The surname CHANDLER was an occupational name 'the chandler' a candlemaker. The official who attended to the lights in his lord's household. The name was derived from the Old Latin 'candelarius', and is a familiar name to medieval documents. The acquisition of surnames in Europe during the past eight hundred years has been affected by many factors, including social class and social structure, naming practices in neighbouring cultures, and indigenous cultural tradition. On the whole, the richer and more powerful classes tended to acquire surnames earlier than the working classes and the poor, while surnames were quicker to catch on in urban areas than in more sparsely populated rural areas. These facts suggest that the origin of surnames is associated with the emergence of bureaucracies. As long as land tenure, military service, and fealty were matters of direct relationship between a lord and his vassals, the need did not arise for fixed distinguishing epithets to mark out one carl from another. But as societies became more complex, and as such matters as the management of tenure and in particular the collection of taxes were delegated to special functionaries, it became imperative to have a more complex system of nomenclature to distinguish one individual from another reliably and unambiguously. Early records of the name mention William le Chandler of Essex, 1285. "Paid unto Thomas Chandler for a new clocke ' Z5.3s.4d.' Church Wardens Accounts for Wilmslow, East Cheshire in 1682. Originally the coat of arms identified the wearer, either in battle or in tournaments. Completely covered in body and facial armour the knight could be spotted and known by the insignia painted on his shield, and embroidered on his surcoat, the draped garment which enveloped him. The associated arms are recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Ulster King of Arms in 1884.
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