This County Mayo surname derives from the north Connacht sept, O'Gaibhtheachain (O'Gachain). A variant anglicization is Gavaghan also found mainly in County Mayo and County Roscommon. Ireland was one of the earliest counties to adopt a system of hereditary surnames; they came into being fairly generally in the 11th century, and indeed a few were formed before the year 1000. When the sparse Irish population began to increase it became necessary to broaden the base of personal identification by moving from single names to a more definite nomenclature. The prefix MAC was given to the father's christian name, or O to that of a grandfather or even earlier ancestor. At first the coat of arms was a practical matter which served a function on the battlefield and in tournaments. With his helmet covering his face and armour encasing the knight from head to foot, the only means of identification for his followers, was the insignia painted on his shield and embroidered on his surcoat, the draped and flowing garment worn over the armour. The origin of badges and emblems, are traced to the earliest times, although, Heraldry, in fact, cannot be traced later than the 12th century, or at furthest the 11th century. At first armorial bearings were probably like surnames and assumed by each warrior at his free will and pleasure, his object being to distinguish himself from others. It has long been a matter of doubt when bearing Coats of Arms first became hereditary. It is known that in the reign of Henry V (1413-1422), a proclamation was issued, prohibiting the use of heraldic ensigns to all who could not show an original and valid right, except those 'who had borne arms at Agincourt'. The College of Arms (founded in 1483) is the Royal corporation of heralds who record proved pedigrees and grant armorial bearings. Early records of the name mention Goseline filius Gauwygne, 1279, Ireland. The name is also spelt O'Gaughan. Father William Gahan (1730-1804) is remembered not only as the author of devotional works but especially for his trial and conviction in connection with the reconciliation to the Church of Dr. John Butler sometime Catholic Bishop of Cork.
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