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A Cross having a narrow border lying in the same plane with itself, is “fimbriated,” such a border being a “fimbriation”: thus, No. 89, Az., a cross gu., fimbriated arg., represents the Cross of St. George in our National “Union Jack.” A Cross having its four extremities cut off square, so that it does not extend in any direction to the border-lines of the shield, is “couped” or “humettée”. If the extremities of a Cross are cut off to points, it is “pointed,” as in No. 90. 55 If its central area is entirely removed, so that but little more than its outlines remain, it is “voided,” or (H. 3) “a false Cross” (“faux croix”): when its four limbs are equal in length, it is a “Greek Cross,” as No. 91: when the limbs are unequal, the lower limb or shaft being longer than the other three, as in No. 92, it is a “Latin Cross” or a “long cross”: but neither of these two last terms are used regarding the plain cross throughout, notwithstanding that differences in the shape of the shield may materially alter the proportion of the limbs. If a cross be formed of a shaft and two horizontal limbs only (like the letter T), as in No. 93, it is a “Tau Cross,” or “Cross Tau”: if it is pierced at the intersection of the limbs, and the entire central area be voided, it is said to be “pierced quarterly.” A Latin Cross on steps, is “on Degrees,” and it is distinguished as a “Calvary Cross.” Charges having a cruciform arrangement are “in Cross.”

No. 91. No. 92. No. 93.

No. 94.— Quadrate. No. 95.— Patriarchal. No. 96.— Fourchée.

The Cross:—its Heraldic Varieties. The Cross-symbol appears in English Heraldry under very many varieties and modifications of form and condition, some of them of great beauty. The following engraved representations of the various examples are so explicit, that descriptions of them are unnecessary. The Cross Quadrate, No. 94. The Cross Patriarchal, No. 95. The Cross Fourchée, No. 96. The Cross Moline, represented charged upon the Shield attributed to the Saxon Kings of England, No. 23: this 56 same shield—Az., a Cross moline or, is borne by De Molines or Molyneux, No. 97. The Cross Cercelée or Recercelée (H. 3),—Gu., a Cross recercelée erm., No. 98, for Anthony Bec, Bishop of Durham. The Cross Patonce (H. 3),—Gu., a Cross patonce arg., No. 99, from the Seal of Wm. de Vesci, A.D. 1220. The Cross Fleury, No. 100, should be compared carefully with Nos. 97 and 99, the Crosses Moline and Patonce. The Cross Fleurettée, No. 101. The Cross Pommée, No. 102. The Cross Botonée or Treflée, No. 103. The Cross Crosslet, or Crosslet crossed, No. 104. The term “Crosslet” is strictly applicable to any Cross on a very small scale: but it is usually applied to denote a Cross that is crossed as in No. 104. Small Crosses Botonée are occasionally used as these “Crosses-Crosslets,”—as at Warwick in the arms of the Beauchamps, the Earls of Warwick. Crosslets are frequently blazoned semée over the field of a Shield, in which case the special term crusilly is often used; and, in smaller numbers, they 57 also are favourite Charges. No. 105 is the Cross Clechée or Urdée.

No. 97.— Cross Moline: Arms of De Molines. No. 98.— Cross Recercelée: Arms of Bishop Anthony Bec. No. 99.— Cross Patonce: Arms of William de Vesci.

No. 100.— Fleurie. No. 101.— Fleurettée. No. 102.— Pommée.

No. 103.— Botonée. No. 104.— Crosslet. No. 105.— Clechée.

The Cross Patée or Formée is represented in No. 106. No. 107 is the “Cross of eight Points,” or the Maltese Cross: this example is drawn from the portrait of Phillippe de Villiers de L’Isle-Adam, elected forty-third Grand Master of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, A.D. 1521; this picture is in the possession of the Earl of Clarendon, K.G. The Cross Potent, No. 108. The Cross Avellane, No. 109. The Crossed-Crosslet, and the Crosses Patée, Botonée, and Potent, are also drawn having their shaft elongated and pointed at the base: in this form they are severally blazoned as a “Crossed-Crosslet Fitchée” (or fitched), a “Cross Patée 58 Fitchée,” &c.,—a Cross, that is, “fixable” in the ground; No. 110 is an example of a Cross Botonée Fitchée. Several of these varieties of the heraldic Cross occur but rarely; and there are other somewhat fanciful varieties so little in use, as to render any description of them unnecessary. The student of mediæval monumental antiquities will not fail to observe a certain degree of resemblance between some of the Crosses of Heraldry, and those that are incised and sculptured on sepulchral slabs.

No. 106.— Patée. No. 107.— Maltese. No. 108.— Potent.

No. 109.— Avellane. No. 110.— Botonée Fitchée.

The Bend (H. 3) resembles both the Fesse and the Pale in every condition, except that it crosses the field diagonally from the dexter chief to the sinister base. No. 111, the Shield of Scrope, is—Az., a bend or. A celebrated contest for the right to bear this simple Shield took place, A.D. 1385-1390, between Sir Richard le Scrope and Sir Robert Grosvenor, which was decided in favour of the former. No. 112, for Radclyffe, is—Arg., a bend engrailed sa. Two uncharged Bends may appear in one composition: thus, for Le Boteler—Arg., two bends az., No. 113; and for Frere—Gu., two bends or (both H. 3).

No. 111.— Le Scrope. No. 112.— De Radclyffe. No. 113.— Le Boteler.

The Diminutives of the Bend are the Bendlet and the Cotise, the one containing one-half and the other one-fourth of its area. A Cotise is sometimes borne singly, when it is a Riband. A bendlet couped is a baton. A Bend between two Cotises is cotised: thus, No. 114, for De Bohun,—Az., a Bend arg., cotised or, between six lioncels rampt. gold; this Shield is engraved from the Seal of Humphrey de Bohun, fourth 59 Earl of Hereford (A.D. 1298-1322); in it the cotised Bend is very narrow, evidently to give more space for the lioncels. Charges displayed on a Bend slope with it—that is, they would be erect, were the Bend to be set vertically and to become a Pale: thus, another De Bohun, Sir Gilbert (H. 3), distinguishes his Shield by tincturing his Bend or, and charging upon it three escallops gules, as in No. 115. In No. 88, the eaglets also exemplify the disposition of charges upon a Bend. Charges set diagonally on the field of a Shield, in the position in which a bend would occupy, are said to be “in bend” and are arranged in the same manner: but it would be quite possible to have three or more charges each disposed bendwise; but yet, nevertheless, when taken together occupying the position of a fesse and therefore described also as in fesse. This distinction between charges bendwise (or bendways) and charges in bend should be carefully noted.

No. 114.— Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford. No. 115.— Sir Gilbert de Bohun.

A field divided into an even number of parts by lines drawn bendwise, is “bendy,” the number of the divisions to be specified: as a matter of course, a field thus 60 “bendy” becomes a “varied field,” in which all the divisions lie in the same plane: thus, No. 116, for De Montford (H. 3 and E. 2)—Bendy of ten or and az. Bendlets are in relief, as in No. 117, for De Bray—Vairée, three Bendlets gu. If a field be divided by lines drawn bendwise, and also by others drawn either vertically or horizontally, it is “paly bendy,” as No. 118, or “barry bendy,” as No. 119. These two forms, which, however, are very rarely met with, should be carefully distinguished from a field lozengy. A Bend issuing from the sinister chief is a Bend Sinister.

No. 116.— De Montford. No. 117.— De Bray.

No. 118.— Paly Bendy. No. 119.— Barry Bendy. 61 The Saltire (H. 3), a combination of a Bend with a Bend Sinister, may also be regarded as a Diagonal Cross. Thus, the Crosses of St. Andrew of Scotland, and of St. Patrick of Ireland are Saltires—the former, No. 120—Az., a Saltire arg.: the latter—Arg., a Saltire gu. The arms of the great family of Neville reverse those of St. Patrick, and are—Gu., a Saltire arg., No. 121: so Drayton has recorded that

“Upon his surcoat valiant Neville bore

A silver Saltire upon martial red.”

Barons’ War, i. 22.

No. 120.— St. Andrew. No. 122.— De Neville. No. 121.— De Neville.

Charges set on a Saltire slope with its limbs (all, however, pointing to the chief), the central charge being erect; and the disposition of charges set “in saltire” is the same: a single charge set on a Saltire is blazoned erect on the central point of the Ordinary, as in No. 122, another Shield of Neville, in which the “Silver Saltire” is charged with a rose gules. A Saltire may be borne with a Chief, as in No. 73.

No. 123.— De Stafford. No. 124.— Shield of De Clare.

No. 125.— Early shield of De Clare. The Chevron (H. 3), in form and proportions is rather more than the lower half of a Saltire. The Diminutive is a Chevronel, containing half a Chevron, or perhaps less: thus, for De Stafford (E. 2),—Or, a Chevron gu., No. 123: for the great family of De Clare, from whom so many other families derived their Chevrons and Chevronels—Or, three 62 Chevronels gules, No. 124 (H. 3). Two Chevrons may be borne in one composition: or they may appear with a Fesse, as in No. 79: or with a Chief, as (H. 3), for De Crombe—Erm., a Chevron gu., and on a Chief of the last three escallops or; for St. Quintin (H. 3)—Or, three Chevronels gu., a Chief vair. A field Chevronée is of rare occurrence: the three Chevronels of De Clare, however, No. 124, appear to have been derived from a field Chevronée: certainly, on his seal, “Strongbow” has the Chevronée Shield, No. 125, about A.D. 1175. Charges set on a Chevron, or disposed “in Chevron,” are always placed erect.

The Pile (H. 3), resembling a wedge in form, is borne both single and in small groups. Unless some other disposition on the field be specified, this Ordinary issues from the chief of the Shield. Examples: Or, a Pile gu., between six and charged with three estoiles (or mullets) counter-changed,—for Robert de Chandos, No. 126: Or, three Piles az., No. 127,—for Sir Guy de Brian; Or, three Piles gu., a canton erm., No. 128,—for De Bassett (all H. 3): and (E. 2), Arg., a Pile engrailed sa.—for Sir Rob. de Forneus. In early emblazonments three piles appear almost uniformly to be depicted with the points converging. 63 But a distinction is now made, and when the piles are intended to converge, as in No. 128, they are termed “in point.”

No. 126.— De Chandos. No. 127.— De Brian. No. 128.— De Bassett.

The probable structural origin of these Ordinaries is sufficiently apparent to render any further comment on that interesting circumstance superfluous.

64 CHAPTER VII THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY Section IV The Subordinaries:— The Canton or Quarter: The Inescutcheon: The Orle: The Tressure: The Bordure: Flanches: The Lozenge, Mascle, and Rustre: The Fusil: The Billet: The Gyron: The Frette— The Roundles.

“The second in a line of stars.” —Idylls of the King.

The Subordinaries. This title has been assigned, but without any decisive authority, to another group of devices, second in rank to the Ordinaries. Very few writers agree as to which are ordinaries and which subordinaries; nor does there seem any reason why any distinction between them should exist. Nor, indeed, save that all are exclusively heraldic, why some of them should be regarded as anything more than ordinary charges. These Subordinaries are the Canton, the Quarter, the Inescutcheon, the Orle, the Tressure, the Bordure, Flanches, the Lozenge, Mascle and Rustre, the Fusil, the Billet, the Gyron, and the Frette. The Canton, by the early Heralds commonly styled the “Quarter,” sometimes has been grouped with the Ordinaries. And it must here be observed that the Lozenge, Fusil, Billet, Gyron, and Frette were not used as single charges by the early Heralds; but by them the fields of Shields were divided lozengy and gyronny, or they were semée of Billets, or covered over with Frette-work, from which the single charges evidently were afterwards obtained.

The Canton (H. 3), sometimes blazoned as a Quarter, 65 cut off by two lines, the one drawn in pale and the other bar-wise, or in fesse, is either the first quarter of the field of a Shield, or about three-fourths of that quarter, but smaller if not charged. The confusion between the canton and the quarter is due to the fact that ancient arms in which the charge is now, and has been for centuries past, stereotyped as a canton and drawn to occupy one-ninth of the Shield, were uniformly drawn and blazoned in early times with the charge as a quarter. But there is a marked distinction now made between the canton and the quarter. A Canton ermine is of frequent occurrence, as in No. 128; but it is generally borne charged, and it always overlies the charges of the field of the Shield, as No. 129, for De Kyrkeby (R. 2)—Arg., two bars gu.; on a canton of the last a cross moline or; and, for Blundell (H. 3)—Az., billettée, on a canton or a raven ppr., No. 130.

No. 129.— De Kyrkeby. No. 130.— Blundell.

The Inescutcheon (H. 3) is a Shield borne as a charge, and superimposed upon another Shield larger than itself. When one Inescutcheon is borne, it is usually placed on the fesse-point; but several Inescutcheons may appear in one composition. The well-known Shield of the Mortimers supplies a good example, No. 131 (H. 3)—Barry of six or and az., an inescutcheon arg.; on a chief gold, gyroned of the second, two pallets of the same: for Darcy—Arg., an inescutcheon sa., within an orle of roses gu., No. 132 (E. 2): 66 Arg., three inescutcheons gu., for De Wyllers (E. 2), No. 133. This is also the well-known Scottish coat of Hay.

No. 132.— Darcy. No. 131.— De Mortimer. No. 133.— De Wyllers.

No. 134. De Balliol.

The Orle (H. 3), blazoned by early Heralds as a “false escutcheon” (“faux escocheon”), or as an “inescutcheon voided,” is the border of a Shield or Escutcheon—a Shield, that is, voided of the central area of its field, and, like an Inescutcheon, charged on a Shield. The arms of Balliol, No. 134, are—Gu., an Orle arg. (H. 3). These arms are blazoned on many Scottish Seals of the greatest interest, and on the Seals of Balliol College, Oxford. Small charges are frequently disposed about the border of a Shield “in Orle,” as in Nos. 86 and 132.

The Tressure (H. 3) may be regarded as a variety of the Orle; indeed, in its simplest form it is a very narrow Orle, which is generally set round with fleurs de lys. A Tressure thus enriched is represented in No. 135: in this example all the heads of the fleurs de lys point externally, and all their stalks internally, and this accordingly is blazoned as a “Tressure flory.” In No. 136, which, like No. 135, is a single Tressure, the fleurs de lys are so disposed that the heads and stalks of the flowers point alternately in contrary directions: this is blazoned as a “Tressure flory counterflory.” From this last example the Tressure that is so well known in the blazonry of the Royal Shield of Scotland differs, in being “double.” This, the double 67 Tressure of Scotland, is a combination of two such single Tressures as No. 136, and it is produced from them in the manner following:—From one such single Tressure, as No. 136, all the alternate heads and stalks of the fleurs de lys that point internally are cut away and removed; then a second similar Tressure, of rather smaller size, is denuded of all its external adornment, and in that condition it is placed within the former Tressure, leaving a narrow interval between the two.

No. 135.— Single Tressure Flory. No. 137.— Double Tressure flory counterflory. No. 136.— Single Tressure flory counterflory.

Each component half of this “double Tressure flory counterflory,” accordingly, has its own independent series of demi-fleurs de lys, the stalks and heads of the flowers alternating, and the one alternate series pointing externally, while the other points internally. When in combination, these two series of demi-fleurs de lys must be so arranged that the heads of the flowers in one series correspond with their stalks in the other, as in No. 137. I am thus particular in describing the process of producing the Royal Tressure, because it is frequently to be seen incorrectly drawn. No. 138, the Royal Shield of Scotland, now displayed in the second quarter of the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom, is thus blazoned—Or, a lion rampt. within a double Tressure flory counterflory, gu. It 68 will be observed that a narrow strip of the golden field of this Shield intervenes between the two Tressures. There are many fine examples of this Shield in Scottish Seals; in the Garter-plate, also, of James V. of Scotland, K.G., at Windsor; and on the Monuments in Westminster Abbey to Mary Queen of Scots (A.D. 1604), and to the Countess of Lennox, the mother of Lord Darnley (A.D. 1577). Mr. Seton (“Scottish Heraldry,” p. 447) states that the Tressure may be borne “triple”; and, after specifying the Scottish families upon whose Shields the same honourable bearing is blazoned, he adds:—“In the coat of the Marquess of Huntly, the Tressure is flowered with fleurs de lys within, and adorned with crescents without; while in that of the Earl of Aberdeen it is flowered and counter-flowered with thistles, roses, and fleurs de lys alternately.”

No. 138.— Scotland.

The Bordure (H. 3), as its name implies, forms a border to a Shield: it is borne both plain and charged. Thus, for De Waltone (E. 2)—Arg., a cross patée sa., within a Bordure indented gu., No. 139: for Richard, Earl of Cornwall, second son of King John (H. 3),—Arg., a lion rampt. gu., crowned or, within a Bordure sa. bezantée, No. 140. The Bordure, and its important services in Heraldry, will be more fully considered hereafter. (See Chapters XII. and XIII.)

No. 139.— De Waltone. No. 140.— Richard, Earl of Cornwall.

Flanches are always borne in pairs; but they are not of very early date, nor do they often appear in blazon. 69 Flanches are formed by two curved lines issuing from the chief, one on each side of the Shield: they are shown, shaded for azure, in No. 141; and in No. 142 are their Diminutives, Flasques or Voiders, shaded for gules. But these diminutives are hardly ever met with. There is a close resemblance between these charges and a peculiar dress worn by Ladies of rank in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; but it is not easy to determine whether the dress suggested the Flanches on the Shield, or was derived from them. One thing, however, is certain—the dress must have possessed very decided good qualities, since it continued in favour for more than two centuries. It is remarkable that many of the ancient Greek Shields have pierced Flanches.

No. 141.— Flanches. No. 142.— Flasques.

The Lozenge (E. 2), Mascle (H. 3), and Rustre. The Lozenge is a diamond-shaped figure, or a parallelogram set diagonally. The Mascle is a Lozenge voided of the field, No. 143; and the Rustre, No. 144, is a Lozenge pierced with 70 a circular opening. In the early days of Heraldry the Lozenge and the Mascle were evidently held to be identical. The Shield of the famous Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, in the early Rolls is blazoned as “masculée”: but his Seal proves it to have been, as in No. 145, lozengy vair and gu. The Lozenge, it will be remembered, is always set erect upon the field of a Shield.

No. 143.— Mascle. No. 145.— De Burgh, Earl of Kent. No. 144.— Rustre.

The Fusil is an elongated Lozenge. The Arms of Montacute or Montagu (see No. 20) are—Arg., three Fusils conjoined in fesse gu., No. 20: the Arms of Percy are—Az., five fusils conjoined in fesse or.

No. 20.— Montacute. No. 146.— Deincourt.

The Billet (H. 3) is a small elongated rectangular figure. Thus, for Deincourt, No. 146—Az., billettée, a fesse dancette or. The early Heralds blazoned a “Fesse Dancette” as simply a “Dancette” or “Danse.” See also No. 130.

No. 147. Campbell.

The Gyron, a triangular figure, not known in English blazon as a separate charge (except perhaps in the one case of the arms of Mortimer), gives its title to the gyronny field, which is more commonly found in the Heraldry of the North than of the South. The field gyronny generally, and more particularly in Scotland, is divided into eight pieces: but the divisions are sometimes six, ten, twelve, or even sixteen in number. A Roll of the time of Henry III. has, for Warin de 71 Basingborne—“Gerony d’or et d’azur.” The Arms of Campbell are—Gyronny or and sa., No. 147.3 Here, where there are eight pieces of divisions, it is not necessary to specify the number; but if they were either more or less than eight the blazon would be—gyronny of six, of ten, &c.

The Frette, in more recent Heraldry, has generally superseded the original field fretty. This interlaced design, whether borne as a distinct figure, as No. 148, or repeated over the field of a Shield, as in No. 149, differs from a field lozengy or gyronny, in being a bearing charged upon the field of a Shield, and not a form of varied surface: No. 149, for De Etchingham (E. 2), is—Az., fretty arg. An early variety or modification of Frette is the Trellis or Treille, in which the pieces do not interlace, but all those in bend lie over all those in bend sinister, and they are fastened at the crossings with nails—“clouée,” as in No. 150. Richard de Trussell or Tressell (H. 3) bears—Arg., a trellis gu., clouée or.

No. 148.— A Frette.

No. 150.— Trellis Clouée. No. 149.— De Etchingham.

The Roundles, or Roundlets. These simple figures, in constant use in every age of Heraldry, are divided into two groups, which correspond with the division of the Tinctures into “Metals” and “Colours.”

No. 151. Bezant.

The first group contains the two Roundles of the Metals, which are flat discs: 1, The Bezant, or golden Roundle, No. 151, which has apparently derived its name from 72 the Byzantine coins with which the Crusaders, when in the East, would have been familiar. 2, The Silver Roundle, or Plate, is from the Spanish “Plata”—silver. When Bezants or Plates appear in considerable numbers, the field on which they are charged is said to be “bezantée” or “platée.” See No. 140.

No. 152. Torteau.

The second group contains the five Roundles of the Colours, which are globular, and are usually shaded accordingly. The Torteau, No. 152, in the plural Torteaux, is gules: the Hurt is azure: the Pellet or Ogress is sable: the Pomme is vert: and the Golpe is purpure. These distinctive titles, which are more calculated to perplex the student than to simplify his study, are of comparatively recent origin, the early Heralds having used the terms “Bezant,” “Plate,” and “Torteau,” with the general designations “Roundle” and “Pellet,” adding the tinctures for the others. Examples:—Az., bezantée, for Wm. de la Zouche: Or, on a fesse gu. three plates, for Roger de Huntingfield: Arg., ten torteaux, four, three, two, one, for Alex. Giffard (all H. 3). See also Nos. 80, 82.

No. 153. Fountain.

No. 154. Annulet. A circular figure or Roundle that is barry wavy arg. and az., is blazoned as a “Fountain,” No. 153. Examples:—Arg., three fountains, for Welles: Arg., a Chevron sable between three fountains, borne by a family named Sykes, their name being an ancient term signifying a well or fountain. An Annulet, or a plain ring, No. 154, was sometimes blazoned as a “false Roundle”—a Roundle, that is, pierced, and having its central area removed.

3. In the illustration the colours are unfortunately reversed.

The colors were corrected in the “colorized” version of the illustration.

73 CHAPTER VIII THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY Section V Miscellaneous Charges:— Human Beings— Animals— Birds— Fish— Reptiles and Insects— Imaginary Beings— Natural Objects— Various Artificial Figures and Devices— Appropriate Descriptive Epithets.

“The Formes of pure celestiall bodies mixt with grosse terrestrials; earthly animals with watery; sauage beasts with tame; fowles of prey with home-bred; these again with riuer fowles; reptiles with things gressible; aery insecta with earthly; also things naturall with artificiall.” —Guillim’s “Display of Heraldry,” A.D. 1611.

Thus, in his own quaint fashion, the enthusiastic old Herald of the seventeenth century indicates the number and variety of the Charges, which in process of time had been introduced into Armory even before his era. In earlier days the Charges of Heraldry were much less varied, comparatively few in their numbers, and generally of a simple character. It will readily be understood, however, that fresh figures and devices would continually appear in blazon; and also that these, in their turn, would lead the way for the introduction of further varieties and new modifications.

Human Beings are of very rare occurrence, except as Supporters. Parts of the human frame constantly appear, but they are more generally borne as Crests upon helms than as charges on shields. “Moor’s heads” or “Saracen’s heads” appear in some coats, with arms, hands and legs: and a human heart is well known as a charge in the coat of 74 the famous house of Douglas, where it was placed to commemorate the duty entrusted by Robert Bruce to the “good Sir James Douglas,” that he should bear with him the heart of his Sovereign and friend to the Holy Land, and bury it there. Sir James fell, fighting with the Moors of Spain, A.D. 1330. This Shield of Douglas is a characteristic example of the gradual development of armorial composition. About A.D. 1290, the Seal of William, Lord Douglas, displays his Shield, No. 155, bearing—Arg., on a chief az. three mullets of the field. Next, upon the field of the Shield of William, Lord Douglas, A.D. 1333, there appears, in addition, a human heart gules, as in No. 156. And, finally, the heart is ensigned with a royal crown, as in No. 157, this form appearing as early as 1387.

No. 155.— Shield of Douglas. No. 156.— Shield of Douglas. No. 157.— Shield of Douglas.

No. 158. Isle of Man. The Shield of the ancient kingdom of the Isle of Man, No. 158, still continues to be the heraldic ensign of that island: it is—Gu., three human legs in armour ppr., conjoined in the fesse-point at the upper part of the thighs, and flexed in triangle. This true curiosity of Heraldry leads Mr. Planché to remark, that “the arms of Man are legs” (“Pursuivant of Arms,” p. 112). The Shield represented in No. 158 is drawn from an original example of the age of Edward I. in the Heralds’ College. At later periods, the armour of the conjoined limbs is represented 75 in conformity with the usages then prevalent, and golden spurs are added. The ancient symbol of the island of Sicily, in which the limbs are without either armour or clothing, has been represented in No. 10: this device also appears in ancient examples with a human head at the junction of the limbs. Three human arms, united in the same manner, are borne on the shield of the mediæval family of Tremaine.

No. 159.— Shield of St. Alban’s Abbey (partly restored).

Human figures, winged and vested, and designed to represent Angels, are occasionally introduced in English Heraldry, their office generally being to act as “Supporters” to armorial Shields. Fine examples, in admirable preservation, may be seen boldly sculptured in the noble timber-roof of Westminster Hall; also in panels over the principal entrance to the Hall, and in various parts of the Abbey of Westminster. In the grand Abbey Church of St. Alban at St. Alban’s, numerous other examples of great excellence yet remain, the works of Abbot John de Wheathamstede, about A.D. 1440. In No. 159 I give a representation of the Shield of Arms of the Abbey of St. Alban—Az., a 76 saltire or, supported by Angels, and the Shield ensigned by the Mitre of Abbot Thomas De la Mere, as it is represented in his noble Brass in the Abbey Church. The Shield and the Angel Figures are the work of Abbot John. The Heads of the Figures, which are destroyed in the original, are restored from stained glass of the same period in the Abbey Church. Figures of Angels holding Shields of Arms—each figure having a shield in front of its breast, are frequently sculptured as corbels in Gothic churches.

In the earliest Rolls of Arms, the Lion is the only animal that is found in blazon, with the sole addition of Boar’s heads. Deer, dogs, bulls, calves, rams, and a few other animals subsequently appear to share heraldic service and honours with the king of beasts. In modern Armory, however, almost every living creature has been required to discharge such duties as Heralds have been pleased to assign to them. The Lion of Heraldry I leave to be considered, with the Eagle, in the next Chapter. In comparatively early blazon, the Bear is borne by Fitz Urse: the Calf, by Calveley and De Vele: the Ram, by Ramsey and Ramryge: the Lamb, by Lambert and Lambton: the Otter (loutre, in French), by Luttrel: the Hedgehog (Fr., herrison), by De Heriz, afterwards Harris: and so also, in like manner, some other animals appear as armes parlantes (see p. 16).

No. 160. Early Martlet.

No. 161. Martlet. With the lordly Eagle a few other Birds are associated in early Heraldry: and, after a while, others join them, including the Falcon, Ostrich, Swan, Peacock or Pawne, and the Pelican borne both as a symbol of sacred significance, and also by the Pelhams from being allusive to their name. Cocks, with the same allusive motive, were borne by Cockayne: Parrots, blazoned as “Popinjays,” appear as early as Henry III.: and in a Roll of Edward II., the Sire Mounpynzon has a Lion charged on the shoulder with a Chaffinch—in French a Pinson. The favourite bird, however, 77 of the early Heralds is the Martlet, the heraldic Martin, a near relative of the Swallow or Hirondelle. The Martlet is practically always represented in profile, at rest, and with its wings closed. The few exceptions are modern. In some early examples the feet are shown, as in No. 160: but, in the Shield of Earl Wm. de Valence in Westminster Abbey, A.D. 1296, the Martlet appears feetless, as in No. 161; and at a later period this mode of representation was generally adopted. French Heralds deprive their Martlets of beak as well as feet.

No. 162.— Banner of De Barre. “As the symbol of a name,” writes Mr. Moule, “almost all Fish have been used in Heraldry; and in many instances Fish have been assumed in Arms in reference to the produce of the estate, giving to the quaint device a twofold interest” (“Heraldry of Fish,” p 13). The earliest examples are the Barbel, the Dolphin, the Luce (or Pike), the Herring, and the Roach. In conjunction with fish we may perhaps consider the Escallop which, as a charge, belongs to the earliest period of Heraldry. The Barbel, so named from the barbs attached to its mouth to assist it in its search for food, was introduced into English Heraldry by John, Count De Barre, whose elder brother married Alianore, eldest daughter of Edward I. At Carlaverock he displayed, as the chronicler has recorded, “a blue banner, crusilly, with two Barbels of gold, and a red border en-grailed,” 78 No. 162. The Dolphin, borne by Giles de Fishbourne (H. 3), and afterwards introduced into several English Shields, is best known as the armorial ensign of the Dauphin, the eldest son and heir apparent of the Kings of France, who bore, marshalled with the arms of France—Or, a Dolphin az. This title of “Dauphin” was first assumed by Charles V., who succeeded to the Crown of France in 1364. In No. 8 I have shown after what manner the Dolphin was represented by an ancient Greek Artist: in the Middle Ages the heraldic Dolphin appeared as in No. 163. Geffrey de Lucy (H. 3) bears—Gu., three Lucies or. On his marriage with the heiress of Anthony, Lord Lucy, in 1369, Henry, fourth Lord Percy of Alnwick, quartered these three fish, with his own lion (blue on a golden field) and his fusils (gold on a blue field), upon the well-known Shield of the Earls of Northumberland (Chapter XI).

No. 163.— Dolphin. No. 164.— De Lucy. No. 165.— Escallop.

Another Carlaverock Banneret, Robert de Scales, whom the chronicler declares to have been both “handsome and amiable” as well as gallant in action, had “six escallops of silver on a red banner.” This beautiful charge of the escallop, happy in its association with the pilgrims of the olden time, and always held in high esteem by Heralds, is generally drawn as in No. 165.

79 Reptiles and Insects occur but rarely in English Heraldry. Bees, Flies, Butterflies, and Snails are sometimes found, but they have no place in the earliest Rolls of Arms. Bees, as might be expected, appear in the Arms of Beeston. Azure, three Butterflies, are the Arms of Muschamp, and they are carved twice in the vaulting of the cloisters at Canterbury. Upon a monumental brass in the Church of Wheathampstead, in Hertfordshire, the Shield of Hugo Bostock (about A.D. 1435) bears,—Arg., three Bats, their wings displayed, sa.

Imaginary and Fabulous Beings, some of them the creations of heraldic fancy when in a strangely eccentric mood, frequently appear as Supporters; and, in some cases, they take a part in the blazonry of Shields, or they are borne independently as Badges. A very brief description (all that is necessary) of the greater number of these monsters of unnatural history will be given in the “Glossary of heraldic terms,” in Chapter X.; consequently, it is enough here merely to refer to them as having a place in blazon. The Griffin or Gryphon, the most worthy of the group, is comparatively common. The Dragon and the Wivern or Wyvern, both of them winged monsters, differ in this respect, that the former has four legs, while the latter has two only. In early blazon this distinction was not always observed. The Cockatrice, always having two legs, is a Wyvern with a cock’s head.

Natural Objects of all kinds are blazoned as Charges of Heraldry, and they will be found described and illustrated in their proper places in Chapter X. They include the Sun, the Moon, the Stars; also such terrestrial objects as Trees, Flowers, Fruits, Sheaves and Ears of Corn, Leaves, Chaplets, &c. And with these Charges I may group the always beautiful Fleur de Lys, and the Trefoil, Quatrefoil, Cinquefoil, and Sixfoil.

Of the various Artificial Figures and Devices that 80 Heralds have charged upon Shields of Arms, it will be unnecessary for me to give detailed descriptions, except when either the heraldic name may require explanation, or some special circumstances connected with any particular figure or device may impart to it peculiar claims for attention. Again I refer to the “Glossary” for notices and examples of all Charges of this class—Annulets, Buckles, Castles, Crowns, Cups, Horseshoes, Keys, Knots, Sickles, Stirrups, Trumpets, and many others.

A.—Crescent B.—Increscent No. 166 C.—Decrescent

In blazoning Charges of various classes, Heralds employ appropriate Epithets and descriptive Terms, of which the following are characteristic examples:—The Sun is “in splendour.” The Moon, when full, is “in her complement”: she is a “Crescent” when she appears in No. 166, A: she is “Increscent” when as in No. 166, B: and she is “Decrescent” when as in No. 166, C. Animals and Birds of prey are said to be “armed” of their talons, teeth, and claws. All horned animals, also, except Stags and Antelopes, are “armed” of their horns; and a Cock is “armed” of his spurs; whilst Griffins and birds of prey are “armed” of their beaks and claws (i.e. the part of the leg which is unfeathered). Animals are “hoofed” or “unguled” of their hoofs; and “langued” of their tongues. Fierce animals are “vorant” of their prey, when represented in the act of devouring it. Deer, when reposing, are “lodged” Nos. 25 and 26: when standing, and looking out from the Shield, No. 167, “at gaze”: when in easy motion, they are termed “trippant,” or sometimes the word “tripping” is substituted, No. 168: and when in 81 rapid motion, they are “courant,” “at speed,” or sometimes described as “in full course,” No. 169. The male Stag is sometimes termed a “Hart,” and the female a “Hind.” There is really a distinction between the Buck and the Stag, but it is very usually disregarded in Heraldry. The antlers of the Hart are “Attires,” their branches are “Tynes”; and they are said to be “attired” of their antlers. A Stag’s head full-faced, but without the neck, as No. 170, is “cabossed” or “caboshed.”

No. 167.— At Gaze. No. 169.— At Speed.

No. 168.— Tripping. No. 170.— Stag’s Head Cabossed.

Eagles and Hawks with expanded wings, as in No. 206, are “displayed.” Expanded wings may be “elevated,” or, if drooping, “inverted” or “in lure.” Birds about to take wing are “rising”; when in flight, they are “volant”; when at rest, they are “close.” A Bird “trusses” its prey. A Peacock having its tail expanded is “in its pride”; and this same expression is applied to the Turkey. A Pelican, when feeding its young, is said to be “in her piety,” but may be merely “vulning herself” if the young are not represented. A Swan, when blazoned “proper,” is white with red legs and black beak.

82 Fish, represented swimming in fesse, are “naiant”; if they are in pale, they are “hauriant,” No. 164; but if their heads are to the base, the term “urinant” is said to apply, but I cannot say I have so far come across an authenticated instance of the use of this word; if their bodies are bent, as the Dolphin is generally represented, they are “embowed,” No. 163. Fish, also, are said to be “finned” of their fins. Insects are “volant.” Reptiles are “gliding”; or, if they are twined into knots, “nowed.” Trees of mature growth are “accrued”; when with leaves, “in foliage” (but these two terms are so seldom used that they may be entirely disregarded); with fruit or seeds, “fructed” or “seeded”; if without leaves, “blasted”; and if their roots are exposed, “eradicated.” Branches or leaves torn off are “slipped.”

The terms which denote the attitudes of Lions, all of them described in the next chapter, are equally applicable to other animals. Some other descriptive terms, not noticed here, will be found in the “Glossary” in Chapter X.

83 CHAPTER IX THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY Section VI The Lion and the Eagle in Heraldry

“The Lion and a King of Beasts.” —Shakespeare, Richard II.

“The Eagle, ennobled by Nature in as high a degree of nobility as the chiefest of the terrestrial animals, is the most honourable bearing of Birds.” —Gwillim (Edition of 1724).

The regal dignity of the Lion amongst the creatures that are quadrupeds, like himself, would naturally secure for him a position of corresponding eminence in Heraldry. From the dawn of the heraldic era, accordingly, the Lion is blazoned on the Shields of Sovereigns, Princes, and Nobles. The tressured Lion has been already noticed upon the Royal Shield of Scotland, No. 138; and a crowned Lion has also appeared in the same attitude, borne by an English Prince, Richard, Earl of Cornwall, No. 140. From the time that they first possessed any true armorial insignia, the Sovereigns of the Realm of England have borne Lions upon their Royal Shield. A Lion was the Ensign of the Native Princes of Wales, as he was of the Kings of Leon, of Norway, and of Denmark, and of the Counts of Holland, Hainault, Eu, &c. And, in like manner, the Lion was in high favour with the most noble and powerful Barons of England—the Mowbrays, Bohuns, Longespees, Fitz-Alans, Lacies, Percies, Segraves, and such as they.

It was a necessary consequence of his great popularity 84 that the Lion of Heraldry should be blazoned in various attitudes, and also variously tinctured, otherwise it would not be possible duly to distinguish the Lions of different Shields. Heralds of all countries appear readily to have permitted their Lions to lay aside their natural tawny hue, and in its stead to assume the heraldic or, argent, azure, gules, and sable; but Continental Heralds were not generally disposed to recognise in their Lions any other attitude than the one which they held to be consistent with their Lion character, instincts, and habits—erect, that is, with one hind paw only on the ground, looking forward towards their prey, so as to show but one eye, and evidently in the act of preparing to spring. This undoubtedly most characteristic attitude is rampant, No. 171: and only when he was in this rampant attitude did the early Heralds consider any Lion to be a Lion, and blazon him by his true name. A Lion walking and looking about him, the early Heralds held to be acting the part of a leopard: consequently, when he was in any such attitude, they blazoned him as “a leopard.” The animal bearing that name bore it simply as an heraldic title, which distinguished a Lion in a particular attitude. These heraldic “leopards” were drawn in every respect as other heraldic “lions,” without spots or any leopardish distinction whatever. This explains the usage, retained till late in the fourteenth century, which assigned to the Lions of the Royal Shield of England the name of “leopards.” They were so called, not by the enemies of England for derision and insult, as some persons, in their ignorance of early Heraldry, have been pleased both to imagine and to assert; but the English Kings and Princes, who well knew their “Lions” to be Lions, in blazon styled them “leopards,” because they also knew that Lions in the attitude of their “Lions” were heraldic “leopards.” When at length the necessity of varying the attitude of their Lions was admitted by all Heralds, in consequence of the greatly increased numbers 85 of the bearers of Lions, some strict adherents to the original distinctive nomenclature blazoned any Lion that was not rampant by the compound term of a “lion-leopard,” or a “lion-leopardé.” But that controversy has long been at rest.

The following terms are now in use to denote the various attitudes of the Lion in Heraldry:—

Rampant: erect, one hind paw on the ground, the other three paws elevated, the animal looking forward and having his tail elevated, No. 171. Rampant Guardant: as before, but looking out from the Shield, No. 172. Rampant Reguardant: as before, but looking backwards.

Passant: walking, three paws on the ground, the dexter fore-paw being elevated, looking forward, the tail displayed over the back, No. 173. Passant Guardant: as before, but looking out from the Shield, No. 174. Passant Reguardant: as before, but looking backwards.

No. 171.— Rampant. No. 172.— Rampant Guardant. No. 173.— Passant.

Statant: standing, his four paws on the ground, and looking before him, No. 175. Statant Guardant: as before, but looking out from the Shield, No. 176: in this example the Lion has his tail extended, but this would be 86 specified in the blazon, as it is an unusual position. In like manner, if the tail of a Lion in any other attitude be extended, there must be a statement to that effect.

No. 174.— Passant Guardant. No. 175.— Statant. No. 176.— Statant Guardant.

Sejant: sitting down with his head elevated, No. 178. If he looks out from the Shield, the word Guardant is to be added. A Scottish Lion sejant usually has his fore paws raised in the air, and in English terms of blazon would be described as “Sejant erect” or “Sejant rampant.”

Couchant: is at rest, the fore legs stretched on the ground, as No. 177.

Dormant: asleep, head resting on fore paws, No. 179.

No. 177.— Couchant. No. 178.— Sejant. No. 179.— Dormant.

Salient: in the act of springing, the hind paws on the ground, both the fore paws elevated, No. 180.

Queue fourchée: having a forked tail.

Double-queued: two tails, as No. 181, which is a lion rampant double-queued.

Coward: passant reguardant, his tail between his legs, No. 182.

No. 180.— Salient. No. 181.— Double-queued. No. 182.— Coward.

Two Lions rampant, when face to face, are Counter rampant, or Combatant: when back to back, they are Addorsed: when passant or salient in contrary directions, they are Counter passant or Counter salient.

87 Lions, whatever their tincture, except it be red, or they are charged on a field of that tincture, are armed and langued gules; but azure in the case of either of these exceptions, unless the contrary be specified in the blazon. When several Lions appear in one composition, or when they are drawn to a comparatively very small scale, they are sometimes blazoned as “Lioncels.” This term “Lioncel,” it must be added, when used alone, denotes a small Lion rampant.

No. 183.— Lion’s Head. No. 184.— Lion’s Face. No. 185.— Lion’s Jambe.

A Lion’s head is a Charge: it may be erased, as in No. 183; or cut off smooth, when it is couped. A Lion’s face also is a Charge, No. 184; so is his jambe or paw, No. 185. A demi-lion rampant is the upper half of his body and the extremity of his tufted tail, as in No. 186.

No. 186.— Demi-Lion Rampant. No. 187.— England.

The Lions of England are golden Lions leopardé, three in number, placed one above the other on a red Shield. They are blazoned—Gu., three Lions pass. guard., in pale, or, No. 187.

A Lion in this attitude, of this tincture, and on a field gules, may be blazoned as a “Lion of England.” These 88 three Lions first appear upon the second Great Seal of Richard I., A.D. 1194, on the Shield of the King, No. 188. An earlier Seal, used by Prince John before his brother’s accession, has a Shield charged with two Lions only, and they are passant, No. 189. The first Great Seal of the lion-hearted King has a Shield, bowed in its contour, and charged with a single Lion rampant facing to the sinister, or counter-rampant, No. 190; and it has been conjectured that, were the whole face of this Shield visible, a second Lion rampant facing to the dexter would appear, thus charging the Shield with two Lions combattant; this, however, is a conjecture which is not supported by the authority of many Shields of the same form. A red Shield charged with two golden Lions passant guardant in pale (No. 22), and therefore closely resembling No. 189, as I have already shown, has been assigned to William I., and his two sons and his grandson, William II., Henry I., and Stephen. The Shield bearing the three Lions, No. 187, has been assigned to Henry II., but it first makes its appearance on the Great Seal of his son. The probability is that up to this period the device was simply a lion, indeterminate in position or numbers. This same Shield has continued, from the time of Richard I., to display the Royal Arms of the Realm of England: how, in the course of ages, these Arms become grouped with other insignia, I shall presently have to show.

No. 188. Richard I.— 2nd Gt. Seal. No. 189. Prince John.— Seal. No. 190. Richard I.— 1st Gt. Seal.

The Lion passant is carefully distinguished in the earliest Rolls as a different Charge from the Lion passant guardant. Thus (H. 3), for Hamon le Strange—Gu., two Lions passant arg., No. 191; and for John Giffard—Gu., three Lions pass. arg., No. 192: for Sir Nicholas Carew (E. 2),—Or, three Lions pass. sa.

89 No. 191.— Le Strange. No. 192.— Giffard. No. 193.— Mowbray.

From the numerous early Shields which bear Lions rampant, I select the following examples, associated with names illustrious in English History. For Roger de Mowbray (H. 3)—Gu., a Lion rampt. arg., No. 193: this Coat is quartered by the present Lord Mowbray, Segrave and Stourton. For Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel—Gu., a Lion rampt. or (H. 3), No. 193. For De Laci, Earl of Lincoln—Or, a Lion rampt. purpure (E. 2), No. 194. For Sir John de Segrave (E. 2)—Sa., a Lion rampt. arg., crowned or, No. 195. For Percy, Earl of Northumberland—Or, a Lion rampt. az., No 196: this Shield is drawn from the fine counter-seal of Sir Henry de Percy, first Lord of Alnwick, who died A.D. 1315.

No. 194.— De Lacy. No. 195.— De Segrave.

Two Shields of the De Bohuns, Nos. 114, 115, already described, exemplify the display of Lioncels as heraldic 90 charges. An earlier Shield, charged with six Lioncels, but without any Ordinary, was borne by Fair Rosamond’s son, William Longespée, Earl of Salisbury, A.D. 1226: it is boldly sculptured with his noble effigy in Salisbury Cathedral, and it also appears upon his Seal—Az., six Lioncels or, No. 197. The Roll of Edward II., confirmed by his Seal, gives for Sir Wm. de Leybourne the same composition, with a difference in the tincturing—Az., six Lioncels arg. Other members of the same family change these tinctures for gules and or, gules and argent, and or and sable (E. 2). Examples of Shields which bear Lions or Lioncels with various other charges will be described and illustrated in succeeding chapters.

No. 196.— De Percy. No. 197.— Longespée.

Lions also fulfil important duties of high honour in English Heraldry as Crests and Supporters, and also as Badges. From the time of Edward III. a Crowned Lion, at the first standing on a Cap of Estate, and afterwards upon the Crown, has been the Royal Crest of England; a Lion also has always been the Royal Crest of Scotland (see Chapter XVIII.). The Princes of the Royal Houses of England, in like manner, have always borne the Royal Lion distinguished by some “Mark of Cadency” (see 91 198 is the Lion Crest of the Black Prince, from his Monument at Canterbury, the Lion differenced with the Prince’s silver label. The Lion also appears as the Crest of many noble and distinguished families, as the De Bohuns, the Percies, and the Howards. The Lion Crest of Richard II., sculptured statant guardant upon his helm, with a chapeau and mantling, and with the Badge of two Ostrich feathers, in Westminster Hall, is without any crown: No. 199.

No. 198.— Crest of Black Prince. No. 199.— Crest of Richard II.

As a Royal Supporter of the Arms of England, the Lion appears in company with some other creature from the time of Henry VI., Edward IV. sometimes having his Shield supported by two Lions. On the accession of James I. of Great Britain, the Royal Lion Supporter formed that alliance with the Unicorn of Scotland which still continues, and will continue, it is to be hoped, throughout all time. Lions, as I shall point out more in detail in Chapter XVI., were frequently introduced into the composition of Seals before true heraldic Supporters were in use. In more recent Heraldry the Lion is a favourite Supporter: he now appears supporting the Shields of the Dukes of Norfolk, Argyll, Atholl, Bedford, Grafton, Northumberland, Portland, and Wellington; also, with many others, those of the Marquesses 92 of Bath, Exeter, Headfort, and Salisbury; of the Earls of Albemarle, Brownlow, Carlisle, Carnarvon, Cork, Essex, and Hardwick; of the Viscount Hardinge; and of the Barons Arundel, Camoys, Dunboyne, Monson, Mowbray, Petre, and Southampton. As a Supporter the Lion is represented rampant, rampant reguardant, and sejant rampant. Lions also, and Demi-Lions, are frequently borne as modern Crests.

In our own treatment of the Lions of Heraldry, whatever their attitude or tincture, whatever also the position they may occupy or the heraldic duty they may discharge, we are always to draw and to blazon them as true heraldic Lions, while, at the same time, in their expression and general characteristics they are to be genuine Lions.

No. 200.— In Westminster Abbey.

In becoming fellowship with the Lion, the Eagle appears in the earliest English Rolls and examples of Arms. The Royal bird, however, does not occur in English blazon so frequently as the Lion; and his appearance often denotes an alliance with German Princes. A Roll of Arms (printed in “Archæologia,” XXX.) of the year 1275 commences with the Shields of the “Emperor of Germany,” and of the “King of Germany,” which are severally blazoned as,—“Or, an Eagle displayed having two heads sa.,” and, “Or, an Eagle displayed sable.” In York Cathedral, in stained glass, there are Shields with both the double-headed and the single-headed Eagles, all of them German, which may be considered to have been executed before the year 1310. In the north choir-aisle at Westminster, the Shield (now mutilated) of the Emperor Frederick II. is boldly sculptured by an heraldic artist of the time of our Henry III., No. 200; here the Eagle had one head only. The German Emperors naturally adopted the Eagle for their heraldic Ensign, in support of their claim to be successors to the Roman Cæsars; and the Russian Czars, with the same motive, have also assumed the same 93 ensign. The Eagle having two heads, which severally look to the dexter and the sinister, as in No. 201, typified a rule that claimed to extend over both the Eastern and the Western Empires; as the Eagle with a single head, No. 202, might be considered to have a less comprehensive signification. The Eagles of the Princes of Germany are frequently to be found, blazoned for them, in England.

No. 201.— Imperial Eagle. No. 202.— Royal Eagle.

Richard, the second son of King John, in the year 1256 was elected King of Germany (he is generally styled “King of the Romans”), when he bore the Eagle of the Empire: but the only Seals of this Prince that are known to exist in England display the Shield of his English Earldom 94 of Cornwall, No. 140. His Son Edmund, who succeeded to his father’s Earldom, on his Seals has represented an Eagle bearing in its beak his Shield of Cornwall, as in No. 203: this is a peculiarly interesting example of an heraldic usage of striking significance, and it also illustrates the early existence of the sentiment which at a later period led to the adoption of “Supporters” to Shields of Arms. In the early Heraldry of Scotland, a single displayed Eagle is occasionally found supporting an armorial Shield; as in the Seals of Alexander Steward, Earl of Menteith, A.D. 1296, and William, Earl of Douglas and Mar, A.D. 1378 (Seton’s “Scottish Heraldry,” Plates VIII. and XII.): sometimes also, as Mr. Seton has observed, “the Eagle’s breast is charged with more than one Shield, as in the case of the Seals of Margaret Stewart, Countess of Angus (1366), and Euphemia Leslie, Countess of Ross (1381), on both of which three escutcheons make their appearance” (“Scottish Heraldry,” p. 268, and Plate XII., No. 5): in No. 204 I give a woodcut of this interesting composition; the Shields are, to the dexter, Leslie—Arg., on a bend az., three buckles or; in the centre, the Arms of the Earl of Ross—Gu., three 95 Lions rampant arg., within a tressure; and, to the sinister, Cummin—Az., three garbs or. The Imperial Eagle is sometimes represented crowned; the heads also in some examples are encircled with a nimbus or glory, as in No. 212. I must add that in the Heraldry of the English Peerage the Imperial Eagle still supports the Shields of some few Peers of different ranks; as, for example, that of Baron Methuen.

No. 203.— Cornwall. No. 204.— Seal of Euphemia Leslie.

Piers Gaveston, who was created Earl of Cornwall by Edward II., bore—Vert, six Eaglets or, No. 205, (E. 2 and York stained glass): on his Seal, however, the number of the Eaglets is reduced to three. Another early example is the Shield of that gallant and persevering knight, Ralph de Monthermer—Or, an Eagle displayed vert, No. 206, who became Earl of Gloucester in right of his wife, Joan, daughter of Edward I., and widow of Gilbert de Clare, the “Red Earl”; this green Eagle of Monthermer long held a place of high distinction in the mediæval Heraldry of England, marshalled on the Shields of the Earls of Salisbury and Warwick; in which, as in the example, No. 206, the Eagle of Monthermer is quartered with the coat of Montacute, No. 20 (page 17). The 96 Eagle of early Heraldry was sometimes blazoned as an “Erne,”4 and sometimes as an “Alerion,” William d’Ernford (H. 3) bears—Sa., an Erne displayed arg.: and, at the same period Wm. de Ernfield bears a pair of Erne’s or Eagle’s Wings, called a “Vol,” No. 207. From Shields of the fourteenth century which bear Eagles, and are blazoned in the Roll of Edward II., I select the following small group as good examples:—Sir Wm. de Mongomerie—Or, an Eagle displayed az.: Sir Nicholas de Etone—Gu., a Chevron between three Eaglets arg.: Sir John de Charlestone—Arg., on a Chevron vert three Eaglets or: Sir Philip de Verley—Or, a Bend gu., between six Eaglets sa.: Sir John de la Mere—Arg., on a Bend az. three Eaglets or, No. 209: a Shield bearing a Bend charged with three Eagles, but with different tinctures, No. 88, I have shown to have been the Arms of the Grandisons.

No. 205.— Shield of Piers Gaveston. No. 206.— Montacute and Monthermer.

Eagles, under their name of “Alerions” (which early Heralds represented without feet and beaks), are blazoned in the same disposition as in No. 209, in the Arms of the Duchy of Lorraine,—Or, on a Bend gu. three alerions arg.: and this device the Dukes of Lorraine are said to have borne in commemoration of an exploit of their famous ancestor, Godfrey de Bologne, who is also said, when “shooting against David’s tower in Jerusalem,” to have “broched upon his arrow three footless birds called alerions.” “It is impossible,” remarks Mr. Planché upon this legend, “now to ascertain who broached this wonderful 97 story; but it is perfectly evident that the narrator was the party who drew the long bow, and not the noble Godfrey.” Mr. Planché adds, that the Alerions of Lorraine may indicate an alliance with the Imperial House; and he directs attention to “a similarity in sound between ‘Alerion’ and ‘Lorraine,’” and also to a singular Anagram produced by the letters ALERION and LORAINE, which are the same (“Pursuivant of Arms,” p. 87). The Arms of Lorraine are still borne by the Emperor of Austria: and in England they were quartered by Queen Margaret of Anjou.

No. 207.— A Vol. No. 209.— De la Mere.

The Roll of Edward II. gives also for Sir Hugh de Bilbesworth these arms—Az., three Eagles displayed or. A similar Shield, the tinctures changed to—Arg., three Eagles displayed gu., armed or, was borne by Robert de Eglesfield, Confessor to Philippa of Hainault, Queen of Edward III., who in the year 1340 founded Queen’s College, Oxford: this Shield of the Founder is borne by the College. One of the Shields in the Chantry of Abbot Ramryge in St. Albans Abbey Church bears the same charges—three eagles displayed, No. 210: the drawing of the 98 eagle in this Shield is remarkable, and the form of the Shield itself is singularly characteristic of the close of the fifteenth century. Another Shield in the same monument bears a single Eagle, drawn in the same manner, and sculptured with extraordinary spirit.

No. 210.— Shield at St. Albans.

The German Heralds, and also their brethren of France, delight in exaggerations of what I may distinguish as the Westminster Eagle, No. 200. The Austrian Eagle, besides having both its heads crowned, has a large Imperial Crown placed between and above the two heads, as in No. 211. The Imperial Eagle (Holy Roman Empire) sometimes has a nimbus or glory about each head, which dignified accessory is represented by a circular line, as in No. 212. In some examples of Eagles, as well in our own Heraldry as in that of continental countries, the wings are represented as erect (the more usual form in England), and having the tips of all the principal feathers pointing upwards, as in No. 213. The Eagle borne as the Ensign of Imperial France was represented grasping a thunderbolt, in an attitude of vigilance, having its wings displayed, but with the tips of the feathers drooping, as they would be in the living bird; No. 214.

No. 211.— The Austrian Eagle.

No. 212.— Imperial Eagle, with Nimbus. No. 213.— Eagle “displayed,” with Wings erect.

Edward III., as a Second Crest, bore an Eagle. An Eagle also was borne for his Crest, as the imperial bird was displayed upon his Shield (No. 206), by Earl Ralph 99 de Monthermer. In the more recent Heraldry of England, the Eagle is a Supporter to the Shields of the Earls of Clarendon, Coventry, and Malmesbury; the Viscounts Bolingbroke and St. Vincent; and the Barons Heytesbury, Radstock, Wynford, and others. Eagles also and Demi-Eagles are borne as Crests in the English Heraldry of our own day.

No. 214.— French Imperial Eagle.

In drawing our heraldic Eagles, we can scarcely improve upon some of the examples in which early English Heralds expressed their ideas of the king of birds.

4. Query if this is not really a herne or heron.—A. C. F.-D.

100 CHAPTER X THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY Section VII Glossary of Titles, Names, and Terms

“The several denominations given to these tokens of honour ... with the terms of art given to them.” —Randle Home: “Academy of Armoury,” A.D. 1688.

In this Glossary, which obviously must be as concise as possible, I shall include no word that is ordinarily well understood, unless some special signification should be attached to it when it is in use in armorial blazon.

Abased. Said of a charge when placed lower than its customary position.

Abatement. A supposed sign of degradation. (See Chapter XII.)

Accollée. Placed side by side.

Accosted. Side by side.

Achievement, or Achievement of Arms. Any complete heraldic composition.

Addorsed. Back to back.

Affrontée. So placed as to show the full face or front.

Alerion. A name sometimes given by early Heralds to the heraldic Eagle, which, when blazoned under this title, was also sometimes drawn without legs or beak. (See p. 97.)

Ambulant. In the act of walking.

Annulet. A plain ring; sometimes blazoned as a “false roundle”: in modern English cadency, the difference of the fifth son or brother: No. 154.

101 Annulettée. Ending in Annulets.

Antelope. Depicted by early Heralds in a conventional manner, but now generally rendered more naturally, the earlier type being termed the heraldic antelope.

Anthony, St. His cross is in the form of the letter T, No. 93.

Antique Crown. See Eastern Crown.

No. 215. Badge of Ulster. Appaumée. Said of a hand, when open, erect, and showing the palm: No. 215.

Arched. Bent, or bowed.

Archbishop. A prelate of the highest order in the English Church; his heraldic insignia are his Mitre, Crozier, and Pall. Next to the Royal Family, the Archbishop of Canterbury is the first subject in the realm; he is styled “Most Reverend Father in God,” “by Divine Providence,” and “Your Grace.” The Archbishop of York is third in rank (the Lord Chancellor being second), and his style is the same, except that he is Archbishop “by Divine permission.” Archbishops impale their own arms with those of their see, the latter being marshalled to the dexter.

Argent. The metal silver.

Arm. A human arm. When a charge, crest, or badge, it must be blazoned with full particulars as to position, clothing, &c. If couped between the elbow and the wrist, it is a cubit arm.

Armed. A term applied to animals and birds of prey, to denote their natural weapons of offence and defence: thus, a Lion is said to be “armed of his claws and teeth”; a Bull, to be “armed of his horns”; an Eagle, “of its beak and talons.”

Armory. Heraldry. Also, a List of Names and Titles, with their respective Arms.

Arms, Armorial Bearings. Heraldic compositions, and the Figures and Devices which form them. (See Chapter I.)

102 Arms of Community. Borne by Corporate and other Bodies and Communities, as cities, colleges, &c.

Arms of Dominion. Borne by Sovereign Princes, being also the Sovereign arms of the realms over which they rule.

Arms of Office. Borne, with the personal arms, to denote official rank.

Armes Parlantes. Such as are allusive to the Name, Title, Office, or Property of those who bear them: thus, Leaves for Leveson, a Castle for Castile, a Cup for Butler, Fish for those who derive revenues from Fisheries, &c. The more usual term is, however, “canting arms” (See Rebus: also page 15.)

Arrow. Is barbed of its head, and flighted of its feathers; a bundle of arrows is a sheaf; with a blunt head, it is a bird-bolt.

At Gaze. A term applied to animals of the chase, to denote their standing still, and looking straight forward: No. 167.

Attires, Attired. The antlers of a Buck, Stag, or Hart: having antlers. A Reindeer is represented in Heraldry with double attires, one pair erect, and the other drooping forward.

Augmentation. An honourable addition to a Coat of Arms, specially granted with a peculiar significance: thus, the “Union” Device of the British Empire, blazoned on an inescutcheon, is the “Augmentation” specially granted to the great Duke of Wellington, to be borne on the honour point of his paternal shield.

Augmented. Having an “Augmentation.”

Avellane. A variety of the heraldic Cross: No. 109.

Azure. The colour blue (indicated by horizontal lines): No. 52.

Badge. A figure or device, distinct from a crest, and capable of being borne without any background or other accessory. Badges are, however, often depicted upon a standard or roundle of the livery colour or colours. 103 Badges were depicted as a sign of ownership upon property; were worn by servants and retainers, who mustered under the standards on which badges were represented. (See Chapter XV.)

Banded. Encircled with a band.

Banner. A flag, charged with the coat of arms of the owner, displayed over its entire surface. (See Chapter XVII.)

Banneret. A Knight who had been advanced by the King to that higher military rank which entitled him to display a banner.

Bar. One of the Ordinaries: Nos. 81, 82.

Bars Gemelles. Barrulets borne in pairs: Nos. 83, 84.

Barbed. Pointed, as an arrow. The term is also applied to the small green leaves between the petals of heraldic roses. (See Rose.)

Barbel. A Fish borne as an allusive device by the family of De Barre: No. 162.

Barded. Having horse-trappings.

Bardings. Horse-trappings, often enriched with armorial blazonry. On the Great Seal of Edward I. the Bardings of the King’s charger for the first time appear adorned with the Royal arms. On both sides of the horse, the head is supposed to be to the dexter. An example is represented in the Seal of Alexander de Balliol, in Chapter XIV.

Barnacles, Breys. An instrument used in breaking horses. A rebus of Sir Reginald Bray, architect of St. George’s Chapel, Windsor, and repeatedly represented there: No. 216.

No. 216.— Breys. No. 217.— Circlet of a Baron’s Coronet.

Baron. The lowest rank in the British Peerage. A Baron is “Right Honourable,” and is styled “My Lord.” His coronet, first granted by Charles II., has on a golden circlet six large pearls, of which four appear in representations, as in No. 217. An Irish Baron has no coronet. All a Baron’s children are “Honourable.”

104 Baron. A purely heraldic term signifying a husband, a wife in Heraldry being femme.

Baroness. A lady in whom a Barony is vested by inheritance in her own right; also, the wife of a Baron. In either case she is “Right Honourable”; is styled “My Lady,” and her coronet is the same as that of a Baron.

Baronet. An hereditary rank, lower than the peerage, instituted in 1612 by James I., who fixed the precedence of Baronets before all Knights, those of the Order of the Garter alone excepted. As originally created, all Baronets were “of Ulster,” or “of Nova Scotia”; afterwards all new creations were “of Great Britain”; now all are “of the United Kingdom.” The “Badge of Ulster,” generally borne as an augmentation upon a canton or small inescutcheon, is—Arg., a sinister hand, couped at the wrist and appaumée, gu.,—No. 215. The arms of Nova Scotia, which may be (but seldom are) similarly borne on a canton or inescutcheon, are—Arg., on a saltire az., the Royal arms of Scotland. (See No. 138.) By letters patent of James I., the wives of Baronets have the titles of “Lady, Madam, or Dame,” at their pleasure prefixed to their names.

Barrulet. The diminutive of a Bar.

Barrulée, Barruly. Barry of ten or more pieces.

Barry. Divided into an even number of Bars, which all lie in the same plane: Nos. 85, 86.

Barry Bendy. Having the field divided by lines drawn bar-wise, which are crossed by others drawn bend-wise: No. 119.

Bar-wise. Disposed after the manner of a Bar,—crossing 105 the field, that is, horizontally. The term fessways is more usually employed.

Base. The lowest extremity: No. 27, B.

Basilisk. A cockatrice having its tail ending in a dragon’s head.

Basinet. A helm fitting close to the head.

Baton. A diminutive of the bend, couped at its extremities.

Battled, or Embattled. Having battlements, or bordered, as No. 38, F.

Beacon, or Fire Beacon. An iron case of burning combustibles set on a pole, against which a ladder is placed.

Beaked. Applied to birds, not of prey.

Bearer. An old Scottish term for a Supporter.

Bearing, Bearings. Armorial insignia, borne on shields.

Bell. Drawn, and generally blazoned as a church-bell, unless specified to be a hawk’s-bell.

Belled. Having bells attached.

Bend. One of the Ordinaries: Nos. 111-115.

Bendlet. The diminutive of a bend: No. 117.

Bend-wise, or In Bend. Placed in the position of or arranged in the direction of a bend.

Bendy. Parted bend-wise into an even number of divisions: No. 116.

Besant. A golden “Roundle” or disc, flat like a coin: No. 151, and No. 140.

Billet. An oblong figure of any tincture: Billetée—strewn with “Billets”: Nos. 130, 146.

Bird. Many Birds appear in blazon, and they are represented both in heraldic tinctures and “proper”—in their natural aspect. (See Chapters VIII. and IX.)

Bird-bolt. An arrow with a blunt head.

Bishop. The Bishops are “by Divine permission,” and are styled “Right Reverend Father in God,” and “My Lord Bishop.” The Bishops of England and Wales are not Peers but are all “spiritual lords” of Parliament, some 106 of the junior Bishops, however, having no seats. The Suffragan Bishops are merely assistant Bishops, and are not Lords of Parliament. The heraldic insignia of Bishops consist of a mitre and pastoral staff; they impale their official and personal arms, as do the Archbishops; and, like them also, they bear no crests, but they ensign their shields with a mitre.

Blasted. Leafless, withered.

Blazon. Heraldry: Armorial Compositions. “To blazon” is to describe or to represent any armorial Figure, Device, or Composition in an heraldic manner. Blazoning—Describing in heraldic language: also, representing in an heraldic manner. Blazonry—the representation of any heraldic Figure, Device, or Composition. But the distinction is in practice usually made to employ the word “emblazon” in cases of representation.

Boar. In Heraldry occasionally termed Sanglier.

Bordure. A Subordinary: Nos. 139, 140. Also, an important “Difference.” (See Chapters XII. and XIII.)

Botoneé, Botoneé Fitcheé. Varieties of the heraldic Cross: Nos. 103, 110. This Cross is also termed Trefleé.

Bouget, or Water Bouget. A charge, representing the vessels used by the Crusaders for carrying water. The word is an early form of Bucket. Fine early examples occur in the Temple Church, at Beverley Minster, and in a monument at Blyborough, Lincolnshire: No. 218.

No. 218.— Water Bouget. No. 219.— Bourchier Knot.

Bourchier Knot. The badge of the Bourchier family represented in No. 219.

Bourdon. A palmer’s or pilgrim’s staff. (See Pilgrim’s Staff.)

107 Bow. The archer’s weapon, in all its varieties of form, is a charge.

Bowed. Having a convex contour.

No. 220. Bowen Knot. Bowen Knot. No. 220.

Braced. Interlaced.

Breys. Barnacles, q.v.

Brisure, or Brizure. Any difference or mark of cadency.

Buckle. See Fermaile.

Burgonet. A helm worn in the sixteenth century.

Cabossed, or Caboshed. The head of a stag, or other horned animal, represented full-faced, so as to show the face only: No. 170. In the case of a lion or leopard when the head is so represented it is termed the face.

Cadency, Marks of. Figures and devices, introduced into armorial compositions, in order to distinguish the different members and branches of the same family. (See Difference, and Chapter XII.)

Cadet. A junior member or branch of a family.

No. 221. Caltrap. Caltrap. An implement formerly strewn on the ground in war to maim horses: No. 221.

Canting Heraldry. Refer to Armes Parlantes.

Canton. One of the Subordinaries: Nos. 129, 130.

Cantoned. Placed in the quarters of a shield.

Carbuncle. The same as Escarbuncle.

Cartouche. No. 46.

Castle. Generally represented with two or three turrets, as in the shield of Queen Alianore, of Castile: No. 222. Refer to Tower.

Celestial Crown. No. 223.

No. 222.— Castle. No. 223.— Celestial Crown. No. 224.— Chapeau. 108 Centaur. Also blazoned as a sagittary, and supposed to have been a badge of King Stephen.

Cerceleé, or Recerceleé. A descriptive term to denote a variety of the heraldic Cross: No. 98.

Chapeau. Also entitled a cap of dignity, of maintenance, or of estate. An early symbol of high dignity, and in England of right of Peerage. In addition it is now more frequently met with supporting certain crests: No. 224.

Chaplet. A garland or entwined wreath of leaves and flowers, or of flowers alone. A chaplet of rue, sometimes called a crancelin, is blazoned bend-wise in the shield of Saxony—Barry of ten or and sa., over all a chaplet of rue vert: No. 225. (See Crancelin.)

No. 225.— Arms of Saxony.

Charge. Any heraldic figure or device. Charged—placed on a shield, banner, &c., as any heraldic figure or device may be.

Chequeé, Chequy, Checky. Divided into three, or into more 109 than three, contiguous rows of small squares, alternately of a metal (or fur) and a colour: No 68.

No. 226. Chess Rook. Chess rook. A piece used in the game of Chess: borne by Rokewood and others: No. 226.

Chevron. One of the Ordinaries: Nos. 123, 125.

Chevronel. A diminutive of the Chevron: No. 124.

Chevroneé, Chevrony. A field composed of a number of pieces divided and disposed per Chevron: No. 124A.

Chief. One of the Ordinaries: Nos. 71-75. In Chief—placed in the upper part of the shield, or arranged in a horizontal row across the upper part of the field.

Cinque-foil. A flower or leaf of five foils: No. 227.

Civic Crown. A wreath of oak-leaves and acorns.

No. 227.— Cinque foil. No. 228.— Clarions.

Clarenceux. See Herald.

Clarion. An ancient musical instrument, a badge, apparently, of the De Clares. By some this charge is supposed to represent a lance-rest, and is sometimes so blazoned: No. 228, which shows two varieties of form.

Clecheé. A variety of the heraldic Cross: No. 105.

Close. With closed wings.

Closet. A Diminutive of the Bar, one half its width.

Cloueé. Fastened with Nails, and showing the Nail-heads: No. 150.

Coat Armour. True armorial or heraldic bearings, duly granted or inherited, and rightly borne: so entitled, from having been depicted by warriors of the Middle Ages upon their surcoats, worn by them over their armour.

Coat of Arms. A complete armorial composition, properly what would be charged upon a Shield or Banner, but often used as an alternative for Achievement, q.v.


No. 229. Cockatrice. Cockatrice. A fabulous creature, represented in No. 229.

Collar. One of the insignia of Orders of Knighthood, worn about the neck. Also any ornament or distinction worn in the same manner. Knights occasionally wore collars charged with their own badge. In addition to their badges of the Red and White Rose, examples exist showing that adherents of the rival houses of York and Lancaster sometimes wore collars, the former formed of alternate Suns and Roses, No. 230; and the latter, of the letter S continually repeated, No. 231. No certain origin has been discovered for the Lancastrian “Collar of S.,” but it has been suggested that it represents the word SOVERAYGNE, the motto of Henry IV. No. 230 is from the Brass to Henry Bourchier, K.G., Earl of Essex, at Little Easton, Suffolk, A.D. 1483; and No. 231 from the Brass to Lord Camoys, K.G., at Trotton, Sussex, A.D. 1424.

No. 230.— A Collar of York. No. 231.— A Collar of Lancaster.

College of Arms, or Heralds’ College. (See Herald.)

Colour. See Chapter V., page 41. The term “Colours” is applied to Flags, particularly to those of infantry regiments, and to such as are displayed at sea. (See Chapter XVII.)

Combatant. Two lions, or other animals of prey, rampant and face to face.

Compartment. In Scottish Heraldry, “a kind of carved 111 panel, of no fixed form, placed below the escutcheon, bearing the supporters, and usually inscribed with a motto or the name and designation of the owner.”—Seton. Other objects placed below the shield are met with under this description.

Componée, Compony, or Gobony. A single row of small squares alternately of two tinctures or furs: No. 66. (See Counter Componée.)

Complement, In her. Applied to the moon when full.

Compound Quartering. The quartering of a quarter, or division of a quartered Coat-of-Arms. (See page 34.)

Compound Arms. Arms formed from the combination of the bearings of two or more distinct coats, to produce a single compound coat.

Conjoined in Lure. Two wings united, their tips in base.

Contoise. A flowing scarf, worn attached to the helm before 1350. Two examples occur in effigies in Exeter Cathedral, and another in Westminster Abbey.

Contournée. Facing to the sinister.

Cornish Chough. A bird like a crow, black, with red beak and legs.

Coronet. An ensign of rank worn upon the head, in use in England from about the middle of the fourteenth century, but without any distinctive tokens of gradations of rank until a later period. In modern times English Coronets have enclosed a velvet cap with a bullion tassel. This cap originated in the cap of estate worn by Peers. (See Prince, Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount, and Baron.)

Cotise. A diminutive of the Bend or other Ordinary, being one-fourth of their width. Cotised. When a Bend or Chevron is placed between two Cotises, or when a Fesse or Bar is placed between two Barrulets. Nos. 114, 115.

Couchant. In repose. No. 177.

Couchée. Said of a Shield when suspended from the sinister 112 extremity of the chief, or when placed as if it were so suspended. No. 49.

Count, Countess. Count, in Latin “Comes,” the same as Earl. Countess, the wife of an Earl: she is “Right Honourable,” and styled “My Lady”: her coronet is the same as that of an Earl.

Counter. Reversed or opposite.

Counter-changing. See page 44, and Nos. 70, 126.

Counter Componée. Double Componée, or two conjoined rows of alternately tinctured squares. No. 67.

Counter-Embattled. A term in use for a fesse, bar, or chevron when embattled on both edges.

Counter-seal. Early seals were generally impressed on both sides; and the seals thus were produced from two dies or matrices. The two sides were severally called the seal and the counter-seal, the latter being termed the reverse of the compound composition. Every such double impression constituted a single seal. Both seal and counter-seal were sometimes used alone; and the counter-seal was regarded as a private seal, or secretum.

Couped. Cut off smoothly—the reverse of “erased.”

Couple-close. Half a chevronel.

Courant. Running.

Courtesy, Titles of. Nominal degrees of rank, conceded to, and borne by, the Eldest Sons of Dukes, Marquesses, and Earls, and other titles used by their younger children and all children of Viscounts and Barons.

Coward, Cowed. A term applied to an animal with its tail between its legs. No. 182.

Crampet. The decorated end of a sword-scabbard.

Crancelin. From the German kranzlein, “a small garland,” applied to the chaplet that crosses the shield of Saxony, No. 225: this charge is also blazoned as a bend treflée vert, a bend archée coronettée, or a coronet extended in bend: it is said to be an augmentation conferred, with the 113 Dukedom of Saxony, on Bernhard of Ascania, by the Emperor Barbarossa. The Emperor took from his head his own chaplet of rue, and threw it across the shield of Duke Bernhard. This story is probably untrue.

Crenellated. Embattled.

Crescent. No. 166. In modern English cadency, the difference of the second son, or house.

Cresset. A beacon.

Crest. A figure or device originally worn upon a helm, and now generally represented above a Shield of arms. Crests at first were ensigns of high honour, and their use was restricted to a few persons of eminence: they were attached by a wreath, or torse, or by a coronet, to the helm or basinet; and sometimes a crest stood upon a cap of estate. Crests are still represented standing upon either a wreath, or a cap, or issuing from a coronet: but in our own Heraldry a crest-coronet must always be carefully distinguished from those coronets that are insignia of princely and noble rank. Crests are not borne by ladies, a reigning Sovereign only excepted. (See Panache, Rebus, and Chapter XIV.)

Crest-Coronet. A coronet from which issues, or which supports, a crest. No. 232.

No. 232.— Crest Coronet. No. 233.— Crest-Wreath.

Crest-Wreath, or Torse. In the Middle Ages, of rich materials and costly workmanship; now represented as being formed of two rolls of silk of the principal metal and colour in the arms, which are twisted to show 114 the metal and colour alternately. The earliest examples are about A.D. 1375. No. 233 shows three varieties of representation. (See Chapter XIV.)

Crined. Having a mane or hair.

Cross. One of the Ordinaries. Nos. 90-110.

No. 234.— Crown of H.M. The King. Crown. The ensign of Royal and Imperial dignity; in Heraldry borne as a charge, and also used to denote the rank of a Sovereign Prince. The Crown that is generally borne as a charge is represented without arches, and resembling No. 232. Certain other crowns, each distinguished by an appropriate title, are also sometimes borne on shields, or introduced as heraldic accessories. (See Celestial, Eastern or Radiated, Mural, Naval, and Vallary Crowns.) The different forms assumed at different periods by the Royal Crown of England are faithfully exemplified in the seals and the coinage of the successive Sovereigns, and several fine examples are preserved in the Royal effigies. The adornment of the regal circlet was arbitrary before the fifteenth century; still, it always was enriched with gems and surmounted by golden foliage. Henry V. first arched his crown; and by Henry VI. the circlet was first heightened with alternate crosses-patée and fleurs de lys. This arrangement has since been retained, the subsequent alterations being restricted to changes in the number and in the contour of the arches. The crown of His Majesty the King has the circlet heightened with four crosses and as many fleurs de lys; from the crosses rise the arches, which are surmounted by a mound and a cross-patée. No. 234. This, the heraldic crown, is not an exact reproduction of the actual crown of the King.

Crozier. Strictly, the cross-staff of an archbishop; distinguished by its form from the pastoral-staff with a crook-head, of bishops; but the term is loosely and very 115 generally applied also to the crook-headed pastoral-staff.

Crusilee, Crusily. Having the field semée of crosses-crosslets, or of other small crosses, their peculiar form (when not crosslets) being specified.

Cubit arm. A human arm couped between the elbow and the wrist.

Cup, Covered Cup. A vessel formed like a chalice, and having a raised cover; borne by the Botilers, Butlers, &c.

Cushion, Pillow, Oreiller. Unless described of another form, square or oblong, and with a tassel at each corner.

No. 235.— Dacre Knot and Badges. Dacre Knot. No. 235. (See Knot.)

Dancetté. No. 38B. In early blazon, a fesse dancetté is styled simply “a dancette” or “a danse.” Nos. 78, 146; and No. 20A, page 70.

Debruised. When an ordinary surmounts an animal or another charge.

Decrescent. A half-moon having its horns to the sinister. No. 166C.

Deer. In general practice very little if any differentiation is made between the Stag, the Buck, and the Hart; 116 the female is a Hind, and of course is without attires. (See Chapter VIII.)

Degrees. A term applied to the steps upon which a Cross Calvary is represented.

Demembered, Dismembered. Cut into pieces, but without any alteration in the form of the original figure.

Demi. The half. The upper, front, or dexter half, unless the contrary be specified. No. 186.

Depressed. Surmounted.

Dexter. The right side. No. 27C.

Diaper, Diapering. Surface decoration. No. 68.

Difference, Differencing. An addition to, or some change in, a Coat-of-Arms, introduced for the purpose of distinguishing Coats which in their primary qualities are the same. (See Chapters XII. and XIII.)

Dimidiated. Cut in halves per pale, and one half removed: No. 250. (See Chapter XI.)

Disclosed. With expanded wings, in the case of birds that are not birds of prey. The contrary to Close.

Displayed. Birds of prey with expanded wings. No. 200.

Disposed, Disposition. Arranged, arrangement.

Dividing Lines. No. 38: also Nos. 27-37.

Dolphin. A favourite fish with Heralds. The heraldic Dolphin of antiquity is exemplified in No. 8; that of the Middle Ages in No. 163.

Dormant. Asleep, as in No. 179.

Double-queued. Having two tails. No. 181.

Doubling. The lining of a Mantle or Mantling.

Dove-tail. No. 381.

Dragon. A winged monster having four legs. No. 236.

No. 236.— Dragon. No. 237.— Circlet of a Duke’s Coronet.


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