The surname of HARTLEY was a locational name 'of Hartley' a spot in Berkshire. There are also parishes in the diocese of Rochester and Winchester of the name. Local names usually denoted where a man held his land, and indicated where he actually lived. Early records of the name mention Robert de Hertley, 1191, Yorkshire. Nicholas de Hertlegh was documented in 1327 in the County of Somerset. Ricardus de Hertlay of Yorkshire, was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. Christopher Hills and Elizabeth Hartley of Stepney, were married in London in the year 1623. Surnames before the Norman Conquest of 1066 were rare in England having been brought by the Normans when William the Conqueror invaded the shores. The practice spread to Scotland and Ireland by the 12th century, and in Wales they appeared as late as the 16th century. Most surnames can be traced to one of four sources, locational, from the occupation of the original bearer, nicknames or simply font names based on the first name of the parent being given as the second name to their child. David Hartley (1705-1757) was an English physician and philosopher, and is regarded as the founder of the English school of psychologists. At first the coat of arms was a practical matter which served a function on the battlefield and in tournaments. With his helmet covering his face, and armour encasing the knight from head to foot, the only means of identification for his followers, was the insignia painted on his shield, and embroidered on his surcoat, the draped and flowing garment worn over the armour. The associated arms are recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Ulster King of Arms in 1884. It has long been a matter of doubt when the bearing of coats of arms first became hereditary and it was not until the Crusades that Heraldry came into general use. Men went into battle heavily armed and were difficult to recognise. It became the custom for them to adorn their helmets with distinctive crests, and to paint their shields with animals and the like. Coats of arms accompanied the development of surnames, becoming hereditary in the same way.
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