, that is), adds Onslow. Again: Jefferay says, “Je feray ce que je diray” (I shall be true to my word); Scudamore—Scutum amoris divini (the shield of Divine love); says James—“J’aime jamais” (I love ever); 139 says Estwick—“Est hic” (he is here); and Pole—“Pollet virtus” (valour prevails); and Tev—“Tais en temps” (be silent in time). The crest of Charteris, an arm with the hand grasping a sword, has over it—“This our charter is.” In his arms the Marquess Cholmondeley bears two helmets, and his motto is—“Cassis tutissima virtus” (valour is the safest helm); the crest of the Martins of Dorsetshire was an ape, with the significant motto—“He who looks at Martin’s ape, Martin’s ape shall look at him!” The motto of Perceval is—“Perse valens” (strong in himself); but, “Do no yll,” quoth Doyle. Some “lippes,” as Camden remarks, have a taste for “this kind of lettuce.”

Mound. A globe, encircled and arched over with rich bands, and surmounted by a cross-patée, the whole an ensign of the royal estate. A mound or orb forms part of the regalia, and the same form appears upon the intersecting arches of the crown of the Sovereign; and it also surmounts the single arch of the coronet of the Prince of Wales: Nos. 234, 289.

Mount. A green hill.

Mullet. A star, generally of five, but sometimes of six or more points (if more than five the number to be specified), always formed by right lines, as No. 278. A mullet is sometimes “pierced,” as in No. 279, when the tincture of the field is generally apparent through the circular aperture. In modern cadency an unpierced mullet is the difference of the third son. See Estoile.

No. 278.— Mullet. No. 279.— Mullet, pierced.

Mural Crown. Represents masonry, and is embattled: No. 280.

140 Naiant. Swimming in fesse. See Hauriant.

No. 280.— Mural Crown. No. 281.— Naval Crown.

Naissant. Equivalent to Issuant, but applied only to living creatures.

Naval Crown. Has its circlet heightened with figures of the stern and the hoisted sail of a ship alternating: No. 281.

Nebulée, or Nebuly. No. 38, H.

Nimbus. A glory about the head of a figure of a sainted personage: sometimes used to denote sanctity in a symbolical device.

Norroy. See Herald.

Nova Scotia, Badge of. See Baronet.

Nowed. Coiled in a knot, as a snake.

Ogress. A Pellet, or black roundle.

Opinicus. A fabulous heraldic monster, a dragon before, and a lion behind with a camel’s tail.

Oppressed. An alternative for Debruised.

Or. The metal gold: No. 50.

Ordinary. An early principal charge of a simple character. See Chapter VI., and Nos. 71-128: see also page 14.

Ordinary of arms. A list of armorial bearings, classified or arranged alphabetically, with the names of the bearers. See Armory.

Oreiller. A cushion or pillow, generally with tassels.

Orle. A Subordinary formed of a border of a Shield, which is charged upon another and a larger shield, as in No. 134. In Orle. Arranged after the manner of an Orle, forming a border to a Shield, as in No. 86.

141 Ostrich feathers. A Royal Badge: also a Device in a few instances charged by Royal and some other personages on an Armorial Shield. See Chapter XV.

Over all, or Sur tout. To denote some one charge being placed over all others.

Overt. With expanded wings.

Pale. One of the Ordinaries: No. 87. Pale-wise, or In Pale. Disposed after the manner of a Pale—that is, set vertically, or arranged vertically one above another, as are the Lions of England in No. 187, page 87.

Pall, Pallium. A vestment peculiar to Archbishops of the Roman Church: in Heraldry, as a charge, half only of the pall is shown, when it resembles the letter Y; it is borne in the arms of the Sees of Canterbury, Armagh, and Dublin.

No. 282. Bourdon. Pallet. Half a Pale.

Palmer’s Staff, Pilgrim’s staff, or Bourdon. No. 282. John Bourdon (H. 3) bears—Arg., three palmer’s staves gu.

Paly. Divided per pale into an even number of parts, which all lie in the same plane, as in No. 88. Paly Bendy. Divided evenly pale-wise, and also bend-wise, No. 118.

Panache. A plume of feathers, generally of the ostrich, set upright and born as a crest. A panache sometimes consists of a single row of feathers; but more generally it has two or more rows or “heights” of feathers, rising one above the other. In the greater number of examples the tips of the feathers are erect; in others they wave, or slightly bend over. A panache may be charged with some device or figure, “for difference,” as by the Tyndalls, with an ermine circlet, a martlet, and a fleur de lys. In Nos. 283, 285, from the seals of Edward Courtenay, and Edmund Mortimer (A.D. 1400 and 1372) the “heights” both expand and 142 rise in a curved pyramidal form. No. 284, from the seal of William le Latimer (A.D. 1372), shows a remarkable variety of both panache and mantling. Waving plumes formed of distinct feathers first appear near the end of the fifteenth century, and are prevalent during the sixteenth century.

No. 283.— Edward Courtenay. Panache Crests: No. 284.— William le Latimer. No. 285.— Edmund Mortimer.

Party, Parted. Divided.

Passant. Walking and looking forward: No. 173. Passant Guardant. Walking and looking out from the shield, No. 174. Passant Reguardant. Walking and looking back. Passant Repassant, or Passant and Counter Passant. Walking in opposite directions.

Pastoral Staff. The official staff of a bishop or abbot, having a crooked head, and so distinguished from an archbishop’s crozier.

Patée, or Formée.


Patriarchal. Varieties of the heraldic Cross, Nos. 106, 99, and 95.

Pean. The Fur, No. 60.

Peer. That general title, expressing their equality as members 143 of a distinct “order” in the realm, which is applied to Dukes, Marquesses, Earls, Viscounts, and Barons of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.

Peerage. The hereditament of a Peer: also rank of a Peer; a list of the Peers.

Pegasus. A horse with wings—a classic as well as an heraldic imaginary creature.

Pelican. Blazoned “in her piety,” when feeding her young with her own blood.

Pellet. A black roundle.

Pendent. Hanging.

Pennon. An armorial lance flag, pointed or swallow-tailed at the fly. No. 286 is from the Brass to Sir John d’Aubernoun, A.D. 1279; the arms are—Az., a chevron or.

Per. By means of, or after the manner of.

No. 286.— A Pennon. No. 287.— A Pheon.

Pheon. A pointed arrow-head, borne with the point in base, unless the contrary is specified, No. 287.

Phœnix. A fabulous eagle, always represented as issuant from flames.

Pile. One of the Ordinaries, in form like a wedge, Nos. 126, 127, 128. In Pile. Arranged after the form of a pile.

Planta Genista. The broom plant badge of the Plantagenets, No. 21.

Plate. A silver roundle.

144 Plenitude. The moon when full. See No. 166.

Plume. See Panache.

Points of Shield. No. 27. In Point is the same as In Pile.

Pomme. A green roundle.

Popinjay. A parrot (H. 3).

No. 288. A Portcullis. Port. A gateway, as the entrance to a castle: No. 222.

Portcullis. A defence for a gateway, No. 288: the badge of the Houses of Beaufort and Tudor, borne by the former with the significant motto, “Altera securitas” (additional security).

Potent. A variety of the heraldic cross, No. 108; also a Fur, No. 64.

Powdered, Poudrée. The same as Semée.

Preying. When an animal devours its prey. See Trussing.

Prince, Princess. In this country the rank and title of the members of the Royal Family. Their style is “Your Royal Highness.” The Coronet of the Prince of Wales differs from the crown of the King, only in having a single arch instead of two intersecting arches: No. 289. The coronets of the Princes and Princesses, the sons and daughters of the King, are the same as the coronet of the Prince of Wales, but without any arch: No. 290. The coronets of the Princes and Princesses, the grandchildren of the Sovereign, differ in having the circlet heightened with two crosses patée, as many strawberry leaves, and four fleurs-de-lys, No. 291. Other Royal coronets have the circlet heightened with four crosses patée, and as many strawberry leaves. No. 292. For the arms of their Royal Highnesses, see Chapter XVIII.

Circlets of Royal Coronets:

No. 289.— Prince of Wales. No. 290.— King’s Daughters and Younger Sons.

No. 291.— King’s Grandchildren. No. 292.— Royal Dukes.

Purfled. Lined and bordered or garnished.

Purpure. A colour: No. 56.

Pursuivant. A Herald of the lowest rank. In the Middle Ages, these officers were attached to the households of personages of high rank, and bore titles generally taken from the armorial insignia of their lords.

145 Quadrate. A form of cross: No. 94.

Quarter. The first (from the dexter chief) of the divisions of a shield that is parted per cross, as in No. 30; also any other division of a shield, to be specified in blazoning. See No. 36, and Canton.

Quartering. Marshalling two or more coats of arms in the different quarters of the same shield. When two coats are thus quartered, the one in the first quarter is repeated in the fourth, and the one in the second in the third; when three are quartered, the first quartering is repeated in the fourth quarter. Any required number of coats may be quartered on the same principle. This same term is also applied to denote the dividing a shield “quarterly,” as in No. 30, or into more than four divisions, as in No. 36.

Quarterly. A shield divided into four divisions, as in No. 30: each division to contain a complete coat of arms, or a distinct heraldic device or composition. Should the shield be divided into more than four sections, the number is to be specified: thus, No. 36 is “quarterly of eight,” &c. See Nos. 252, 253.

No. 293. Quatrefoil. 146 Quarterly Quartering and Quartered. The quartering of a “quarter” of a shield that is divided “quarterly”; also distinguished as “Compound Quartering.” See page 34.

Quatrefoil. A flower or figure having four foils or conjoined leaves, No. 293. In modern cadency a Double Quatrefoil is the difference of the ninth son.

Queue Fourchée. Having a forked tail; No. 181.

Quilled. Used to blazon the quills of feathers: thus, a blue feather having its quill golden is blazoned—A feather az., quilled or.

No. 294. The Ragged Staff Badge. Radiant. Encircled with rays.

Rayonée. Formed of Rays.

Ragulée, Raguly. Serrated, as No. 38, G. A “ragged staff,” No. 294, is a part of a stem from which the branches have been cut off roughly. This “ragged staff,” or “staff ragulée,” is the famous badge of the Beauchamps, and, derived from them, of the Nevilles. No. 294 is from the monument of the great Earl, Richard de Beauchamp, K.G., who died in 1439, at Warwick.

Rampant, Rampant Guardant and Reguardant. Nos. 171, 172; when reguardant, the animal looks backward.

No. 295.— Rebus of Abbot Kirton. No. 296.— Rebus of Bishop Beckyngton.

Rebus. An allusive charge or device. A cask, or tun, to represent the final syllable “ton” of many surnames, is frequently found. I give a few examples of several varieties of Rebus:—John Oxney, Canterbury—An 147 eagle (the emblem of St. John the Evangelist, to denote “John”) standing on an ox, charged on its side with the letters NE. John Wheathamstede, St. Albans—An eagle and an Agnus Dei (the emblems of St. John the Evangelist and St. John the Baptist, to denote “John”), and clusters of ears of wheat. John Ramryge, St. Albans—A ram, gorged with a collar inscribed with the letters RYGE. Woodstock—The stump or stock of a tree. Abbot Islip, Westminster—A man falling from a tree, exclaiming, “I slip!” and a human eye, and a slip (small branch of a tree). Walter Lyhart, Norwich—A hart (stag) lying down in water. An owl, with the letters DOM on a scroll in its beak, for Bishop Oldham, at Exeter. A church (“kirk”) on a tun, with a pastoral staff and the initial R, for Abbot Robert Kirton, No. 295; and a bird on a tun, and a tree growing out of a tun, for Burton and Ashton, all at Peterborough. At Wells, with an initial T, a fire-beacon planted in a tun, for Bishop Thomas Beckyngton, No. 296; and at Lullinstone, Kent, in stained glass, the shield of Sir John Peché, A.D. 1522—Az., a lion rampt. queue fourchée erm., crowned or—is encircled by peach-branches fructed and in foliage, each peach being charged with the letter É, No. 297; the crest-wreath also is formed of a similar peach-branch.

No. 297.— Arms and Rebus of Sir John Peché.

Recercelée. A variety of the heraldic cross: No. 98.

Reflexed, Reflected. Curved and carried backwards.

Reguardant. Looking backwards: see No. 182.

Rein-deer. Heraldically drawn with double antlers, one pair erect, the other drooping.

Respecting. Face to face—applied to creatures not of a fierce nature.

Rest. See Clarion, No. 228.

Ribbon, Riband. A diminutive of a Bend.

Rising, Roussant. About to fly.

148 Rompu. Broken.

Rose. Represented in blazon as in Nos. 298, 299, and without leaves. The five small projecting leaves of the calyx, that radiate about the flower itself, are styled barbs, and when they are blazoned “proper” these 149 barbs are green, as the “seeds” in the centre of the flower are golden. Both the “red rose” of Lancaster and the “white rose” of York, but more especially the latter, are at times surrounded with rays, and each is termed a “rose-en-soleil,” No. 300. The rose, the emblem of England, is generally drawn like the natural flower; or with natural stem, branches, leaves, and buds, but with heraldic rose-flowers. In modern cadency the heraldic rose is the difference of the seventh son.

Nos. 298, 299.—Heraldic Roses. No. 300.— Rose en Soleil.

Roundle. See page 72.

Rustre. A mascle pierced with a circular opening: No. 144.

Sable. The colour black: No. 54.

Sagittary. The fabulous centaur, half man and half horse.

Salamander. An imaginary being, supposed to live in flames of fire; it is represented sometimes as a kind of lizard, and at other times (as in the crest of Earl Douglas, A.D. 1483) as a quadruped somewhat like a dog, breathing flames.

Salient. Leaping or bounding.

Saltire. An ordinary, in form a diagonal cross: Nos. 120, 121, 122. Saltire-wise, or in saltire. Arranged after the form of a saltire.

Sanglier. A wild boar.

Sans. Without. “Sans nombre,” without any number fixed or specified.

Savage-man, or Wood-man. A wild man, naked except large wreaths of leaves about his head and loins, and carrying a club.


No. 301.— Crest of Hamilton. Saw, or Frame-saw. Borne as the crest of Hamilton, Duke of Hamilton, which is thus blazoned—Out of a ducal crest-coronet or, an oak-tree fructed and penetrated transversely in the main stem by a frame-saw ppr., the frame gold; above the crest the motto, “Through!” This device is said to commemorate the escape into Scotland, in 1323, of Sir Gilbert Hamilton, a reputed ancestor of the present ducal house. At the court of Edward II. Sir Gilbert had unadvisedly expressed admiration for Robert Bruce, on which John le Despencer struck him. Despencer fell in single combat the next day, and Hamilton fled, hotly pursued, northward. Near the border the fugitive and a faithful esquire joined some wood-cutters, assumed their dress, and commenced working with them on an oak, when the pursuers passed by. Hamilton, saw in hand, observed his esquire anxiously watching their enemies as they passed, and at once recalled his attention to his woodman’s duties by the word, “Through!”—thus, at the same time, appearing to consider the cutting down the oak to be far more important than the presence of the strangers. So they passed by, and Hamilton followed in safety. This crest does not appear in the Hamilton seals till long after the days of Bruce and his admirer, Sir Gilbert: No. 301.

Scarpe, Escarpe. A diminutive of a Bend sinister.

Scintillant. Emitting sparks.

Seax. A Saxon sword.

Seeded. Having seeds or seed-vessels, as in the centre of an heraldic rose. See Nos. 298-300.

Segreant. A term applied to a griffin when rampant.

Sejant. Sitting.

Semée. Sown broadcast or scattered, without any fixed 151 number, over the field; parts of the charge thus semée appearing at the border-lines of the composition. See Nos. 247, 250, 252.

Shake-fork. Resembles the letter Y, but does not extend to the margin of the shield, and is pointed at its extremities.

Shamrock. A trefoil plant or leaf, the badge of Ireland.

Shield, or Escutcheon. The Shield of Heraldry is fully described at page 32. See also Nos. 27, 39-49.

Ship. Sometimes blazoned as a modern vessel, but sometimes also as an ancient galley. See Lymphad.

Shoveller. A species of duck.

Simple Quartering. Dividing a shield quarterly, with the quartering of any of the quarters. See Quartering.

No. 302. Sixfoil. Sinister. The left side. No. 27.

Sinople. The colour vert in French Heraldry.

Sixfoil. A flower of six leaves: No. 302.

Slipped. Having a stalk, as a leaf or branch: No. 309.

Spear. The spear or lance is not of common occurrence in blazon; but it appears, with heraldic propriety, in the arms granted in 1596 to the father of the great poet, who bore—Or, on a bend sa. a spear gold, the head arg.—the arms of Shakespeare, No. 303. (In the woodcut the bend is accidentally shaded for gules, instead of sable.)

No. 303.— Arms of Shakespeare.

Spur. Not common as an heraldic charge. Before about 1320 the spur had a single point, and was known as the “pryck-spur”; about that time appeared a “rouelle-spur” of simple form; in the middle of the fifteenth century spurs of extravagant length were introduced.

SS., Collar of. See Collar, and No. 231.

Stafford-knot. No. 304.

Stall-plate. A plate bearing the arms of a knight and placed 152 in his stall. The stall-plates of the Knights of the Garter and the Bath are severally placed in the Chapels of St. George and of Henry VII., at Windsor and Westminster. The earliest plates now in existence at Windsor, though many of them bear arms of an earlier date, were executed about 1430.

No. 304.— Stafford Knot. No. 305.— Stapleton Badge.

Standard. A long narrow flag, introduced for the purpose of heraldic display, in the time of Edward III., but not in general use till a later period. Standards generally had the Cross of St. George next the staff, to which succeeded the badge or badges and the motto of the owner. See Chapter XVII.

Staple. Borne by Stapleton: No. 305 represents a badge formed of two staples.

Statant. Standing.

Star. See Estoile and Mullet; also a knightly decoration.

Stirrup. Borne, with appropriate straps and buckles, by Scudamore, Giffard, and a few others.

Stock. The stump of a tree.

Stringed. As a harp or a bugle-horn; or, suspended by, or fastened with, a string.

Sun. When represented shining and surrounded with rays, he has a representation of a human face upon his disc, and is blazoned “In splendour.” Sunbeams, or Rays, are borne in blazon, and form an early charge. See Collar.

Supporter. A figure of whatsoever kind that stands by a Shield of arms, as if supporting or guarding it. Single Supporters occasionally appear, but the general usage is to have a pair of Supporters—one on each side of the 153 supported Shield. They came gradually into use in the course of the fourteenth century, but were not regularly established as accessories of Shields till about 1425, or rather later. At first they were generally alike, being then duplicate representations of the badge, but subsequently the more prevalent custom was that the two Supporters should differ, as in the case of the Royal Supporters, the Lion and the Unicorn, famous in History as in Heraldry. See Bearer, Tenant, and also Chapter XVI.

Surcoat. Any garment worn over armour; but especially the long flowing garment worn by knights over their armour until about 1325, when its form was modified by cutting it short in front, and it was distinguished as a Cyclas. See Jupon.

Surmounted. Placed over another.

Swan. When blazoned “proper,” white with black beak and red legs. It is the badge of the Bohuns, and of their descendants the Lancastrian Plantagenets, the Staffords, and some others. This Swan has his neck encircled with a coronet, from which a chain generally passes over his back. By Henry V., the Swan badge of his mother, Mary de Bohun, was borne with the wings expanded.

Sword. When borne as a charge, straight in the blade, pointed, and with a cross-guard. All the appointments of the weapon are to be blazoned. It appears, as a spiritual emblem, in several episcopal coats of arms; in the arms of the City of London, No. 306, the first quarter of a Shield of St. George (arg., a cross gu.) is charged with a sword erect gules, the emblem of St. Paul, the special patron of the English metropolitan city. The sword is also borne in blazon in its military capacity.

No. 306.— Arms of City of London.

154 Tabard. A short garment with sleeves, worn in the Tudor era. It has the arms blazoned on the sleeves as well as on the front and back: No. 307, the Tabard of William Fynderne, Esquire, from his brass, A.D. 1444, at Childrey in Berkshire: the arms are—Arg., a chevron between three crosses patée sable, the ordinary being charged with an annulet of the field “for Difference.” A similar garment is the official habit of heralds.

No. 307.— Tabard; A.D. 1444.

Tau, Tau-Cross. A cross formed like the letter T, so called in Greek, No. 93; borne as a charge in the arms of Drury, Tawke, and some others: this charge is also called the Cross of St. Anthony: it is sometimes borne on a badge, as in the Bishop’s Palace at Exeter. See Chapter XV.

Templars, Knights. See Chapter XIX.

Tenent, Tenant. Used by French Heralds to distinguish human figures from animals, as supporters.

Tennée, or Tawney. A deep orange-colour; in use in the Middle Ages as a livery-colour.

No. 308.— Badge of James I. Thistle. The national Badge of Scotland, represented after its national aspect, and tinctured proper. James I. of Great Britain, to symbolise the union of the two realms of England and Scotland, compounded a Badge from the Rose of one realm, and the Thistle of the other, united by impalement under a single crown: No. 308. The impaled rose and thistle is borne by the Earl of Kinnoull, repeated eight times upon a bordure.

Timbre. In the early Heraldry of England, this term denotes 155 the true heraldic crest: but, in the modern Heraldry of France, the “timbre” is the Helm in an armorial achievement. Timbred. Ensigned with a Helm; or, if referring to an early English achievement, with a Crest. It is a term very seldom met with in use.

Tiercée. In tierce, Per tierce. Divided into three equal parts.

Tinctures. The two metals and the five colours of Heraldry: Nos. 50-56. See page 40. It was one of the puerile extravagancies of the Heralds of degenerate days to distinguish the Tinctures by the names of the Planets in blazoning the arms of Sovereign Princes, and by the names of Gems in blazoning the arms of Nobles.

Torse. A crest-wreath.

Torteau, plural torteaux. A red spherical Roundle: No. 152.

Tower, Turret. A small castle. Towered. Surmounted by towers, as No. 222, which is a “Castle triple towered.”

No. 309. Trefoil Slipped. Transposed. Reversed.

Trefoil. A leaf of three conjoined foils, generally borne “slipped,” as in No. 309.

Treflée, or Botonée. A variety of the cross: No. 103. Treflée also implies semée of trefoils.

Treille, Trellis. See page 71, and No. 150.

Tressure. A subordinary. See pages 66, 67; and Nos. 135-8.

Tricked. Sketched in outline.

Trippant, or Tripping. In easy motion, as a stag. See page 81; and No. 168.

Triton. See Mermaid.

Trivet. A circular or triangular iron frame, with three feet, borne by the family of Tryvett.

No. 310. Trumpet. Trogodice. An animal like a reindeer.

Trumpet. In blazon usually a long straight tube, expanding at its extremity: No. 310, from the brass to Sir R. de Trumpington, at Trumpingdon, near Cambridge; A.D. 1272.

Trussed. With closed wings. Trussing. Devouring—applied to birds of prey.

156 Tudor Rose. An heraldic rose, quarterly gu. and arg.; or a white heraldic rose, charged upon a red one.

Tun. A cask; the rebus of the final syllable TON in many surnames. See Rebus.

Tynes. Branches of a stag’s antlers. See Attires.

Ulster. See Baronet and Herald.

Undy, Undée. Wavy: No. 38, C.

Unguled. Hoofed.

Unicorn. A well-known fabulous animal, famous as the sinister supporter of the Royal Shield of England.

Union Jack. The National Ensign of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, fully described in Chapter XVII. It is borne on an inescutcheon upon the arms of the Duke of Wellington as an augmentation.

Uriant. A term said to be applied to a fish when it swims in a vertical position, head downwards. The reverse of Hauriant, q.v.

Vair. A Fur: Nos. 61, 62, 63.

Vane. See Fan.

Vert. In French Heraldry, Sinople. The colour green: No. 55.

Vervels, Varvals. Small rings.

Vested. Clothed.

No. 311.— Circlet of a Viscount’s Coronet. Viscount. The fourth degree of rank and dignity in the British Peerage, in Latin Vice-Comes, introduced by Henry VI., A.D. 1440. Vice-comes is also the Latin word for the office of Sheriff. A Viscount is “Right Honourable,” and is styled “My Lord.” All his sons and daughters are “Honourable.” His Coronet, granted by James I., has a row of sixteen pearls, of comparatively small size set on the circlet; in representations nine are shown: No. 311. The wife of a Viscount is a Viscountess, who has the same rank, style, and coronet as her husband.


No. 312. Shield at St. Michael’s Church, St. Alban’s. Vivre. An early term, fallen into general disuse; but apparently denoting a Barrulet or Cotise Dancettée; as in No. 312, at St. Michael’s Church, St. Albans.

Voided. Having the central area removed.

Voiders. Diminutives of Flanches.

Volant. Flying. Vorant. Devouring.

Vol. Two bird’s wings conjoined, having the appearance of an eagle displayed without its body: No. 207.

Vulned. Wounded.

Wake Knot. No. 313.

Walled. Made to represent brick or stone-work. The term masoned is, however, usually employed.

No. 313.— Wake Knot. No. 314.— Catherine Wheel. No. 315.— Wyvern.

Water Bouget. No. 218.

Wattled. Having a comb and gills, as a cock.

Wavy, Undée. No. 38, C.

Wheat-sheaf. See Garb.

Wheel, Catherine Wheel. Has curved spikes projecting from its rim: No. 314: from a shield upon a boss, about A.D. 1400, in the south choir-aisle of the church of Great Yarmouth.

Wreath, Crest-Wreath. See Crest-Wreath, and No. 233; also Chapter XIV.

Wreathed. Adorned with a wreath, chaplet, or garland; or twisted into the form of a wreath, &c.

Wyvern, Wivern. A fabulous creature, being a species of dragon with two legs: No. 315.

158 CHAPTER XI MARSHALLING Aggroupment— Combination— Quartering— Dimidiation— Impalement— Escutcheon of Pretence— Marshalling the Arms of Widowers, Widows, and others; Official Arms; and, the Accessories of Shields.

“Marshalling is a conjoining of diverse Coats in one Shield.” —Guillim.

Upon this concise definition, Guillim, in another part of his work, adds the following comment:—“Marshalling is an orderly disposing of sundry Coat Armours pertaining to distinct Families, and their contingent ornaments, with their parts and appurtenances, in their proper places.” Hence it is apparent that this term, “Marshalling,” implies—

1. First, the bringing together and the disposition of two or more distinct “Coats in one Shield”:

2. Secondly, the aggroupment of two or more distinct Coats to form a single heraldic composition, the Shields being still kept distinct from one another: and,

3. Thirdly, the association of certain insignia with a Shield of arms, so as to produce a complete heraldic achievement.

The association of “Arms” with Names, Dignities, and Estates would necessarily require, at an early period in the history of Heraldry, the establishment of some regular and recognised system for the combination and aggroupment of various distinct coats and insignia, whenever a single individual became the representative of more than one family, or was the hereditary possessor of several dignities and properties.

159 Again: it would be equally necessary that this system should extend to the becoming heraldic declaration and record of Alliances of every kind, including (a matter of no little importance in the Middle Ages) feudal dependence.

In another, and a secondary sense, this same term, Marshalling, is used by Heralds to denote the general arrangement and disposition of heraldic charges and insignia in blazon upon the field of a Shield.

In its simplest form, Marshalling is effected by Aggroupment without Combination—by placing two or more Shields of arms, that is, in such positions as to form a connected group of distinct Shields, either with or without various accessories. Seals afford excellent examples of Marshalling of this order. These Seals may be classified in two groups,—one, in which an effigy appears; and a second, in which the composition does not include any effigy. Here I may observe that the same armorial blazonry that was displayed upon their military surcoats by Princes, Nobles, and Knights, was adopted by Ecclesiastics for the decoration of their official vestments, and also (towards the close of the thirteenth century) by Ladies of rank, as an appropriate style of ornamentation for their own costume: and many examples of the effigies of Ladies, with a few of Ecclesiatics, adorned in this manner with heraldic insignia, exist in Seals and in Monumental Memorials. In Beverley Minster there is a noble effigy of a priest, a member of the great family of Percy (about A.D. 1330), the embroideries of whose vestments are elaborately enriched with numerous allied shields of arms. Upon his episcopal seal, Lewis Beaumont, Bishop of Durham from 1317 to 1333, has his effigy standing between two Shields of Arms (to the dexter, England; to the sinister, a cross potent between four groups of small crosses patées, three crosses in each group), while his chasuble is semée de lys and also charged with a lion rampant—the arms of the house of Beaumont.

No. 316.— Seal of Margaret, Queen of Edward I.

The 160 obverse of the Seal of Margaret, daughter of Philip the Hardy, King of France, the second Queen of our Edward I., illustrates this usage in the instance of ladies: No. 316. Upon her tunic the Queen has emblazoned the three lions of her royal husband; on her right side is a shield of France, the arms of her royal father; and on the left side a corresponding shield is charged with a lion rampant. I have already shown the reverse of this fine Seal (No. 251), which in the original is one inch more in depth than it appears in these woodcuts.5 Other characteristic examples are the Seals of Agnes de Percy, whose effigy, having the arms of Louvaine upon the tunic, holds two armorial shields, one in 161 each hand: and of Margaret, Countess of Lincoln and Pembroke (about 1241), who blazons the old arms of De Laci—quarterly or and gu., a bend sa., over all a label vert—upon the tunic of her effigy, and has the same arms on a Shield to the dexter, while another Shield to the sinister is charged with the lion rampant, borne by the De Lacies as Earls of Lincoln. The effigies of illustrious Ladies, which appear on Seals with allied Shields of arms, are not always represented in heraldic costume: good examples are the Seals of Isabelle of France, Queen of Edward II., and of Elizabeth, daughter of Edward I., who was Countess, first of Holland, and afterwards of Hereford: both are engraved in Sandford’s “Genealogical History of England,” page 121.

No. 317.— Seal of Margaret, Lady de Ros. (Laing.) The Seal of Margaret Bruce, of Skelton, Lady de Ros, attached to a deed, dated 1820, has the effigy of the noble lady, wearing her ermine mantle, and supporting two Shields of arms—the Shield of De Ros, gu., three water-bougets arg., to the dexter, and a Shield of Bruce, a lion rampant: No. 317. I am indebted, for the use of the excellent woodcut of this very interesting seal, to Mr. Laing of Edinburgh, the talented author of the two noble volumes on the Early Seals of Scotland, which occupy a foremost position amongst the most valuable as well as the most beautiful heraldic works that have ever been published in Great Britain. (See page 11.) In the Monumental Brasses and also in the Sculptured Monumental Effigies of Ladies of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 162 heraldic costume is frequently represented, and the figures are constantly associated with groups of Shields of arms. As most characteristic examples I may specify the effigy of a Lady, about A.D. 1325, at Selby in Yorkshire; and the Brass in Westminster Abbey, A.D. 1399, to Alianore de Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester.

No. 318.— Seal of Joan, Countess of Surrey.

The aggroupment of various armorial ensigns upon a Seal, without the presence of any effigy, is exemplified in the characteristic Seal of Joan, daughter of Henry Count de Barre, and of Alianore, daughter of Edward I., the widow of John de Warrenne, Earl of Surrey, A.D. 1347. In this remarkable composition, No. 318, the arms, blazoned on lozenges, are, in the centre, Warrenne; in chief and base, England; and to the dexter and sinister, De Barre (No. 162): also, at the four angles of the group, the lion and castle of Leon and Castile, in direct allusion to the descent of the Countess from Alianore, first Queen of Edward I. In the original, this elaborate composition is only one and a half inches in diameter. Still smaller, measuring no more than one and a quarter inches in diameter, and yet no less rich in either its Heraldry or its Gothic traceries, is the 163 beautiful little Counter-seal of Mary de Saint Paul, wife of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, which is faithfully shown on an enlarged scale, in order to render the details more effectively, in No. 319. This illustrious lady, who founded Pembroke College, Cambridge, A.D. 1373, was the daughter of Guy de Chastillon, Count of St. Paul, by his wife Mary, daughter of John de Dreux, Duke of Brittany, and of Beatrice, sister of Edward I. On her Seal, accordingly, the Countess of Brittany marshals, in the centre, the arms of her husband (De Valence: No. 86), and those of her father (De Chastillon—gu., three pallets vair, on a chief or a label of three points az.), united upon a single shield by “Dimidiation”—a process presently to be described: to the dexter, the arms of her Royal relatives of England are blazoned in a circular compartment: to the sinister, in a similar compartment, are the fleurs de lys of France Ancient, No. 247, at that time so closely allied with the English lions: and, finally, in a third roundle, in the base of the composition, are the arms of De Dreux (chequée or and az., within a bordure gu.;6 over all a canton of Brittany, No. 15, borne by the maternal grandfather of the Countess: the legend is, + S . MARIE . DE . SEYN . POVL . COMITISSE . PEMPROCHIE. The original impression of this Seal, from which the woodcut, No. 319, was drawn, is appended to a charter, dated 1347, which is preserved amongst the muniments of Pembroke College. A very good example of the aggroupment of Shields upon a Seal, under conditions differing from those that now have been illustrated, I have already given in No. 204. Another beautiful and most interesting example, now unfortunately partially mutilated, is the Seal of Matilda of Lancaster, the wife, first, of William de Burgh, Earl of Ulster (and 164 by him mother of Elizabeth, the wife of Prince Lionel of Clarence), and, secondly, of Sir Ralph de Ufford. This seal, of circular form, No. 320, displays to the dexter a shield of De Burgh—or, a cross gu.; to the sinister, a shield of Ufford—or, a cross engrailed sa., in the first quarter a fleur de lys, for difference: in base there is a lozenge of De Chaworth (the mother of the Countess was Matilda de Chaworth)—barrulée arg. and gu., an orle of martlets sa.; and in chief there remains part of another lozenge of Lancaster, to complete this remarkable heraldic group. Of the legend there remains only . . ILLV MATILD’ . . . . SE . . . The introduction of Badges, with a Shield or Shields of arms, in the composition of a Seal, is another variety of this same system of Marshalling. No. 321, the Seal of Oliver de Bohun, exemplifies this usage, having the white swan Badge of the noble house of Bohun thrice repeated about the Shield. See No. 114. Also see, in the frontispiece, the Seal of Earl Richard de Beauchamp, No. 449, which is described in Section II. of Chapter XXII.

No. 319.— Seal of Mary, Countess of Pembroke. No. 320.— Seal of Matilda of Lancaster. 165 Marshalling by Aggroupment was practised under another form by placing Shields of arms in the different panels of the same architectural monument.

Marshalling by Combination is effected by actually forming, for the blazonry of a single Shield, a composition which includes the principal charges of two or more allied Shields. The composition of the Shield borne by the house of De Dreux, to which I have just referred in describing the Seal of the Countess of Pembroke, No. 319, is a most striking example of this variety of Marshalling: and this Shield was borne by John de Dreux, created Earl of Richmond by his uncle King Edward I., who lived and died in England, as it is represented in No. 322—the field, chequée or and azure, being for De Dreux; the canton ermine for Brittany; and the bordure, gules charged with golden lions of England, representing the royal Shield of England, and showing the close connection existing between the Earl of Richmond and his Sovereign. The shield of Prince John of Eltham (No. 24), England within a bordure of France, is another characteristic example of this Marshalling by Combination.

No. 321.— Seal of Oliver de Bohun. No. 322.— Shield of Earl John de Dreux.

For many reasons, except in particular instances, these 166 methods of Marshalling were not considered to be altogether satisfactory. Accordingly, a fresh arrangement was devised which would preserve intact the original integrity of each coat of arms, would imply a definite systematic method of arrangement, and would admit into a single composition any required number of distinct coats. This Marshalling by Quartering, naturally suggested by such simple bearings as Nos. 16 and 17, consists in dividing the Shield, as in No. 30, into four parts, and placing in each of these divisions or quarters one of the coats to be marshalled on a single Shield. If two coats only are thus to be “quartered,” the most important of the two occupies the first quarter, and is repeated in the fourth; and, the other coat is placed in the second quarter, and repeated in the third. The earliest example known in England is the quartered Shield of Castile and Leon—quarterly: first and fourth, gules, a castle triple-towered or; second and third, argent, a lion rampant gu., No. 323. This shield is sculptured upon the monument in Westminster Abbey to Alianore, daughter of Ferdinand III., King of Castile and Leon, and Queen of Edward I.: the date is 1290. This form of Marshalling began gradually to be adopted during the first half of the fourteenth century, and in the second half of that century it became generally adopted. Other examples of quartered shields I have already given in Nos. 252 and 253.

No. 323.— Shield of Castile and Leon. No. 324.— Shield of Henry, Earl of Northumberland.

Should there be three Coats to be quartered, they would severally occupy the first, second, and third quarters of the Shield, in due order, and the first quarter would be repeated in the fourth. In quartering four coats, no repetition would be necessary. If more than four coats would require to be quartered, the Shield would be divided into whatever number 167 of sections might be necessary, as in No. 36, and the required arrangement would be made; should any repetition be necessary, the first quarter is to be repeated in the fourth. This process, whatever the number of the coats thus marshalled (and their number sometimes is very great), is always entitled “quartering”; and each of these divisions of a Shield, for the purpose of Marshalling, is distinguished as a “Quarter.” Occasionally a quartered coat would have to be marshalled with others. In the “grand quartering” which then takes place, the quartered coat is treated precisely as any other member of the group. See No. 37. For example, the Shield, No. 324 (R. 2), of Henry, first Earl of Northumberland, is—I. and IV. Grand Quarters,—first and fourth, or, a lion rampt. az., for Louvaine, or Percy modern: second and third, gu., three lucies haurient arg. (No. 164) for Lucy: II. and III. Grand Quarters,—az., five fusils conjoined in fesse or, for Percy ancient.

When a Shield to be quartered has a very numerous array of Quarterings, Grand Quartering is seldom adopted; but, in its stead, the new quarterings are marshalled in their proper succession, with the original quarterings of the Shield.

In this Marshalling the first quarter is occupied by the most important quartering, which is determined (without any fixed rule) by the original grant or licence: the other quarterings follow, in the order in which they may have been “brought in” to the composition.

No. 325.— Shield of Mayor of Winchelsea. No. 326.— De Valence, dimidiating Claremont Nesle.

To denote and record Alliance by Marriage, two distinct Coats were first marshalled upon a single Shield by Dimidiation. This process is accomplished in the following manner. The Shield to be charged with the two Coats in union is divided per pale, as in No. 28: on the dexter half 168 the corresponding half, or generally somewhat more than that half, of the arms of the husband is marshalled: then, in like manner, the sinister half is charged with the corresponding portion of the arms of the wife. In the Shield, No. 250, from another Seal of Queen Margaret, England dimidiates France ancient, Nos. 187 and 247. This Dimidiation in most cases produces a singular effect; as in No. 325, a Shield from the Seal of the Mayor of Winchelsea, one of the famous Sussex Cinque Ports, which bears England dimidiating azure, three hulls of ships, in pale, or: here the dimidiated lions and ships appear to unite for the purpose of forming the most extravagant of compound monsters. The Seal of the Borough of Great Yarmouth substitutes three herrings, in allusion to the staple fishery of the port, for the ships, and dimidiates them with the national lions. In the central Shield of the Seal, No. 319, I have shown De Valence dimidiating De Chastillon. In No. 326, from the monument of William de Valence, De Valence appears 169 dimidiating the French Coat of Claremont Nesle—gu., semée of trefoils, two barbels haurient addorsed or: the Dimidiation here cuts off and removes one-half of the De Valence martlets and also one of the two barbels of Claremont.

No. 327.— Camoys, impaling Mortimer. The characteristic features of one or of both of the united Coats, as I have just shown, being commonly rendered indistinct and uncertain by Dimidiation, that form of marshalling was generally superseded by Impalement in the course of the third quarter of the fourteenth century. This process, at once simple and effectual, marshals the whole of the husband’s arms on the dexter half of a Shield divided per pale, as No. 28; and the whole of the arms of the wife on the sinister half of it. Such an impaled Shield is borne by a husband and wife during their conjoint lives; and should the wife become a widow, by her the impaled arms are borne during her widowhood charged upon a lozenge. The dexter half only—the husband’s arms—of an impaled Shield is hereditary. Fine examples of Shields that are both impaled and quartered, are preserved in the monuments of Edward III. and his Queen Philippa, in the Brass to Alianore de Bohun, and in the monument to Margaret Beaufort, all in Westminster Abbey. Other fine examples occur on the monument of Earl Richard Beauchamp, at Warwick. No. 327, from the Brass to Thomas, Lord Camoys, K.G., and his wife, Elizabeth Mortimer (the widow of Henry Hotspur), at Trotton, in Sussex, A.D. 1410, marshals Camoys—arg., on a chief gu. three plates, impaling Mortimer, No. 131. Again, at Warwick, the Brass to Earl Thomas de Beauchamp and his Countess, 170 Margaret Ferrers of Groby, A.D. 1406, has a Shield of Beauchamp—gu., a fesse between six crosslets or, impaling Ferrers—gu., seven mascles, three three and one, or.

No. 328.— D’Aubigny, impaling Scotland.

It is to be observed that Bordures and Tressures, which are not affected by Quartering, are dimidiated by Impalement,—that is, that side of both a Bordure and a Tressure which adjoins the line of Impalement is generally removed: thus, one of the small Shields sculptured upon the canopy of the monument of Queen Mary Stuart, at Westminster, is charged with D’Aubigny impaling Scotland,—that is, az., three fleurs de lys or, within a bordure gu. charged with eight buckles gold, impaling No. 138. This Shield, represented in No. 328, has both the bordure on its dexter half, and the tressure on its sinister half, dimidiated by the impalement. There are other excellent examples of this partial dimidiating in the monuments of Margaret Tudor and Margaret Beaufort, in the same chapel of Westminster Abbey.

No. 329.— Shield of Earl Richard Beauchamp.

The husband of an Heiress or a Co-heiress, instead of impaling the arms of his wife, marshals them upon his Shield charged as an Escutcheon of Pretence. The son of an heiress, as heir to his maternal grandfather through his mother, as well as to his own father, quarters on his Shield, and transmits to his descendants, the arms of both his parents, his father’s arms generally being in the first quarter. The Shield of Richard Beauchamp, K.G., Earl of Warwick (died in 1439), is a good example of the use of an Escutcheon of Pretence; it is represented in No. 329, 171 drawn from the garter-plate of the Earl, in St. George’s Chapel, Windsor. The Earl himself, as his hereditary coat, quarters Beauchamp with Newburgh—chequée or and az., a chevron erm.: upon this, for his Countess, Isabelle, daughter and heiress of Thomas le Despencer, Earl of Gloucester, he marshals an Escutcheon of Pretence charged with De Clare, No. 124, quartering Le Despencer—quarterly arg. and gu., in the second and third quarters a frette or, over all a bend sa. In the monument of this great Earl, at Warwick, upon the Escutcheon of Pretence the arms of Bohun are quartered with those of Clare and Despencer.

No. 330.

A few very simple diagrams will clearly elucidate the principle of Marshalling the arms of Husband and Wife. Suppose B (Baron) to represent the Husband, and F (Femme) the Wife: then, No. 330 B may represent the arms 172 of the Husband, and No. 330 F the arms of the Wife. If F be not an heiress, the arms of B and F, as husband and wife, are borne impaled, as in No. 330 B F; and their son bears No. 330 B only. If F be an heiress, the arms of B and F, as husband and wife, are borne as in No. 331—the arms of the wife on an Escutcheon of Pretence; and, in this case, the son of B and F quarters the arms of both his parents, as No. 332. Now, suppose this son, whose arms are No. 332, to marry a lady, not an heiress, whose arms are No. 330 F F, he would simply impale the arms of his wife, as in No. 333, and his son would bear No. 332 only, as his father bore that quartered shield before his marriage. But if the wife of the bearer of No. 332 were to be an heiress, he would charge the arms of his wife in pretence upon his own hereditary paternal Shield, as in No. 334; and his son, by this heiress, as before, would quarter the arms of both his parents, as in No. 335. It is obvious that Marshalling on this system (of which I here give the general outline) admits of a widely-extended application. Younger sons in all 173 cases place over all the quarterings of their Shield their own distinctive Mark of Cadency, until they inherit some different quartering from those to which the head of their house is entitled, and the quartering itself then forms sufficient difference.

No. 331. No. 332.

No. 333. No. 334. No. 335.

A Widower who marries again places the arms of both his wives upon any permanent record, but for ordinary purposes of use, e.g. on a seal or carriage, bears only the arms of his living wife.

An Unmarried Lady bears her paternal arms on a lozenge, without any Helmet, Crest, or Motto.

A Widow bears on a lozenge the arms borne by her husband and herself. Should she marry again, a Widow ceases to bear the arms of her former husband.

A Peeress in her own right, if married to a Peer, has both her own arms and those of her husband fully blazoned, and the lozenge and the Shield, with all their accessories, are marshalled to form a single united group, the achievement of the husband having precedence to the dexter. If married to a Commoner, a Peeress in her own right bears her own arms on a lozenge as before, and her husband marshals her arms ensigned with her coronet in pretence on his Shield: and this lozenge and Shield are grouped together, the lozenge yielding precedence.

Prelates bear the arms of their see impaling their own paternal and hereditary arms, the insignia of the see occupying the dexter half of the Shield, this Shield being ensigned with a mitre only. A married Prelate bears also a second Shield, placed to the sinister of the other, on which are marshalled, in accordance with ordinary usage, his own personal arms with those of his wife. The mitre then is placed over the conjoined shields.

The Kings of Arms, in like manner, bear two Shields, disposed to form a single group: on the dexter Shield their official arms impale their personal; and on the sinister 174 Shield their personal arms are marshalled with the arms of their wives.

Again, the same usage obtains in marshalling the arms of Knights of Orders of Knighthood who, when married, bear two Shields grouped together. On the dexter Shield are blazoned the arms of the Knight himself alone; and around this Shield are displayed the insignia of his Order, or Orders, of Knighthood: and on the sinister Shield the arms of the Knight and of his wife are marshalled, but without the knightly insignia. This second Shield is generally environed with decorative foliage. This usage, prevalent in England, is not accepted or adopted by foreign Heralds: nor does it appear to be required by true heraldic principle, or to be strictly in accordance with it. The wife of a Knight shares his knightly title, and takes precedence from her husband’s knightly rank; and a knight, with perfect heraldic consistency, might marshal his own knightly insignia about the Shield which is charged with his own arms and those of his wife, whether united by impalement, or when the latter are borne in pretence: and thus a single Shield would be borne, and there would cease to exist any motive for endeavouring to impart to a second Shield some general resemblance to its companion by wreaths or other unmeaning accessories. There are ancient precedents for the use of a single shield.


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