Many spelling errors are shown below because this was scanned and processed with OCR software. I will eventually get the spelling errors corrected.
on the science admit two additional, tawney, or tenee, orange ; and sanguine, blood colour; but they are rarely to be met with in British Arms
When natural objects are introduced into Heraldry, they are often represented in their ordinary colours, and this is expressed by the term proper.
A shield is said to be quartered when it is divided into four equal parts by horizontal and perpendicular lines crossing the centre ; that at the top of the dexter side is called the first quarter; the top of the sinister aide is called the second quarter ; the third quarter is at the bottom of the dexter side, and the bottom of the sinister side is the fourth quarter. When the shield is divided into two equal parts by a perpendicular line, it is called IMPALING : the dexter being the man's side, the sinister the woman's. Dividing the shield into two equal parts by a horizontal line is called per fess.
CHARGES are the various figures depicted on shields, by which the bearers are distinguished from one another.
All charges of Arms are either proper or common ; those charges are said to be proper which by a certain property do particularly belong to the Art of Heraldry, and are of ordinary use therein: hence they are styled " ORDINARIES : " the common charges are the representations of all the emblems which retain their own names in the blazon. The principal ORDINARIES are-the CHIEF, the PALE, the BEND, the Fess, the Cross, the Saltire, and the CHEVRON. The SUB-ORDINARIES are-the BORDER, the ORLE, the Inesc utcheon, the Qu arter, the Can ton, the PAILS Or PALL, the Gyron, the Pile, the Flaunch, &c.
DIFFERENCES, or MARKS OF CADENCY, are the distinctions used to indicate the vnriuns branches or cadets of one family. The ELDEST SON (during the lifetime of 6:e father) bears a LABEL; the SECOND, 8 Crescent; the THIRD, a MULLET; the Fourth,
a Martlet; the FIFTH, all t110 SIXTH, a FLEUR-DE-LIS; t118 SEVENTH, n Rose ; the EIGHTH, a Cross-Moline ; the NINTH, a DOUBLE Quarterfoil.
The mode of using these marks of cadency, as practised by the Heralds' College, London, and Ulster's Office, Dublin, is to carry them down to the third generation. T here is no rule as to the colours of cadency marks except one, the label of three points must not be argent except for the Royal Family; but, the same heraldic rule applies to these marks as to ordinary heraldic charges, colour cannot lie on colour, or metal on metal.
If a younger son, say a third son, who bears a mullet for difference, assume by Royal Licence an additional surname, in addition to and after his own surname, and the arms belonging to that assumed surname, which would consequently be borne in the first quarter of his escutcheon, it is not necessary for him to continue the mark of cadency, as the compound coat is sufficient to distinguish him from the head of the family; if, however, be wish to use the mark of cadency, it should be borne in the fees point of the compound coat.
ATTITUDES OR POSITIONS OF ANIMALS, BIRDS, AND FISHES.
When a lion or other beast of prey stands upright, with only one ear and one eye seen, with the head in profile, ho is termed rampant; when walking forward, with one eye and ear seen, passant; when sitting, sejant; when lying down, couchant
If in any one of these positions the animal look full face, so that both eyes and ears may be seen, the word guardaul is annexed to passant, rampant, aejant., or couchant, as the case may be; and if he look back, the word reguardant. An animal is salient when leaping forwards bondwaye and having both the hind legs in the same position.
To griffins the term eegrennl is given, in place of rampant. Animals of the deer
kind have their positions otherwise blawuad. Thus, when looking full-faced, they
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