The surname of CROWE was derived from the Old English word 'crawe'. Early records of the name mention Ralph Crawe, 1273 County Norfolk. Adam Croe was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. William Crawe was vicar of Wigenhale, St. Peter, County Norfolk in 1431. John Crowe and Christian Dodo were married at St. George's, Hanover Square, London in 1794. The name was taken to Scotland by English settlers and an early records of the name mention John Crow of Dunblane 1470. Magnus Crowe was a follower of Walter Ross of Morange in 1596, and James Crowe, tailor, received the freedom of the burgh of Dysart in 1602. Alexander Crowe was documented in Bogjarg in 1668, and Mellis Crowe was a ferrier in Newton in 1781. The chemical knowledge of James Crow (1800-1859) vastly improved the methods of distilling whisky The burghs of Scotland owe much of their prosperity to the large immigration of foreigners which went on during the 12th and 13th centuries. The original founders of the towns, were in many cases wanderers from Flanders, who brought with them their habits of industry and knowledge of trade and manufactures. Settlers of this description came in great numbers to England in the reign of Henry I (1100-1135) and when Henry II (1154-1189) drove all foreigners out of his dominions they flocked into Scotland, where a more enlightened policy made them welcome. In Ireland, where the name is rendered in Gaelic as Mac Conchradha, the name is mainly of English origin. At first the coat of arms was a practical matter which served a function on the battlefield and in tournaments. With his helmet covering his face, and armour encasing the knight from head to foot, the only means of identification for his followers was the insignia painted on his shield, and embroidered on his surcoat, the flowing and draped garment worn over the armour. It has long been a matter of doubt when the bearing of coats of arms first became hereditary and it was not until the Crusades that Heraldry came into general use. Men went into battle heavily armed and were difficult to recognise. It became the custom for them to adorn their helmets with distinctive crests, and to paint their shields with animals and the like. Coats of arms accompanied the development of surnames, becoming hereditary in the same way.
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