This Portugese surname of GIULIANI was from a medieval given name, rendered in ancient documents in the Latin form JULIUS. It was a Roman family name of uncertain etymology, possibly an adjective derived from IUPPITER, the supreme god, whose name seems to be akin to words for 'sky' 'light' and 'day'. The name was borne in the Middle Ages in honour of various minor Christian saints, and was nearly as popular as its derivative Julian. Portugese surnames share many of the features of Spanish surnames, in particular Arabic and Visigothic influence. A notable feature of Portugese surnames is the class of religious names referring to festivals of the church or attributes of the Virgin Mary. One respect in which Portugese names differ from those of the rest of the Iberian peninsular, is that some were adopted at a comparatively late date and honour saints who did not give rise to surnames in other languages. Portugese names typically have the ending 'eiro'. The name has many variant spellings which include JULES, GIULIOM IULI, ZULI, GIULIETTI and DE GIULI. ROMANO DE GIULIO (1492-1546) was the Italian painter and architect, born in Rome. He assisted Raphael in the execution of several of his finest works, and at his death in 1520 completed the 'Transfiguration' in the Vatican. In 1524 he went to Mantua on the invitation of the Duke. The drainage of the marshes and protection of the city from the floods of the Po and Mincio attest his skill as an engineer; while his genius as an architect found scope in the restoration and adornment of the Palazzo del Te, the cathedral and a ducal palace. In Bolognia he designed the facade of the church of Saint Petronio. In the Middle Ages heraldry came into use as a practical matter. It originated in the devices used to distinguish the armoured warriors in tournament and war, and was also placed on seals as marks of identity. As far as records show, true heraldry began in the middle of the 12th century, and appeared almost simultaneously in several countries of Western Europe.
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