This German, Austrian and Jewish surname of FRITCHMAN was a medieval given name meaning 'the son of Frederick'. The name was composed of the elements FRID (peace) and RIC (power) and the name has spread the world in its various forms of spelling. The name was borne by a canonized 9th century bishop of Utrecht, and was a hereditary name among the Hohrnstaufen ruling family; hence its popularity in central Europe. Since the dawn of civilisation the need to communicate has been a prime drive of all higher mankind. The more organised the social structure became, the more urgent the need to name places, objects and situations essential to the survival and existence of the social unit. From this common stem arose the requirements to identify families, tribes and individual members evolving into a pattern in evidence today. In the formation of this history, common usage of customs, trades, locations, patronymic and generic terms were often adopted as surnames. The demands of bureaucracy formally introduced by feudal lords in the 11th century, to define the boundaries and families within their fiefdoms, crystallized the need for personal identification and accountability, and surnames became in general use from this time onwards. There are many variations of this name amongst which are FRISCHE, FRISCH, FRISCHMANN, FRESCO, FRISHMAN, FRYSZER, FRISCHLING, FRESKO (among Sefardic Jews) and FRITCHMANN. Notable members of the name include Otto Robert FRISCH (1904-79) the Austrian physicist, born in Vienna. In 1939 he became head of the nuclear physics division at Harwell in England, and in 1947 professor of natural philosophy at Cambridge. Ragnar Anton Kittil FRISCH (1895-1973) was the Norwegian economist. He studied at Oslo and was professor of economics there from 1931 to 1965. He shared the Nobel prize for economics in 1969. In the Middle Ages heraldry came into use as a practical matter. It originated in the devices used to distinguish the armoured warriors in tournament and war, and was also placed on seals as marks of identity. As far as records show, true heraldry began in the middle of the 12th century, and appeared almost simultaneously in several countries of Western Europe.
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