The surname of BALDWIN was a baptismal name 'the son of Baldwin'. The name means 'bold protector'. It was not a common name among the Anglo-Saxons, however, a frequent occurrence of the name in the Earldom of Flanders, caused the province to become known as 'Baldwinus Lane'. It was an extremely popular name among the Normans in the Middle Ages as it was the given name of the Crusader, who in 1100 became the first Christian king of Jerusalem, and of four more Crusader kings of Jerusalem. It was also borne by Baldwin, Count of Flanders (1172-1205), leader of the Fourth Crusade who became the first Latin Emperor of Constantinople (1204). The name was probably brought to England in the wake of the Norman Conquest of 1066. Many of the early names recorded in medieval documents denote noble families but many also indicate migration from the continent during, and in the wake of, the Norman invasion of 1066. There was a constant stream of merchants, workmen and others arriving in England during this time. In 1086 the Record of Great Inquisition of lands of England, their extent, value, ownership and liabilities was made by order of William The Conqueror. It is known as the Domesday book.
Early records of the name mention Baldwinus (without surname) who died in 1190 was the English prelate, born in Exeter in poor circumstances. He became the Bishop of Worcester in 1180 and Archbishop of Canterbury in 1184. He crowned Richard I made a tour of Wales, preaching in favour of the Crusades, and himself died on a Crusade. Johannes Baldwyn was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. Thomas Baldwin of Wales, was registered at Oxford University in 1580. Most of the European surnames in countries such as England, Scotland and France were formed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The process had started somewhat earlier and had continued in some places into the 19th century, but the norm is that in the tenth and eleventh centuries people did not have surnames, whereas by the fifteenth century most of the population had acquired a second name.
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