The surname of TILLEY was a locational name 'of Tilly' a village in the department of Calvados in Normandy. The name was brought to England with the Conqueror in 1086. The original bearer may also have taken his name from TILLEY in Shropshire, so called from the Old English TILIA (to cultivate). Other spellings of the name include TILLY, TILLIE, TILEY, TYLEY and TILLIAR. Originally the coat of arms identified the wearer, either in battle or in tournaments. Completely covered in body and facial armour the knight could be spotted and known by the insignia painted on his shield, and embroidered on his surcoat, the draped garment which enveloped him. Between the 11th and 15th centuries it became customary for surnames to be assumed in Europe, but were not commonplace in England or Scotland before the Norman Conquest of 1066. They are to be found in the Domesday Book of 1086. Those of gentler blood assumed surnames at this time, but it was not until the reign of Edward II (1307-1327) that second names became general practice for all people. Early records of the name mention Ralph de Tilio listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. Odo de Till, 1185 Yorkshire. Edward Tillie of County Somerset, was documented during the reign of Edward III (1327-1377) and Johannes Tilly was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. John Shipman married Mary Tille, St. George's, Hanover Square, London in 1756. During the Middle Ages, when people were unable to read or write, signs were needed for all visual identification. For several centuries city streets in Britain were filled with signs of all kinds, public houses, tradesmen and even private householders found them necessary. This was an age when there were no numbered houses, and an address was a descriptive phrase that made use of a convenient landmark. At this time, coats of arms came into being, for the practical reason that men went into battle heavily armed and were difficult to recognise. It became the custom for them to adorn their helmets with distinctive crests, and to paint their shields with animals and the like. Coats of arms accompanied the development of surnames, becoming hereditary in the same way.
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