This surname CROXEN is of the locational group of surnames 'of Croxton' parishes and hamlets in counties Cambridge, Lincoln, Chester, Norfolk and Leicester. In 1086 the compilation of the Domesday Book was ordered by William the Conqueror (1027-87), king of England from 1066. He was born in Failaise, the bastard son of Robert, Duke of Normandy, by Arlette, a tanner's daughter. On his father's death in 1035, the nobles accepted him as a duke. When Edward the Confessor, king of England died in 1066, William invaded England that Autumn, on 14th October, 1066 killing Harold (who had assumed the title of King). English government under William assumed a more feudal aspect, the king's tenants-in-chief and all title to land was derived from his grants, and the Domesday Book contains details of the land settlements, and the names of the owners of such. CROSTUNE (without surname) was such a tenant, recorded in Cambridge, and CROXTON, was listed as a land owner in Leicestershire. Other early instances of the name include Elena de Croxstone, 1273, County Huntingdonshire, and Richard de Croxton of Yorkshire, appears in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. William Johnson and Frances Crockson were married at St. James's, Clerkenwell, London in the year 1605. The bulk of European surnames in countries such as England and France were formed in the 13th and 14th centuries. The process started earlier and continued in some places into the 19th century, but the norm is that in the 11th century people did not have surnames, whereas by the 15th century they did. It has long been a matter of doubt when the bearing of coats of arms first became hereditary and it was not until the Crusades that Heraldry came into general use. Men went into battle heavily armed and were difficult to recognise. It became the custom for them to adorn their helmets with distinctive crests, and to paint their shields with animals and the like. Coats of arms accompanied the development of surnames, becoming hereditary in the same way. The associated coat of arms is recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Ulster King of Arms in 1884. (Croxen).
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