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U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 Building a Spanish Surname List for the 1990’s— A New Approach to an Old Problem by David L. Word and R. Colby Perkins Jr. Population Division U. S. Bureau of the Census Washington D.C. The data and results appearing in this working paper were originally introduced at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (PAA) Miami, Florida May 1994. The views expressed in this paper are solely attributable to the two authors and do not necessarily reflect the position of the United States Bureau of the Census. Technical Working Paper No. 13 i U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 ABSTRACT The United States Census Bureau produced and released Spanish surname products for 1950, 1960, 1970 and 1980. This 1990 version is another way station in an ongoing research journey. This paper, “Building a Spanish Surname List for the 1990’s—A New Approach to an Old Problem,” differs from its predecessors in two significant respects. (1) Until 1990, name has never been part of a permanent Census electronic record. Following the 1990 Census, the Census Bureau appended name to 7 million Census records for the purposes of determining undercount. The “List” is constructed by tabulating the responses (surname by surname) to the Spanish origin question for persons in that sample. Well over 90 percent of male householders with the surnames: GARCIA, MARTINEZ, RODRIGUEZ, and LOPEZ responded affirmatively to the Spanish origin question while less than 1.0 percent of male householders named SMITH, JOHNSON, and BROWN provided a positive response to the Spanish origin question. (2) In the past, a name was either on the list (e.g., Garcia) and was taken to be Spanish or it did not appear on the list. The assumption was that any name not on the list was not Spanish. Since neither BROWN nor SILVA appeared on the 1980 Spanish Surname list, one would naturally assume that neither name was Spanish. In the electronic version of the 1990 “List” we append auxiliary data for 25,000 surnames including both SILVA and BROWN that allow users to form their own lists. Almost 60 percent of the SILVA’s in our 1990 Census sample responded that they were Hispanic while less than 1 percent of BROWN’s claimed to be Hispanic. Moreover, another auxiliary item suggests that the letters S I L V A form a potentially Spanish word. That same statement cannot be made for B R O W N. From this data, some users might include SILVA on their own personal Spanish surname list, while others would justifiably arrive at an opposite conclusion. We must emphasize that this product does not violate the confidentiality of Census responses. On average, each captured surname represents about 40 householders. Moreover, we provide no subnational geographic data nor is there any indication of first name or age of respondent. Given these conditions, we are confident that this file does not provide information that could identify any individual enumerated in the 1990 Census. Technical Working Paper No. 13 ii U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This paper could not have been written without the help of our colleagues at the Census Bureau. Six of our co-workers provided so much assistance that they are singled out for special thanks. 1. Randy Klear single-handedly built the data base used in the surname extraction operation. He wrote the programs to normalize names (JOHN SMITH JR is normalized to JOHN SMITH) as well as creating the algorithms for inverting names (JOHNSON CYNTHIA is inverted to CYNTHIA JOHNSON) when appropriate. 2. Sam Davis designed the programs to delineate infrequently occurring surnames into various Hispanic categories. 3. Marie Pees created the electronic diskettes that are an important supplement to the paper. For persons needing specific information on individual surnames, the statistical material located on the diskette is crucial. 4. Signe Wetrogan gave the authors a great deal of her time, enthusiasm and expertise in their early efforts at organizing and writing this paper. Many of her suggestions on points of emphasis have been included in this document. 5. Gregg Robinson painstakingly read and re-read several versions of this paper. His sense for where to expand and where to modify the authors’ original phrasing were almost always right on the money. 6. Finally, we want to commend Rheta Pemberton on her word processing skills and her patience in producing “just one more final draft”. The typographical errors which have crept into this paper are the sole responsibility of the authors. Technical Working Paper No. 13 iii U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction Page 1 2.0 Background Page 2 3.0 Purpose of Constructing a Spanish Surname List Page 3 4.0 One Dozen Common Spanish Surnames Page 4 5.1 Statistical Properties for Frequently Occurring Surnames Page 6 5.2 Statistical Properties for Infrequently Occurring Surnames Page 8 6.0 Limitations Page 9 7.0 Rarely Occurring Surnames: Or When Do Statistics End and When Does Common Sense Take Over? Page 10 8.0 Conclusion Page 13 9.0 References Page 14 10.0 Appendix Page 15 TEXT TABLES Table 1 Tabular Entries in an Ideal Situation Page 2 Table 2 Tabular Entries in a Normal Situation Page 2 Table 3 Ranking Spanish Surnames by Householder Page 4 Table 4 Percent of Householders and Persons Self-Identified as Hispanic Page 5 Table 5 Criteria for Spanish Surname Classification Page 6 Table 6A Categorizing Frequently Occurring Spanish Surnames (1980 List) by Proportion Hispanic Page 6 Table 6B Categorizing Frequently Occurring Non-Spanish Surnames (1980 List) by Proportion Hispanic Page 7 Table 7 Hispanic Classification for Surnames Occurring 25 or More Times on the SOR File Page 7 Table 8 Classifying Surnames on the 1980 Spanish Surname List According to Number of Observations on the SOR File Page 8 Table 9 1990 Hispanic Classification of Surnames Occurring 5 to 24 Times in the SOR File Based on Hispanic Classification in 1980 Page 9 Table 10 Standard Errors in Proportion Hispanic Arising From a Sample Page 10 Table 11 Probability of Finding “X” Hispanics from 5 Independent Observations Page 11 Table 12 Surnames Included on the 1980 Spanish Surname List Which Appear 4 or Fewer Times on the SOR File Page 11 Table 13 Surnames That Are Not Included on the 1980 Spanish Surname List and Appear 4 or Fewer Times on the SOR File Page 12 APPENDIX TABLES Table A 639 Most Frequently Occurring Heavily Hispanic Surnames Page 20 Table B Spanish Surname Categories Page 22 Table C Selected Summary Statistics for Spanish Surnames Page 24 Technical Working Paper No. 13 1 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 Building a Spanish Surname List for the 1990’s— A New Approach to An Old Problem by David L. Word and R. Colby Perkins Jr. This paper describes a direct and reproducible method for creating an inventory of surnames characteristic of the Hispanic origin population in the United States. The individual surnames included in this inventory are created by combining distinct surnames into groups and then analyzing group responses to the 1990 Hispanic origin question. Persons wishing to purchase an electronic file need to be specific as to whether they want the long list (Section 10.1.2) or the short list (Section 10.1.3). Both electronic versions are available through the Population Division’s Statistical Information Office (301-457-2422). If you would like or need additional insight into the contents of this paper, David Word (301-457-2103) dword@census.gov and Colby Perkins (301-457-2428) rperkins@census. gov will welcome your comments. 1.0 INTRODUCTION In 1980 the Census Bureau published a list of 12,497 different “Spanish” surnames. The central premise for including a surname on that list was the “similarity” of that name’s geographic distribution to the geographic distribution of the Hispanic origin population within the United States. The 12,497 surnames appearing on the 1980 Spanish surname list were culled from a data base of 85 million taxpayers filing individual federal tax returns for 1977. Each of the 1.4 million distinct names appearing on the 1977 IRS file was subjected to a complex mathematical function incorporating Bayes’ theorem to determine the “odds” that any particular surname was Spanish (Word, et al 1978). When the arithmetic value of the function exceeded a predetermined standard, that surname became a potential candidate for inclusion on the 1980 Spanish surname list. If the numerical value of the multinomial function failed to reach that criterion, the surname being tested was immediately discarded. This procedure works remarkably well for commonly occurring surnames, but a great amount of “hands on” effort was required to dispose of infrequently occurring surnames that surfaced as “Spanish” on the initial selection pass. In this paper, Perkins and Word discard that indirect Bayesian approach in favor of a direct method to reach the same ends. Here, instead of attempting to “classify” surnames through geographic distribution, we actually link ethnicity and name. The ideal data source for classifying surnames by proportion Hispanic origin would be the 1990 Census in its entirety. Because of disclosure concerns, name has never been part of the computerized permanent record even though the Decennial Census routinely requests name for followup purposes. Nevertheless, a very large sample data set is available that does link name (first and last) to individual 1990 Census records. This individual record file, hereafter called the SOR—(Spanish Origin) —file contains 7,154,390 person records1 and was originally created for the purpose of estimating undercount in the 1990 Census. Since slightly over 1.5 million of those records lack name and/ or Hispanic origin information, we limited ourselves to the 5,609,592 records that include both a valid surname and a response to the Hispanic origin question. 1Following the 1990 Census, the Census Bureau instituted a large scale post-enumerative survey (PES) to measure undercount in the 1990 census (Hogan, 1993; 1992). The formal PES sample was limited to 377,000 persons residing in 171,000 households in 5300 preselected blocks. The much larger SOR sample includes those PES blocks AND surrounding ring blocks. The SOR sample file used in this analysis is nearly 20 times as large as the formal PES sample. Technical Working Paper No. 13 2 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 Most people within a household have the same surname and the same ethnicity, implying that 5,609,592 person records do not produce 5,609,592 independent observations. To mitigate the effect of clustering, we limit our universe to the 1,868,781 Householder2 records that include valid responses to both surname and Hispanic origin. This “householder” data set contains 268,783 distinct surnames—167,765 occurring exactly one time. In fairness, a large portion of surnames occurring one time appear to be errors in keying or errors in interpreting handwriting. GOUZALEZ, GOMEZS, and RODRIGUF are the surnames of three householders appearing in the SOR file who designated themselves as Hispanic. For reasons sited in footnote 2, all future discussions of frequency/appearances/observations for individual surnames in the SOR file, will be taken as householders not persons. 2.0 BACKGROUND If it were possible to develop a Spanish surname list that identifies all Hispanics, and does not include any non-Hispanics, we could represent that condition by Table 1. TABLE 1—TABULAR ENTRIES IN AN IDEAL SITUATION Hispanic Origin Non-Hispanic Origin All Origins Spanish Surname X ZERO X Non-Spanish Surname ZERO Y Y All Names X Y Z In Table 1, each of the X persons denoting themselves as Hispanic possesses a Spanish surname, and no person of Hispanic origin has a non- Spanish surname. Moreover, not one single person among the Y non-Hispanics possess a Spanish surname. This pattern does not hold in the real world. Hispanic persons may possess surnames that are not “Spanish”, and non-Hispanics,—especially married women—can have Spanish Surnames. Table 2 illustrates this “real world” situation. TABLE 2—TABULAR ENTRIES IN A NORMAL SITUATION Hispanic Origin Non-Hispanic Origin All Origins Spanish Surname X p S Non-Spanish Surname q Y T All Names H U Z If the surname list under consideration behaves normally, the entries “p” and “q” are small relative to the values of X and Y. Displaying the data in this form clarifies the two relationships which are crucial in evaluating any Spanish surname list. 2The term “householder” used in the context of this paper is limited to male or never married female householders plus any other male or never married female in the household not related to the householder. We expressly exclude ever married women from the calculations because our interest in the relationship of surname to ethnicity lies in the potential of a given surname to identify persons of Hispanic origin. As would be suspected, the existing 1980 Spanish surname list is less effective in identifying the ethnicity of ever married females than any other demographic group (Perkins, 1993). Technical Working Paper No. 13 3 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 1. The entry “p” represents the number of persons possessing any “Spanish surname” appearing on an existing Spanish surname list who do not identify themselves as Hispanic. We define Error of Commission to be the ratio of p to S. That is, of the S persons who have Spanish surnames, “p” are not Hispanic. As a rule of thumb, fewer than 10 percent of the persons with generally accepted “Spanish” surnames fail to identify themselves as Hispanic. Ambiguous surnames, such as SANTOS and SILVA, should be excluded from any Spanish Surname list if a user’s goal is to minimize Error of Commission. 2. The entry “q” represents persons who identify themselves as Hispanic, but whose surname is not found on a given Spanish surname list. Error of Omission is analogous to Error of Commission and is the ratio of q to H. However, Error of Omission is not strictly a rate. It is the proportion of the Hispanic origin population whose last name does not appear on a particular Spanish surname list. Although fewer than 1 percent of persons with non-Spanish surnames identify themselves as Hispanic, non-Hispanics outnumber Hispanics by 10 to 1 in the United States. For that reason, it is virtually impossible for Error of Omission to dip much below 10 percent, regardless of “fringe” surnames that are added to an existing surname list. If one desires to lower the Error of Omission at the expense of Error of Commission, indefinite surnames such as SANTOS and SILVA need to be included on a Spanish surname list. 3.0 PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING A SPANISH SURNAME LIST The existing 1980 Spanish surname list was originally created to code persons of Spanish surname in the five Southwestern States at the time of the 1980 Census (Passel and Word, 1980). But that surname list has had a far wider range of uses and users since its release. Five practical applications involving the use of Spanish surnames follow: 3.1 Mortality Studies. Until very recently (late 1960’s) there was no attempt to identify the Latin American community with a single unifying term. As a result, Mexicans, Germans, Iraqis and Peruvians were terms for persons of four distinct ethnic groups. By the late 1970’s, the term Spanish origin came into vogue and Mexicans, Peruvians, Puerto Ricans, etc. were combined under a single generic designation—Spanish origin population. (The term Spanish origin has gradually been replaced or used interchangeably with the term Hispanic origin.) At the same time (1980) the Social Security Administration (SSA) revised their application form to request ethnic (”Hispanic”) information for Social Security applicants. But neither Social Security nor its sister agency, Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA/Medicare), felt that it was necessary to obtain direct information on Hispanic origin for persons who had applied for and received Social Security numbers prior to 1980. In order to obtain information on mortality of the elderly Hispanic population, HCFA is contemplating a large scale mortality study of the Hispanic origin population enrolled in Medicare. For a large proportion of that population, “Hispanic origin” will be defined and assigned on the basis of surnames contained on either the existing 1980 or the new 1990 Spanish surname list. 3.2 Population Estimates. The Census Bureau’s initial effort at producing local area population estimates for the Hispanic population (Word, 1989) relied on the premise that the domestic migration rate of the Hispanic origin population could be approximated from the migration of the Spanish surnamed population as defined in 1980. 3.3 Customer Base. A utility company knows its customer base (by surname) at time t0 and time t1. The ratio of Spanish surnamed customers at the end point relative to the starting point provides an excellent basis for estimating change in the Hispanic origin population from the beginning to the end of the time period. 3.4 Marketing. In the first three applications, it was more important to limit errors of commission than errors of omission. But for marketing purposes it is generally useful to approach persons who are tangential to the group being studied. Suppose that a publisher wishes to launch a mag- Technical Working Paper No. 13 4 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 azine written in Spanish about items of interest to persons of Hispanic origin. In order to get the largest subscriber base, it would be worthwhile to contact persons with borderline Spanish surnames on the chance that they are Hispanic. 3.5 Census Use. The Census Bureau is continually faced with the problem of “estimating” data when the respondent does not supply data on a census form. This estimation process is called “editing” or “imputation”. Given that name will be captured on the year 2000 census record, a possible option to be considered is to use name to improve editing the Hispanic origin question when a direct response is not available. 4.0 ONE DOZEN COMMON SPANISH SURNAMES The paper contains many abridged tables illustrating the authors’ logic in generating Spanish surnames. For frequently occurring surnames, the qualification standards are self evident—we need only to know the ratio of successes (persons with a particular name identifying as Hispanic) to failures (persons with that same surname identifying as non-Hispanic). For rarely occurring names, the procedures for deciding whether a surname is or is not Spanish require more innovation. As a starting point, we tabulated for each surname (SMITH as well as GARCIA) the proportion of persons who indicate that they are Hispanic. Using this construct, the criteria for establishing numerical limits on what constitutes a Spanish surname can be left to the individual data user. In practice, 95 percent of male householders with frequently occurring surnames (e.g., GOMEZ, GONZALEZ, GARCIA, RUIZ, etc.,) said they were Hispanic while less than 1 percent of males with common Anglo-Saxon surnames report themselves to be Hispanic. There are a few surnames (e.g., SILVA and SANTOS) for which the proportion of Hispanics is close to one-half, but these difficult to classify surnames are quite rare. Approximately 20 percent of the Spanish surnamed population in the United States is concentrated in an even dozen names. The relative positioning of those 12 Spanish surnames in 1977 and 1990 appear in Table 3. TABLE 3—RANKING SPANISH SURNAMES BY HOUSEHOLDER (Source: 1977 (IRS); 1990 (Census SOR file)) 1977 1990 Rank Name Percent Rank Name Percent 1. Garcia 2.97 1. Garcia 2.90 2. Martinez 2.69 2. Martinez 2.73 3. Rodriguez 2.51 3. Rodriguez 2.55 4. Lopez 1.99 4. Lopez 2.23 5. Hernandez 1.89 5. Hernandez 2.16 6. Gonzalez 1.65 6. Gonzalez 1.87 7. Perez 1.57 7. Perez 1.73 8. Sanchez 1.41 8. Sanchez 1.50 9. Gonzales 1.18 9. Rivera 1.24 10. Ramirez 1.13 10. Ramirez 1.20 11. Torres 1.03 11. Torres 1.15 12. Rivera 0.98 12. Gonzales 1.06 TOTAL 21.00 TOTAL 22.31 Technical Working Paper No. 13 5 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 The term “householder” in Table 3 is used for convenience and does not follow a precise census definition. For the 1977 entries, a more exact descriptor would be “primary taxpayers on 1977 IRS returns”. The 1990 SOR source includes male householders but excludes all female householders currently or previously married. Table 3 focuses upon the stability of surname positional rankings. Even though the Hispanic origin population in the United States increased by 70 percent over the 13 year period (1977 to 1990), the relative positioning of the 12 most frequently occurring Spanish surnames are invariant in both data sources. Were it not for the inversion of RIVERA and GONZALES, the individual positional rankings among the first 12 Spanish surnames would be identical. We are now prepared to address the following question: “Just how effective are Spanish surnames in identifying the Hispanic origin population?” Table 4 attempts to answer that question by presenting surname data from the SOR research file for both “householders” (H.H.) and all persons (POP). Note how the inclusion of ever married females in the POP column depresses the effectiveness of both Spanish and non-Spanish surnames as classifiers of ethnic populations. TABLE 4—PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDERS AND PERSONS SELF-IDENTIFIED AS HISPANIC (Source 1990 Census-SOR) Spanish Surnames Non-Spanish Surnames Rank Surname H. H. Pop. Rank Surname H. H. Pop. 1. Garcia 94.5 91.0 1. Smith 0.7 1.2 2. Martinez 95.9 93.2 2. Johnson 0.6 1.1 3. Rodriguez 96.9 94.2 3. Williams 0.8 1.1 4. Lopez 94.6 91.8 4. Brown 0.9 1.3 5. Hernandez 97.0 94.2 5. Jones 0.5 0.9 6. Gonzalez 98.0 95.5 6. Davis 0.7 1.1 7. Perez 95.8 92.6 7. Miller 0.6 1.3 8. Sanchez 96.4 93.4 8. Wilson 1.0 1.5 9. Rivera 96.1 92.3 9. Anderson 0.7 1.4 10. Ramirez 96.7 94.3 10. Moore 0.5 1.1 11. Torres 95.3 92.9 11. Taylor 0.7 1.1 12. Gonzales 92.1 89.8 12. Thomas 0.8 1.2 ————————————————————————————————————— 30. Silva 57.3 60.0 13. Martin 2.5 3.2 47. Santos 60.3 61.5 209. Oliver 3.1 3.0 Table 4 demonstrates just how effectively the top 12 Spanish and Anglo surnames classify the total population as to Hispanic or non-Hispanic origin. About 93 percent of the population and 96 percent of the householders with the 12 most common Spanish surnames identified themselves as Hispanic in the 1990 Census. On the other hand, only 1.2 percent of the population and 0.7 percent of the householders with the 12 most frequently occurring Anglo names answered the Hispanic origin question affirmatively. Note that MARTIN and OLIVER are substantially more Hispanic than the other 12 Anglo surnames. The reason for this is that the pronunciation of MARTIN and OLIVER can be altered from English to Spanish by accenting the last syllable rather than the next to the last syllable. We do not doubt that persons pronouncing their surnames as MAR TEEN or O LEE VAIR are generally Hispanic. Given that a name’s pronunciation cannot be guessed from its spelling, the surnames MARTIN and OLIVER should not be classified as Spanish in the United States. Only 3 percent of persons with names spelled M-A-R-T-I-N or O-L-I-V-E-R responded positively to the Hispanic origin question on the 1990 Census. Technical Working Paper No. 13 6 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 5.1 STATISTICAL PROPERTIES FOR FREQUENTLY OCCURRING SURNAMES The primary goal of this research is to supply statistical data on surnames where a sizeable proportion of persons with these surnames self-identify as Hispanic. Approximately 95 percent of householders possessing the 12 most frequently occurring Spanish surnames (Table 4) identify as Hispanic, and that pattern holds for the majority of Spanish surnames on the existing 1980 list. To avoid the awkward construction “x percent of persons with surname s are Hispanic”, we will employ the arbitrary, but easily understandable usage of “Heavily Hispanic”, “Generally Hispanic”, “Moderately Hispanic”, “Occasionally Hispanic” and “Rarely Hispanic” for surname classification purposes. Table 5 defines these terms. TABLE 5—CRITERIA FOR SPANISH SURNAME CLASSIFICATION Spanish Surname Proportion of Householders Classification Who are Hispanic 1. Heavily Hispanic Over 75 Percent 2. Generally Hispanic 50 Percent < x _ 75 Percent 3. Moderately Hispanic 25 Percent < x _ 50 Percent 4. Occasionally Hispanic 5 Percent < x _ 25 Percent 5. Rarely Hispanic Less than or equal to 5 percent 6. Indeterminant Name not on file Within the SOR file, there were 8,614 distinct “householder” surnames which appear 25 or more times. Based on an extrapolation of Social Security data (Social Security Administration, 1984), persons with those 8,614 surnames account for 70 percent of the American population. 715 of these 8,614 surnames matched entries appearing on the 1980 Spanish surname list. Unpublished data from Passel and Word’s earlier work suggest that these 715 “Spanish” surnames represent 83 percent of the Spanish surname population. Tables 6A, 6B, and 7 provide “householder” data on proportion Hispanic for those 8,614 surnames. TABLE 6A—CATEGORIZING FREQUENTLY OCCURRING SPANISH SURNAMES (1980 LIST) BY PROPORTION HISPANIC Total Surnames = 715 Heavily Hispanic (over 75 percent) 93.1 More than 95 percent 43.4 More than 90 percent 73.1 Generally Hispanic (50 to 75 percent) 6.0 Moderately Hispanic (25 to 50 percent) 0.7 Occasionally Hispanic (5 to 25 percent) 0.1 Rarely Hispanic (less than 5 percent) 0.0 From the information appearing in Table 6A and Table 7, it is evident that the Bayesian approach used to create the 1980 Spanish Surname List was quite successful. The vast majority (93.1 percent) of these 715 names fell into the Heavily Hispanic category, and nearly three-fourths of those surnames (73.1 percent) were Hispanic 90 percent of the time. In our 1990 SOR File, we found only 5 instances where a “frequently” occurring 1980 “Spanish” surname fell into the Moderate classification (FELIX, PASCUAL, MIGUEL, JUAN, and TOLENTINO). And there is only a single instance (DECASTRO) where a surname appearing on the 1980 Technical Working Paper No. 13 7 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 Spanish list would be classified as Occasionally Hispanic based on data in the SOR file. No surname appearing on the 1980 Spanish surname list occurring 25 or more times falls into the Rarely Hispanic category. We now turn to the 7,899 surnames occurring at least 25 times in the SOR file that do not appear on the 1980 Spanish surname list. TABLE 6B—CATEGORIZING FREQUENTLY OCCURRING NON-SPANISH SURNAMES (1980 LIST) BY PROPORTION HISPANIC (Total Surnames = 7,899) Rarely Hispanic (less than 5 percent) 96.3 Less than 2 percent 84.3 Occasionally Hispanic (5 to 25 percent) 3.0 Moderately Hispanic (25 to 50 percent) 0.5 Generally Hispanic (50 to 75 percent) 0.3 Heavily Hispanic (over 75 percent) 0.0 Based on results from the SOR sample, not one of the 7,899 most frequently occurring “non-Spanish surnames” would now be assigned to the Heavily Hispanic category. There are, however, 20 surnames categorized as Generally Hispanic based on the SOR sample. They are, in order of Hispanic occurrence: (1) SILVA, (2) ROMAN, (3) MACHADO, (4) VENTURA, (5) PIMENTEL, (6) PALMA, (7) AQUINO, (8) BELLO, (9) ARAUJO, (10) CHAVES, (11) LEMOS, (12) VALERIO, (13) MANZO, (14) MATTA, (15) SALVADOR, (16) MACEDO, (17) VICTORIA, (18) BARBOZA, (19) REAL, and (20) LOMAS Table 7 provides a numerical assessment of the Hispanic classification for the 8,614 surnames which appear 25 or more times in the SOR file. When Passel and Word created their 1980 Spanish surname list, they did not have the luxury of using the General or Moderate classification where most of the inconsistencies lie. As might be expected many of the surnames falling into those two categories were considered “close calls” by Word and Passel when they developed the 1980 Spanish surname list. TABLE 7—HISPANIC CLASSIFICATION FOR SURNAMES OCCURRING 25 OR MORE TIMES ON THE SOR FILE (On List: surname classified as Spanish in 1980) On List Not on List Heavily Hispanic (75% and over) 666 0 Generally Hispanic (50-75%) 43 20 Moderately Hispanic (25-50%) 5 42 Occasionally Hispanic (5-25%) 1 234 Rarely Hispanic (less than 5%) 0 7603 TOTAL 715 7899 Technical Working Paper No. 13 8 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 Summary: The most frequent 8,614 surnames (715 + 7899) in the SOR file are exceedingly efficient for differentiating the Hispanic and Non-Hispanic populations. All of the 666 names which are over 75 percent Hispanic in the SOR file were identified as Spanish surnames in 1980. There are 7,603 surnames, none previously categorized as “Spanish”, where fewer than 5 percent of respondents indicated that they are Hispanic. Note the paucity of surnames falling into the General and Moderate categories. 5.2 STATISTICAL PROPERTIES FOR INFREQUENTLY OCCURRING SURNAMES Even though the 8,614 most frequently occurring surnames in the SOR file contain 70 percent of the total population and 83 percent of the Spanish surname population, they represent a very small proportion of all surnames or all surnames designated as “Spanish”. The information appearing in Table 8 demonstrates that the correspondence between surnames classified as Spanish in 1980 and 1990 becomes somewhat weaker as the SOR sample thins. Nevertheless, the correspondence between surname and ethnicity for surnames occurring as few as 5 to 9 times in the SOR “householder” sample is still strong. TABLE 8—CLASSIFYING SURNAMES ON THE 1980 SPANISH SURNAME LIST ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS ON THE SOR FILE (householder only) Group I, 25 or More Observations n = 715 Group II, 10 to 24 Observation n = 605 Group III, 5 to 9 Observations n = 776 Group I Group II Group III n = 715 n = 605 n = 776 Heavily Hispanic 93.1 84.3 78.4 Generally Hispanic 6.0 10.4 11.1 Moderately Hispanic 0.7 3.3 6.1 Occasionally Hispanic 0.1 1.6 2.6 Rarely Hispanic 0.0 0.3 1.9 Again referring to Passel and Word’s unpublished data, the most frequent 1320 (those occurring 10 or more times) Spanish surnames on their 1980 list cover 90.6 percent of the Spanish surnamed population. When we extend the universe to the most frequent 2096 Spanish surnames (those occurring 5 or more times in the SOR sample), we reach 93.6 percent of the 1980 Spanish surnamed population. Table 9, following, is similar to Table 7 but is confined to surnames appearing 5 to 24 times in the SOR file. Technical Working Paper No. 13 9 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 TABLE 9—1990 HISPANIC CLASSIFICATION OF SURNAMES OCCURRING 5 TO 24 TIMES IN THE SOR FILE BASED ON HISPANIC CLASSIFICATION IN 1980 10 to 24 5 to 9 Observations Observations 1990 Hispanic On 1980 Not On On 1980 Not On Classification List 1980 List List 1980 List Heavily Hispanic 510 9 600 58 Generally Hispanic 63 22 94 53 Moderately Hispanic 20 79 50 151 Occasionally Hispanic 10 893 17 1005 Rarely Hispanic 2 9033 15 15345 TOTAL 605 10036 776 16612 As before, the terms “On” and “Not On” refer to whether the surname does or does not appear on the 1980 Spanish surname list. There are 1381 (605+776) different surnames on the 1980 Spanish surname list which appear 5 to 24 times in the SOR sample file. Only 44 (10 + 2 + 17 + 15) of those surnames will be reclassified as either Occasionally or Rarely Hispanic based on the 1990 analysis. Again referring to Table 9, we find that there are 26,648 (10,036 + 16,612) different surnames occurring 5 to 24 times on the SOR file that do not appear on the 1980 Spanish surname list. Only 67 (9+58) of those names are now classified as Heavily Hispanic. An additional 75 names (22+53) fall into the Generally Hispanic category. Summary: Of the 605 Spanish names on the 1980 list occurring 10 to 24 times, 95 percent fall into the Heavy or General classifications, and only 2 names fall into the Rarely Hispanic group. For 776 names that occurred 5 to 9 times, almost 90 percent continue to be classified as Heavily or Generally Spanish. Fifteen surnames previously classified as Hispanic are now Rarely Hispanic. 6.0 LIMITATIONS The data presented in Tables 3 through 9 are derived from a sample—albeit a very large one. The 5,609,592 matchable SOR records contain 597,533 individuals who reported themselves to be Hispanic in the 1990 Census. The proportion Hispanic (10.7 percent) within the SOR sample is higher than the Hispanic proportion (9.0 percent) enumerated in the 1990 Census. This finding is not unexpected as there was a conscious effort to oversample Hispanics in the PES. If we were using unweighted responses to estimate the total proportion of population with Spanish surnames, we would certainly overstate that ratio. But this analysis does not attempt to estimate population totals; rather, our goal is to estimate (on a name by name basis) the proportion of persons who are Hispanic. With this goal in mind there is no inherent reason against using unweighted observations. Another limitation is response variance. We must accept the individuals census designation as to his or her origin. For most census question such as sex and age, a respondent will provide answers that are consistent over time. Based on the 1990 Decennial Census Content Reinterview Survey (McKenney et al, 1993), about 7 percent of persons saying that they were Hispanic origin in the 1990 Census decided that they were non-Spanish at the later date. And 11 percent of persons saying that they were Hispanic origin in the reinterview, indicated that they were non-Spanish on their 1990 Census forms. This recent finding on lack of consistency for Hispanic origin response reinforce previous findings from reinterview surveys. Technical Working Paper No. 13 10 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 Finally, we have errors in measurement due to random sampling. When 90 persons out of 100 with a particular name in the SOR sample answer the Spanish origin question affirmatively, we say that 90 percent of persons with that surname are Hispanic. But, there is an error associated with that estimate. Using the normal approximation to the binomial, the standard error of that estimate is approximately p * (1_p)_(n_ _ . Here p = 0.9 and n = 100. Table 10 below displays values of sampling errors associated with two choices of “p” and three values of “n”. TABLE 10—STANDARD ERRORS IN PROPORTION HISPANIC ARISING FROM A SAMPLE N X P Sp 300 270 90.0 1.7 100 90 90.0 3.0 30 27 90.0 5.5* 300 210 70.0 2.6 100 70 70.0 4.6 30 21 70.0 8.4 In Table 10, N = observations; X = Hispanics; P = Proportion Hispanic (x/n) Sp = Standard error of p in percent * When x or (n-x) drops below 5, the values of the normal distribution are no longer appropriate. For this row, the two sigma upper and lower limits are 97.5 and 73.7 percent. 7.0 RARELY OCCURRING SURNAMES: OR WHEN DO STATISTICS END AND WHEN DOES COMMON SENSE TAKE OVER? To this point we have confined our comments to surnames appearing 5 or more times in our data set. Those 34,000 surnames encompass 85 percent of the householder population in the SOR file but less than 15 percent of the number of different surnames appearing in that file. Our goal is to classify every surname appearing on the SOR file; but for names appearing less than five times the proportion Hispanic should not and will not be the sole criterion for classification. In this section, we outline the thought process used in classifying infrequently occurring surnames. The exact details are found in Appendix Section 10.2 on page 21. The 7.2 million record SOR file is a reasonably representative national sample (almost 3 percent) of persons enumerated in the 1990 Census. In general terms, it is quite possible to designate a surname as being Heavily Hispanic or Rarely Hispanic from samples of three or possibly even two surnames; but samples of this size are inappropriate for separating Generally Hispanic from Moderately Hispanic or Moderately Hispanic from Occasionally Hispanic. Table 11 presents data demonstrating why it is difficult to badly misclassify the ethnicity of a surname when 5 independent observations of that surname exist. Assume that we are trying to categorize three separate surnames, and that five independent observations exist for each name. We also happen to know that among all Americans, surname “H” (Heavily) is 90 percent Hispanic; surname “M” (Midway) is 50 percent Hispanic and surname “R” (Rarely) is 2 percent Hispanic. Table 11 provides binomial probabilities (in percent) of getting 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 persons identifying as Hispanic for each of these three surnames. Technical Working Paper No. 13 11 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 TABLE 11—PROBABILITY OF FINDING “X” HISPANICS FROM 5 INDEPENDENT OBSERVATIONS (Numbers in percent) X Name “H” Name “M” Name “R” (90%) (50%) (2%) 0 0.0 3.1 90.4 1 0.1 15.6 9.2 2 0.8 31.3 0.4 3 7.3 31.3 0.0 4 32.8 15.6 0.0 5 59.1 3.1 0.0 Armed with this knowledge, it is evident that for Heavily Hispanic (”H”) or Rarely Hispanic (”R”) surnames there is little chance of misclassifying a surname that occurs 5 times. If our five observation sample were to yield three Hispanics, we might be tempted to classify the surname as “H” when it should have been “M” or vice versa, but there is little chance that a type “R” name could provide 3 Hispanics in a sample of 5 independent observations. 7.1.1 Classification of 1980 Spanish Surnames Occurring 4 or Fewer Times on the SOR Sample. Table 12 presents data on the number of “householders” with Spanish surnames (1980 definition) whose surname surfaced four or fewer times on the SOR file. TABLE 12—SURNAMES INCLUDED ON THE 1980 SPANISH SURNAME LIST WHICH APPEAR 4 OR FEWER TIMES ON THE SOR FILE Number of Hispanics Distinct Surnames Appearances 4 3 2 1 0 424 4 273 91 30 14 16 594 3 401 100 53 40 1143 2 790 229 124 2358 1 1784 574 5882 0 To aid in interpreting Table 12, the 1143 different surnames appearing exactly 2 times on the SOR sample represent 2286 (2 x 1143) householders. In 790 instances both householders having those particular surnames identified as Hispanic; in 229 cases one householder with the surname was Hispanic and one was not; in 124 cases neither householder with that surname said they were Hispanic. Overall, 74.8 percent of Spanish surnamed (1980 list) householders with names appearing exactly two times on the SOR file self-identified as Hispanic in the 1990 file. It is especially enlightening to note that nearly one-half (5882) of the 12,497 surnames on the 1980 Spanish surname list did not even occur in the SOR file. For those 5882 names we can not make any judgement as to whether those names are associated with persons who are Hispanic origin. There are two reasons why the SOR file did not capture those 5,882 surnames: (1) Many of these 1980 names may have themselves been the result of miskeying (e.g., RODRIGUF); (2) The data base used in assembling the 1980 list consisted of 80 million observations; this sample uses only 1.8 million records. In any case, the length (number of names) of a surname list has little correlation on its effectiveness. Technical Working Paper No. 13 12 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 Table 13 presents data on the “householders” whose surname occurs 4 or fewer times on the SOR file and that surname did not appear on the 1980 Spanish surname list. TABLE 13—SURNAMES THAT ARE NOT INCLUDED ON THE 1980 SPANISH SURNAME LIST AND APPEAR 4 OR FEWER TIMES ON THE SOR FILE Hispanic Responses Distinct Surnames Appearances 4 3 2 1 0 9,056 4 48 34 57 362 8,555 16,115 3 180 142 543 15,250 37,073 2 740 1,146 35,187 165,407 1 9,849 155,558 Since none of the entries appearing in Table 13 was previously (1980 surname list) classified as Hispanic, we would never consider reclassifying surnames included in the far right column of Table 13 into any positive Hispanic category. The names appearing in the remaining cells in Table 13 will be categorized by more subjective measures described in the Appendix. One possible yardstick for classifying surnames might have been to extend the binomial expansion appearing in Table 11 to lesser numbers of sample observations. For example, the probability that 4 independent readings on a truly Spanish surname (90 percent successful in identifying Hispanics) would yield 1 or 0 Hispanics is 0.3 and 0.0 percent respectively. But we decided against employing the binomial because we have additional data at our disposal for classifying ethnicity of surnames. There is a natural predilection to retain any surname appearing on the existing 1980 Spanish surname list unless the evidence for removal is strong. And we don’t want to add additional surnames to the 1990 list unless there is overriding evidence for doing so. For surnames occurring often, we feel that the probability of misclassification is minimal, but the chance of misclassifying ethnicity based only on probabilities rises sharply as the sample shrinks. To aid us in our classification of surnames we turn to: 7.1.2 Orthographic Structure of Surname and Hispanic Status of Surname in 1980. For names occurring 4, 3, or even 2 times the entries on the binomial expansion can be of some guidance. But for surnames with single observations, the binomial expansion is useless. For that reason, we have assembled two additional items of information to guide us on the classification of surnames. They are (1) orthographic structure of surnames and (2) whether that surname appeared among the 12,497 surnames on the 1980 Spanish surname list. 7.1.3 Orthographic Structure of Surnames. Linguists, particularly the late Robert W. Buechley (Buechley, 1961, 1967, 1971, 1976), have observed that certain letter combinations are common amongst Spanish surnames. The two letter ending EZ as in MARTINEZ, RODRIGUEZ and LOPEZ is almost always indicative of a Spanish surname. But of even greater importance for Spanish surname classification is the fact that certain letter formations never or almost never occur among Spanish surnames. We initially parsed all surnames appearing 5 or more times in the SOR file by the Hispanic classifications described previously. We discovered (not surprisingly) that no surname falling into Heavily, Generally, or Moderately category contained either a K or a W. Based on that finding, it would be logical to assume that any surname containing the letter K or W should not be classified Hispanic regardless of its performance in the SOR sample. In addition to checking for the appearance of a K and/or W anywhere in the surname we also analyzed opening three letter and closing three letter combinations. The letters SMI as in SMITH and Technical Working Paper No. 13 13 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 JOH as in JOHNSON never initiated surnames falling into the first 3 Hispanic categories and ITH is not a Hispanic ending among frequently occurring SOR names. Buechley had previously determined that there are 1465 valid 3 letter starts and 1114 valid 3 letter endings among Spanish surnames. (More information on starts and endings appear in the technical Appendix.) A third orthographic finding is that double letters excepting R and L just don’t occur. The notable exceptions are S AA VEDRA, JA SS O, DELO SS ANTOS, and CO TT O. Thus a surname containing a double letter excepting RR and LL should not be classified as Spanish regardless of the proportion of householders with that surname who are Hispanic in the SOR file. 7.1.4 Hispanic Status of Surname in 1980. A second and final auxiliary item of information used in determining Hispanic classification for low occurrence surnames in the SOR was the 1980 status. We felt that the previous research was sound and the knowledge of whether a surname was or was not Spanish on the previous list was a piece of information to be used in categorizing surnames. Summary—For frequently occurring surnames (e.g., 5 or more times in the SOR file), we believe that proportion Hispanic should be the sole means for classifying a surname. For rarely occurring surnames, there are three indicators used in classifying. They are, listed in importance: (1) proportion Hispanic, (2) orthographic structure, and (3) appearance on 1980 surnames list. See Section 10.2 in the Appendix for additional details on how these three criteria fit into a point value system. 8.0 CONCLUSION The authors hope that the evidence presented here convinces the reader that a well constructed Spanish surname list is a useful alternative for identifying persons of Hispanic origin when Hispanic origin is not known. In some instances (estimating rate of change in the Hispanic origin population) defining Spanish origin solely through the use of surname may be preferable to self-designated Hispanic origin because surname provides a “consistent” response. With very few exceptions every frequently occurring surname is either Heavily Hispanic or Rarely Hispanic and there is no middle ground. This finding is the determining factor why Spanish surname is such an excellent proxy for identifying Hispanics within the United States. Based on the analysis of the SOR file, fewer than 1000 surnames are sufficient for capturing 80 percent of the Hispanic population in the United States. Moreover, householders with those surnames are Hispanic 95 percent of the time. The Census Bureau has released Spanish surnames following the Censuses of 1950, 1960, 1970, and 1980. This 1990 edition is only another station on an ongoing research journey, but this 1990 product does differ significantly from its predecessors. Each of the 25,277 individual surnames appearing on the electronic file that supplements this report contain auxiliary information allowing prospective users the flexibility to construct their own Spanish surname list if necessary. For example, we provide data on the surnames SMITH, JONES, and ROBINSON as well as GARCIA, GOMEZ, and SILVA. Granted, it is unlikely that any one would use this auxiliary information to conclude that SMITH is a Spanish surname. In theory, we are not providing a Spanish surname “list”. Rather, we provide auxiliary data for each surname that can be sorted into a continuum allowing the prospective user to determine his or her own criteria as to what is or is not a Spanish surname. If the SOR sample universe was doubled or even tripled (we had 1.9 million households in the SOR sample), we might have a better measure for classifying surnames that now appear 3 to 5 times. But a larger sample would also double or triple the number of persons named SMITH and GARCIA where the current sample size is already sufficient for classifying Hispanic status. Moreover, surnames that do not occur in this sample might appear 1 or 2 times in the larger sample and the problems with infrequently occurring surnames would still remain; only the infrequent surnames would be different. Technical Working Paper No. 13 14 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 9.0 REFERENCES 1. Word, David L., Jeffrey S. Passel, Beverly D. Causey, and Edward F. Fernandez , “Determining a List of Spanish Surnames by Analysis of Geographical Distributions.” Unpublished paper delivered at annual meeting of Southern Regional Demographic Group, San Antonio Texas, October 1978 2a. Hogan, Howard, “The 1990 Post-Enumeration Survey: Operations and Results,” The Journal of the American Statistical Association, 88:423, pp. 1047-1060, 1993. 2b. Hogan, Howard, “The 1990 Post-Enumeration Survey: An Overview”, The American Statistician, 46:4, pp. 291-269, 1992. 3. Perkins, R. Colby, “Evaluating the Passel-Word Spanish Surname List: 1990 Decennial Census Post Enumeration Survey Results.”, Population Estimates and Projections Technical Working Paper Series, August 1993 4. Passel, Jeffrey S. and David L. Word, “Constructing the List of Spanish Surnames for the 1980 Census: An Application of Bayes’ Theorem”, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Denver, 1980. 4. Word, David L, “Population Estimates by Race and Hispanic Origin for States, Metropolitan Areas, and Selected Counties: 1980 to 1985.”, Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No 1040 RD-1, Bureau of the Census, May 1989. 5. McKenney, Nampeo, Claudette Bennett, Roderick Harrison, and Jorge del Pinal, “Evaluating Racial and Ethnic Reporting in the 1990 Census”, American Statistical Association, Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods, 1993. 6. Social Security Administration, “Report of Distribution of Surnames in the Social Security Number File September 1, 1984”, 1984. 7a. Buechley, Robert W., 1961. “A Reproducible Method of Counting Persons of Spanish Surname”, Journal of the American Statistical Association 56 (March 1961) 7b. Buechley, Robert W., 1967. “Characteristic Name Sets of Spanish Populations”, Names 15 (1, March 1967): 53-69. 7c. Buechley, Robert W., 1971. “Spanish Surnames Among the 2,000 Most Common United States Surnames”, Names 19, (2, June 1971) 7d. Buechley, Robert W., 1976. “Generally Useful Ethnic Search System: GUESS”, mimeographed paper, Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 1976. Technical Working Paper No. 13 15 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 10.0 APPENDIX A significant portion of the Appendix is written for persons requiring electronic access to individual surname data. Consequently, persons with only a casual interest in Spanish surnames can be adequately served by reading section 10.3 and browsing the contents of Appendix Table A. 10.1 SERVING OUR CUSTOMERS From talking to prospective customers of Spanish surname data, we conclude that we are serving two or perhaps even three classes of customers. The three classes include: 10.1.1 Persons who are satisfied with a minimal number of surnames (preferably on a piece of paper) that adequately cover a large proportion of the Hispanic origin/surnamed population within the United States. For these persons, we provide 639 Heavily Hispanic Spanish surnames arranged in alphabetic order in Appendix Table A. Persons with those surnames represent more than twothirds of the Hispanic origin population and approximately 80 percent of the Spanish surnamed population (see Section 5.1 of the main text). The 639 surnames share two characteristics: (1) For each surname appearing in Appendix Table A, at least 25 SOR “householders” provided positive responses to the Spanish origin question on their 1990 Census forms. (2) Each of the 639 surnames listed in Appendix Table A qualify as heavily (75 percent) Hispanic. Overall, 94 percent of the householders in the United States with those surnames answered the 1990 Hispanic origin question affirmatively. Note that these criteria do not precisely produce the tabulations appearing in Table 6A. There, we tabulated responses from 715 surnames that both occurred 25 or more times in the SOR file and appeared on the 1980 Spanish surname list. None of those 715 surnames were subjected to a minimum standard for percent Hispanic. In fact, one of those 715 surnames (DECASTRO) is now classified as occasional Hispanic. For a surname to appear in Appendix Table A, we require 25 positive responses in the SOR file and a minimum Hispanic “hit rate” of 75 percent. Thus a 1980 Spanish surname that appeared 27 times in the SOR file with 24 positive Hispanic entries would be an entry in Table 6A but not in Appendix Table A. For many purposes, this abridged 639 surname list is sufficient for making a reasonably accurate assessment on the number or proportion Hispanic within a group. Consider an organization of 100 persons. Twenty of the organization’s members have surnames that match the abbreviated 639 entry surname list. Armed with this information one can reasonably conclude that between 20 and 30 members are Hispanic. The number 30 is derived by dividing matched members (20) by 2/3—the proportion of the Hispanic population with these 639 surnames. For many/most uses an approximation with this level of accuracy suffices as a “ball park” estimator. 10.1.2 Persons who need surname data in electronic form and want the flexibility of customizing their own Spanish surname lists. The authors have arbitrarily categorized a surname to be Heavily Hispanic if more than 75 percent of householders with that name are Hispanic. Some users of Spanish surname data might wish to construct a surname base of Heavily Hispanic names where the criteria for Heavily is 90 percent, or 60 percent or some intermediate value. These customers will receive a flat file of 25,276 surnames arranged in nine data fields. Technical Working Paper No. 13 16 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 For purposes of illustration, we provide the contents for four individual names. Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 Field 4 Field 5 Field 6 Field 7 Field 8 Field 9 0225 SILVA 0 2 710 499 407 344 0.441 0105 FEBUS 0 -2 8 5 7 5 1.875 0325 FELIX 1 2 187 132 88 78 -0.160 5500 BROOKS 0 -6 1714 587 5 4 -2.987 SILVA’s category—0225—indicates that the surname is Generally Hispanic with more than 25 positive occurrences. The name did not appear on the 1980 list, but it does pass the Buechley test. The surname is much more likely (344/499) to be Hispanic in Hispanic states than non-Hispanic states (63/211). FEBUS’s, 0105 classification signifies that the surname is Heavily Hispanic with between 5 and 9 positive occurrences. The surname was not on the 1980 Spanish surname list. The final three letters in the surname (BUS) do not match the Buechley “Ends”. Of the 8 householders with the name FEBUS, 7 are Hispanic. All 5 householders living in “Spanish States” are Hispanic. FELIX is similar to SILVA except that the surname FELIX did appear on the 1980 Spanish surname list. It’s category 0325 indicates that the surname is classified as Moderately Hispanic and there are more than 25 positive replies to the Hispanic question in the SOR sample. BROOKS appears on the electronic file because it had at least one (actually 5) positive responses on the SOR file. The category 5500 indicates that the surname is Rarely Hispanic and that there are at least 500 negative responses for that surname. BROOKS (as expected) was not on the 1980 Spanish surname list. The score of -6 for Buechley occurs because of the existence of the letter K, the ending (OKS), and the double OO in the middle of the name. Field 1 A numeric descriptor (located in positions 1-4) that provides both a Hispanic classification and a frequency grouping. Each of the 25,276 surnames appearing in these files falls into one and only one of 28 mutually exclusive categories. Appendix Table B (Spanish Surname Categories) define these 28 groupings. Field 2 The surname itself—limited to 13 characters and appearing in positions 6 through 18. Field 3 A “1” or a “0” appearing in column 20. A “1” signifies that this particular surname appears on the 1980 Spanish surname list; a “0” indicates that it did not. Field 4 A positive “2” in column 24 or a negative even number appearing in columns 22 through 24. A “2” in column 24 signifies that the particular surname passes all the Buechley criteria. (See section 7.1.3 in main text for reference to Robert A. Buechley) A negative 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 indicates whether the surname violates 1, 2, 3, 4, or even 5 Buechley rules. Buechley Rule 1 — the letter K anywhere in name Buechley Rule 2 — the letter W anywhere in name Buechley Rule 3 — starts (initial 3 letters) Buechley Rule 4 — ends (final 3 letters) Buechley Rule 5 — double letters (excepting rr and $$) Field 5 Total number of householders in the SOR File possessing the surname appearing in Field 2. Columns 25 through 30. Field 6 Number of householders in the SOR file residing in one of the 11 states with large numbers of Hispanics. Columns 31 through 35. We define the following 11 states to contain a large number of Hispanics: 1. Arizona, 2. California, 3. Colorado, 4. Connecticut, 5. Florida, 6. Illinois, 7. New Jersey, 8. New Mexico, 9. New York, 10. Pennsylvania, and 11. Texas. Technical Working Paper No. 13 17 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 Field 7 Total householders (national) with this surname who provide a positive response to the Spanish origin question. Columns 36 through 40. The ratio of the entry in Field 7 to the entry in Field 5 generates national Hispanic proportions for that particular surname. Field 8 Hispanic householders in 11 States with large numbers of Hispanics. Columns 41 through 45. The ratio of the entry in Field 8 to the entry in Field 6 yields the Hispanic proportion for those 11 States. Field 9 “Point Value of Surname” An integer (possibly preceded by a negative sign), decimal point, followed by three digits appears in columns 47 through 52. Although each and every one of the 25,276 surnames appearing in the electronic file is assigned a point value, that point value is only germane for classifying surnames when the number of positive and negative responses is fewer than 5. 10.1.3 Customers who want surname data in electronic form, but are willing to accept census “Hispanic” classifications. For those customers, we provide a file of surnames arranged in strict alphabetic order with the same 9 data fields described above. The major difference is that the number of surnames is limited to the 12,215 names which are classified as Heavily Hispanic. In addition to the surname data described above, we also furnish two additional tables which are: (2) Electronic Table 3—STARTS is a file of 1465 three letter combination which start Spanish surname. (3) Electronic Table 4—ENDS is a file of Buechley’s 1114 three letter combinations which end Spanish surname. The entries appearing in STARTS and ENDS are primarily a product of Buechley’s research; but Passel and Word uncovered some inconsistencies which were relayed to Buechley in 1978. This version of STARTS and ENDS does not incorporate those additions to Buechley’s original work. 10.2 POINT VALUES FOR INFREQUENTLY OCCURRING SURNAMES In Section 7.0 of this paper (Rarely Occurring Surnames: or Where Do Statistics End and When Does Common Sense Take Over?) we allude to the fact that proportion Hispanic would not and could not be the sole determinant for whether a prospective surname is Spanish and to which of the five categories (Heavily, Generally, Moderately, Occasionally, and Rarely) the surname is assigned. From rereading the description of Field 9 in Section 10.1.2, it is immediately clear that any surname appearing 9 or more times is classified solely on the basis of proportion Spanish and any surname with fewer than 5 householder occurrences will be classified on the basis of point value. Some names appearing 5 to 9 times in the SOR file are assigned a Hispanic category based on proportion Hispanic while other surnames with 5 to 9 SOR appearances are classified only on point value. As described in Section 7.0 there are three characteristics that can be used to classify a surname. These characteristics are: (1) proportion of times possessor of surname is Spanish, (2) whether or not the surname follows acceptable Spanish language constructions, and (3) whether or not the 1980 research assigned that surname to be Spanish. We assigned points for each of these three attributes, with the assignment following the order described below: 1. For “householders” with a given surname captured in the SOR sample, how often does the possessor of that surname provide a positive Hispanic response? Give each Hispanic response a value of +3 and each non-Hispanic response a value of negative 3. Technical Working Paper No. 13 18 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 2. Does the surname adhere to or violate “orthographic correctness?” If the surname follows all 5 orthographic rules assign the surname a value of +2; assign a value of -2 for each violation. For example, DAVIS (which could be pronounced Dah Vees) violates no orthographic precepts. The starting three letters D A V appear in DAVILLA, the ending three letters V I S occur in OROVIS. DAVIS contains no W’s, no K’s, nor does it contain a double letter. All five American surnames occurring more frequently than DAVIS (eg. SMITH, JOHNSON, WILLIAMS, BROWN, and JONES) violate at least one of the orthographic rules which typify “Spanish” surnames. 3. Did the surname appear on the Census Bureau’s 1980 Spanish Surname List? Give the surname a value of +1 if yes, and a value of -1 if no. The point value of the surname is defined to be total points divided by total occurrences. If a name occurs only once, it could have a value as high as +6.00, and a theoretical low of -14.00. For example, the surname WEEKS receives -10 points on the orthographic variable alone. For frequently occurring surnames, the number of points awarded for orthographics and appearance on the 1980 Spanish surname list has very little weight. We illustrate this point with a surname occurring 100 times and a success rate of 95 percent. AN ILLUSTRATION OF POINT SCORE CALCULATION: Based on 100 observations Answers Points Awarded Yes No Yes No Total (1) Response to Spanish origin question 95 5 285 -15 270 (2) Orthographics 1 2 2 (3) Appearance on 1980 List 1 1 1 Total Points 288 -15 273 Point Score 2.73 A frequently occurring Heavily Hispanic surname will achieve a point value ranging between 1.5 and 3.0. Point values of 2.5 to 2.7 are typical. The Heavily Hispanic standard for infrequently occurring surnames is set at equal to or greater than 2.00. It is possible for a surname appearing exactly one time on the SOR file with a single positive Spanish response to fall in the Heavily Hispanic category even though the surname did not appear on the 1980 Spanish surname list. But that surname must satisfy all five orthographic principles to receive the Heavily Hispanic designation. The point values for Generally Hispanic were set at +1.00 to +1.99. The bounds for Moderately Hispanic were pegged from -0.50 to +0.99. As might be expected, the point values used in classifying infrequently occurring surnames parallel the values for frequently occurring surnames. We decided that it was virtually impossible to make an Occasionally Hispanic determination for infrequently occurring surnames. For that reason Spanish categories 0401 and 0402 (Appendix Table B) do not exist. Technical Working Paper No. 13 19 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 10.3 COMPARING HEAVILY HISPANIC WITH RARELY HISPANIC SURNAMES Here we compare attributes of surnames for category 125—surnames with at least 25 Hispanic responses that are more than 75 percent Hispanic with category 5500 (surnames with more than 500 non-Hispanic responses that are less than 5 percent Hispanic). Data for the remaining 26 categories can be found in Appendix Table C. Category 125 5500 Number of Surnames 639 353 Number of Observations 115,526 522,614 Percent Hispanic 94.2 0.7 Percent residing in Spanish States 86.3 37.2 Percent Passing Buechley 99.8 21.8 Percent on 1980 List 100.0 0.0 The analytic data associated with these most diverse categories of surnames aptly illustrate the points that we have made throughout the text. 1. Nearly 95 percent (94.2) of the male householder population with commonly “acknowledged” Spanish surnames identified themselves as Hispanic in the 1990 Census. Less than 1 percent of male householders with the most frequently occurring “non-Spanish” surname identified as Hispanic in the 1990 Census. 2. 86.3 percent of the persons possessing commonly “acknowledged” Spanish surnames reside in 11 states. The 1990 Census found 87.7 percent of the Hispanic origin population living in those same 11 states. By contrast, only 37 percent of persons with Anglo surnames reside in those same 11 states. 3. For the 639 surnames appearing in Appendix Table A, there are 638 surnames (99.8 percent) adhering to the Buechley rules. The one exception (COTTO) contains a double T. Although Buechley’s rules reject all doubletons except RR and LL, Spanish surnames containing a double T have been found in the SOR file. 4. Finally, all of the 639 most frequently occurring Spanish surnames were previously (1980) classified as Spanish. Not one of the 353 frequently occurring “Anglo” names were ever candidates for inclusion on a Spanish surname list. Technical Working Paper No. 13 20 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 APPENDIX TABLE A: 639 MOST FREQUENTLY OCCURRING HEAVILY HISPANIC SURNAMES (Number to right of surname indicates relative ranking among Spanish surnames) Abeyta 476 Baca 157 Carrion 340 Dominguez 63 Guardado 587 Abrego 534 Badillo 515 Carvajal 478 Dominquez 448 Guerra 85 Abreu 416 Baez 193 Casanova 419 Duarte 201 Guerrero 54 Acevedo 112 Baeza 456 Casares 600 Duenas 499 Guevara 211 Acosta 60 Bahena 616 Casarez 458 Duran 76 Guillen 311 Acuna 370 Balderas 359 Casas 341 Echevarria 394 Gurule 539 Adame 326 Ballesteros 552 Casillas 271 Elizondo 379 Gutierrez 24 Adorno 549 Banda 339 Castaneda 123 Enriquez 173 Guzman 43 Agosto 597 Banuelos 378 Castellanos 261 Escalante 349 Haro 471 Aguayo 409 Barajas 220 Castillo 25 Escamilla 275 Henriquez 480 Aguilar 45 Barela 405 Castro 37 Escobar 139 Heredia 336 Aguilera 243 Barragan 526 Cavazos 228 Escobedo 244 Hernadez 528 Aguirre 104 Barraza 381 Cazares 406 Esparza 169 Hernandes 520 Alanis 598 Barrera 111 Ceballos 498 Espinal 500 Hernandez 5 Alaniz 267 Barreto 497 Cedillo 571 Espino 469 Herrera 33 Alarcon 364 Barrientos 432 Ceja 410 Espinosa 143 Hidalgo 282 Alba 404 Barrios 200 Centeno 459 Espinoza 68 Hinojosa 229 Alcala 424 Batista 418 Cepeda 467 Esquibel 460 Holguin 372 Alcantar 567 Becerra 226 Cerda 296 Esquivel 231 Huerta 188 Alcaraz 599 Beltran 158 Cervantes 99 Estevez 619 Hurtado 253 Alejandro 550 Benavides 208 Cervantez 479 Estrada 52 Ibarra 114 Aleman 347 Benavidez 310 Chacon 213 Fajardo 382 Iglesias 489 Alfaro 207 Benitez 172 Chapa 247 Farias 428 Irizarry 233 Alicea 303 Bermudez 227 Chavarria 306 Feliciano 205 Jaime 442 Almanza 387 Bernal 168 Chavez 22 Fernandez 29 Jaimes 588 Almaraz 551 Berrios 299 Cintron 348 Ferrer 360 Jaquez 553 Almonte 614 Betancourt 290 Cisneros 135 Fierro 395 Jaramillo 171 Alonso 238 Blanco 163 Collado 536 Figueroa 59 Jasso 472 Alonzo 264 Bonilla 153 Collazo 318 Flores 13 Jimenez 35 Altamirano 466 Borrego 398 Colon 53 Florez 429 Jiminez 490 Alva 568 Botello 516 Colunga 434 Fonseca 335 Juarez 78 Alvarado 56 Bravo 194 Concepcion 426 Franco 116 Jurado 603 Alvarez 27 Briones 457 Contreras 71 Frias 461 Laboy 540 Amador 281 Briseno 433 Cordero 180 Fuentes 97 Lara 94 Amaya 265 Brito 333 Cordova 142 Gaitan 573 Laureano 604 Anaya 195 Bueno 316 Cornejo 441 Galarza 449 Leal 176 Anguiano 477 Burgos 209 Corona 186 Galindo 179 Lebron 400 Angulo 438 Bustamante 274 Coronado 221 Gallardo 232 Ledesma 300 Aparicio 535 Bustos 399 Corral 353 Gallegos 73 Leiva 622 Apodaca 273 Caballero 268 Corrales 601 Galvan 125 Lemus 297 Aponte 236 Caban 439 Correa 159 Galvez 307 Leon 95 Aragon 230 Cabrera 105 Cortes 175 Gamboa 354 Lerma 322 Arana 581 Cadena 440 Cortez 64 Gamez 302 Leyva 258 Aranda 285 Caldera 582 Cotto 468 Gaona 501 Limon 383 Arce 288 Calderon 107 Covarrubias 518 Garay 538 Linares 368 Archuleta 289 Calvillo 617 Crespo 278 Garcia 1 Lira 401 Arellano 190 Camacho 98 Cruz 17 Garibay 527 Llamas 554 Arenas 525 Camarillo 425 Cuellar 246 Garica 620 Loera 412 Arevalo 321 Campos 84 Curiel 572 Garrido 430 Lomeli 555 Arguello 569 Canales 260 Davila 129 Garza 26 Longoria 192 Arias 166 Candelaria 366 Deanda 584 Gastelum 586 Lopez 4 Armas 615 Cano 167 Dejesus 131 Gaytan 462 Lovato 502 Armendariz 447 Cantu 102 Delacruz 151 Gil 262 Loya 420 Armenta 417 Caraballo 317 Delafuente 585 Giron 411 Lozada 541 Armijo 377 Carbajal 367 Delagarza 371 Godinez 388 Lozano 122 Arredondo 212 Cardenas 106 Delao 602 Godoy 621 Lucero 124 Arreola 365 Cardona 214 Delapaz 537 Gomez 15 Lucio 481 Arriaga 397 Carmona 252 Delarosa 164 Gonzales 12 Luevano 491 Arroyo 132 Carranza 269 Delatorre 237 Gonzalez 6 Lugo 137 Arteaga 332 Carrasco 210 Deleon 81 Gracia 389 Lujan 215 Atencio 496 Carrasquillo 570 Delgadillo 427 Granado 519 Luna 66 Avalos 250 Carreon 583 Delgado 46 Granados 350 Macias 115 Avila 86 Carrera 517 Delrio 393 Griego 435 Madera 542 Aviles 245 Carrero 618 Delvalle 334 Grijalva 470 Madrid 185 Ayala 65 Carrillo 77 Diaz 14 Guajardo 308 Madrigal 270 Technical Working Paper No. 13 21 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 APPENDIX TABLE A: 639 MOST FREQUENTLY OCCURRING HEAVILY HISPANIC SURNAMES (Number to right of surname indicates relative ranking among Spanish surnames) Maestas 304 Nazario 545 Posada 593 Salcedo 532 Vaca 636 Magana 248 Negrete 324 Prado 294 Salcido 309 Valadez 330 Malave 521 Negron 216 Preciado 531 Saldana 219 Valdes 240 Maldonado 51 Nevarez 369 Prieto 313 Saldivar 445 Valdez 47 Manzanares 623 Nieto 251 Puente 358 Salgado 184 Valdivia 524 Mares 402 Nieves 120 Puga 609 Salinas 80 Valencia 127 Marin 177 Nino 626 Pulido 444 Samaniego 511 Valentin 257 Marquez 61 Noriega 344 Quesada 484 Sanabria 454 Valenzuela 110 Marrero 178 Nunez 58 Quezada 292 Sanches 431 Valladares 577 Marroquin 312 Ocampo 355 Quinones 146 Sanchez 8 Valle 235 Martinez 2 Ocasio 361 Quinonez 413 Sandoval 55 Vallejo 386 Mascarenas 589 Ochoa 91 Quintana 140 Santacruz 631 Valles 396 Mata 138 Ojeda 255 Quintanilla 277 Santana 117 Valverde 548 Mateo 503 Olivares 272 Quintero 162 Santiago 41 Vanegas 637 Matias 529 Olivarez 305 Quiroz 218 Santillan 562 Varela 223 Matos 202 Olivas 291 Rael 463 Sarabia 632 Vargas 36 Maya 556 Olivera 558 Ramirez 10 Sauceda 512 Vasquez 23 Mayorga 605 Olivo 475 Ramon 407 Saucedo 239 Vazquez 62 Medina 30 Olmos 507 Ramos 20 Sedillo 594 Vega 49 Medrano 191 Olvera 276 Rangel 133 Segovia 523 Vela 182 Mejia 93 Ontiveros 301 Rascon 610 Segura 241 Velasco 293 Melendez 109 Oquendo 530 Raya 561 Sepulveda 280 Velasquez 96 Melgar 624 Ordonez 421 Razo 492 Serna 249 Velazquez 130 Mena 323 Orellana 443 Regalado 403 Serrano 89 Velez 83 Menchaca 482 Ornelas 283 Rendon 287 Serrato 612 Veliz 578 Mendez 39 Orosco 452 Renteria 256 Sevilla 613 Venegas 375 Mendoza 32 Orozco 147 Resendez 485 Sierra 187 Vera 197 Menendez 337 Orta 436 Reyes 19 Sisneros 563 Verdugo 579 Meraz 543 Ortega 50 Reyna 149 Solano 315 Verduzco 638 Mercado 103 Ortiz 16 Reynoso 325 Solis 90 Vergara 495 Merino 557 Osorio 338 Rico 295 Soliz 385 Viera 415 Mesa 342 Otero 174 Rincon 522 Solorio 446 Vigil 136 Meza 156 Ozuna 559 Riojas 574 Solorzano 564 Villa 134 Miramontes 606 Pabon 590 Rios 48 Soria 437 Villagomez 465 Miranda 79 Pacheco 92 Rivas 88 Sosa 118 Villalobos 225 Mireles 298 Padilla 57 Rivera 9 Sotelo 328 Villalpando 596 Mojica 343 Padron 508 Rivero 373 Soto 34 Villanueva 145 Molina 67 Paez 607 Robledo 509 Suarez 101 Villareal 423 Mondragon 450 Pagan 148 Robles 82 Tafoya 455 Villarreal 87 Monroy 544 Palacios 181 Rocha 121 Tamayo 414 Villasenor 392 Montalvo 254 Palomino 627 Rodarte 493 Tamez 595 Villegas 165 Montanez 286 Palomo 591 Rodrigez 629 Tapia 141 Yanez 266 Montano 203 Pantoja 356 Rodriguez 3 Tejada 513 Ybarra 189 Montemayor 504 Paredes 357 Rodriquez 38 Tejeda 464 Zambrano 488 Montenegro 505 Parra 217 Rojas 74 Tellez 352 Zamora 108 Montero 351 Partida 453 Rojo 510 Tello 565 Zamudio 639 Montes 154 Patino 345 Roldan 391 Teran 633 Zapata 224 Montez 451 Paz 327 Rolon 611 Terrazas 533 Zaragoza 376 Montoya 70 Pedraza 592 Romero 28 Tijerina 362 Zarate 331 Mora 119 Pedroza 422 Romo 222 Tirado 329 Zavala 170 Morales 18 Pelayo 546 Roque 486 Toledo 363 Zayas 514 Moreno 31 Pena 42 Rosado 144 Toro 346 Zelaya 580 Mota 483 Perales 384 Rosales 113 Torres 11 Zepeda 234 Moya 279 Peralta 263 Rosario 126 Torrez 242 Zuniga 155 Munguia 506 Perea 390 Rosas 152 Tovar 204 Muniz 160 Peres 560 Roybal 408 Trejo 206 Munoz 40 Perez 7 Rubio 128 Trevino 72 Murillo 183 Pichardo 608 Ruelas 630 Trujillo 69 Muro 625 Pina 196 Ruiz 21 Ulibarri 566 Najera 319 Pineda 161 Ruvalcaba 575 Ulloa 494 Naranjo 473 Pizarro 628 Saavedra 314 Urbina 374 Narvaez 474 Polanco 320 Saenz 199 Urena 634 Nava 198 Ponce 150 Saiz 487 Urias 576 Navarrete 380 Porras 547 Salas 100 Uribe 284 Navarro 75 Portillo 259 Salazar 44 Urrutia 635 Technical Working Paper No. 13 22 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 APPENDIX TABLE B: SPANISH SURNAME CATEGORIES In Section 10.1.2 we described the file layout of the nine data fields associated with each surname. Now we concentrate on data field 1. The first two characters in field 1 denote Hispanic classification (01 for Heavily, 02 for Generally, 03 for Moderately, 04 for Occasionally and 05 for Rarely). The 3rd and 4th characters represent a frequency indicator. When the frequency indicator (positions 3 and 4) takes on numerical values 05 through 25 (05, 10, 15, 25), Hispanic classification (Heavily, Generally, etc.) is determined strictly on the basis of proportion Hispanic as described in Section 5 of the text. When the frequency indicators are 01 or 02, (those names with 4 or fewer positive or negative) responses), we need to be more innovative. See Point Values for Infrequently Occurring Surnames. (Section 10.2 of this Appendix.) Heavily Hispanic Surnames Category Entries Description 0125 639 Surnames that are Heavily Hispanic with at least 25 positive Hispanic responses. 0115 251 Surnames that are Heavily Hispanic with at least 15 but no more than 24 positive responses. 0110 263 Surnames that are Heavily Hispanic with at least 10 but no more than 14 positive responses. 0105 625 Surnames that are Heavily Hispanic with at least 5 but no more than 9 positive responses. 0102 2463 Surnames that are Heavily Hispanic with at least 2 but no more than 4 positive responses. 0101 7974 Surnames that are Heavily Hispanic with exactly 1 positive Hispanic response. Generally Hispanic Surnames Category Entries Description 0225 39 Surnames that are Generally Hispanic with at least 25 positive Hispanic responses. 0215 25 Surnames that are Generally Hispanic with at least 15 but no more than 24 positive responses. 0210 25 Surnames that are Generally Hispanic with at least 10 but no more than 14 positive responses. 0205 106 Surnames that are Generally Hispanic with at least 5 but no more than 9 positive responses. 0202 354 Surnames that are Generally Hispanic with at least 2 but no more than 4 positive responses. 0201 218 Surnames that are Generally Hispanic with exactly 1 positive Hispanic response. Moderately Hispanic Surnames Category Entries Description 0325 11 Surnames that are Moderately Hispanic with at least 25 positive Hispanic responses. 0315 10 Surnames that are Moderately Hispanic with at least 15 but no more than 24 positive responses. 0310 21 Surnames that are Moderately Hispanic with at least 10 but no more than 14 positive responses. 0305 68 Surnames that are Moderately Hispanic with at least 5 but no more than 9 positive responses. 0302 260 Surnames that are Moderately Hispanic with at least 2 but no more than 4 positive responses. 0301 3611 Surnames that are Moderately Hispanic with exactly 1 positive Hispanic response. Technical Working Paper No. 13 23 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 Appendix Table B (continued) For reasons cited in “Point Values for Infrequently Occurring Surnames”, Hispanic surname categories 0401 and 0402 do not exist. Occasionally Hispanic Surnames Category Entries Description 0425 5 Surnames that are Occasionally Hispanic with at least 25 positive Hispanic responses. 0415 13 Surnames that are Occasionally Hispanic with at least 15 but no more than 24 positive responses. 0410 16 Surnames that are Occasionally Hispanic with at least 10 but no more than 14 positive responses. 0405 65 Surnames that are Occasionally Hispanic with at least 5 but no more than 9 positive Hispanic responses. Rarely Hispanic Surnames Category Entries Description 5500 353 Surnames that are Rarely Hispanic with at least 500 negative responses and 1 or more positive Hispanic responses. 5100 1141 Surnames that are Rarely Hispanic with at least 100 but no more than 499 negative responses and 1 or more positive responses. 5025 1411 Surnames that are Rarely Hispanic with at least 25 but no more than 99 negative responses and 1 or more positive responses. 5010 986 Surnames that are Rarely Hispanic with at least 10 but no more than 24 negative responses and at least 1 but no more than 4 positive responses. 5005 969 Surnames that are Rarely Hispanic with at least 5 but no more than 9 negative responses and at least 1 positive response. 5001 3354 Surnames that are Rarely Hispanic with at least 1 but no more than 4 negative responses and at least 1 positive Hispanic response. Category 5001 may include some surnames with 0 positive responses (and 1 to 4 negative responses) provided that that surname exists on the 1980 Spanish surname list. The careful reader may have already realized that the 28 categories listed here do not encompass every surname appearing on the SOR file. For example a surname with 2 positive Hispanic responses and 50 negative responses would be tabulated in category 5025. Another surname with 0 (zero) positive responses and 50 negative responses would not be tabulated in any of the 28 categories. In fact, no surname with zero positive Hispanic responses in the SOR file (excepting surnames classified as Spanish in 1980) appear in Appendix Table B. Because of this convention, the summary tabulations shown in Appendix Table C tend to overstate the proportion Hispanic within the Rarely Hispanic Classification. This phenomena is most noticeable with infrequently occurring surnames. Technical Working Paper No. 13 24 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 APPENDIX TABLE C: SELECTED SUMMARY STATISTICS FOR SPANISH SURNAMES Heavily Hispanic Category 101 102 105 110 115 125 Number of Names 7974 2463 625 263 251 639 Occurrences 7974 6626 4300 3295 5080 115526 Percent Hispanic 100.0 96.1 94.8 94.6 93.5 94.2 Percent in Spanish State 82.9 86.2 85.9 86.6 86.2 86.3 Percent Buechley-Yes 99.4 97.1 98.4 99.2 100.0 99.8 Percent on 1980 List 22.3 69.2 93.0 97.3 100.0 100.0 Generally Hispanic Category 201 202 205 210 215 225 Number of Names 218 354 106 25 25 39 Occurrences 436 1041 1046 449 726 4038 Percent Hispanic 50.0 77.9 64.8 64.6 63.8 64.0 Percent in Spanish State 76.1 78.6 78.4 77.3 75.5 73.8 Percent Buechley-Yes 100.0 50.6 92.5 100.0 100.0 97.4 Percent on 1980 List 100.0 14.1 71.7 68.0 68.0 66.7 Moderately Hispanic Category 301 302 305 310 315 325 Number of Names 3611 260 68 21 10 11 Occurrences 4288 1345 1187 640 522 1190 Percent Hispanic 71.4 49.7 37.2 39.2 38.1 39.6 Percent in Spanish State 75.2 69.2 65.9 65.6 60.7 61.7 Percent Buechley-Yes 32.2 82.7 94.1 90.5 100.0 100.0 Percent on 1980 List 17.0 34.6 25.0 14.3 10.0 9.1 Occasionally Hispanic Category 405 410 415 425 Number of Names 65 16 13 5 Occurrences 3265 1445 2253 1375 Percent Hispanic 12.6 12.1 11.5 17.7 Percent in Spanish State 53.7 51.9 56.3 39.1 Percent Buechley-Yes 72.3 87.5 100.0 80.0 Percent on 1980 List 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 Rarely Hispanic Category 5001 5005 5010 5025 5100 5500 Number of Names 3354 969 986 1411 1141 353 Occurrences 7940 7642 16689 74881 249666 522614 Percent Hispanic 41.5 15.6 7.7 2.5 1.0 0.7 Percent in Spanish State 62.4 54.6 48.2 41.0 38.4 37.2 Percent Buechley-Yes 22.9 44.6 39.1 31.1 24.8 21.8 Percent on 1980 List 7.0 3.2 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Technical Working Paper No. 13 25 U.S. Census Bureau March 1996 It is important to note the low proportion of surnames in categories 102 (69.2 percent) and 101 (22.3 percent) that were classified as Hispanic in 1980. The evidence (proportion Hispanic, a pass on Buechley, and residence in 11 states where most Hispanic reside) suggests that the majority of persons possessing these names are borne by persons of Hispanic origin. But an examination of those surnames on a case by case basis suggests that the precise spelling of many of the names is incorrect. In other words, the sizeable number of surnames recorded as VILLANVEVA are almost assuredly a misinterpretation of VILLANUEVA. POPULATION DIVISION WORKING PAPER SERIES NO. 1 - “The Census Bureau Approach for Allocating International Migration to States, Counties, and Places: 1981-1991.” David L. Word. October 1992. NO. 2 - “Geographic Coding of Administrative Records—Past Experience and Current Research.” Douglas K. Sater. April 1993. NO. 3 - “Postcensal Population Estimates: States, Counties, and Places.” John F. Long. August 1993. NO. 4 - “Evaluating the Passel-Word Spanish Surname List: 1990 Decennial Census Post Enumeration Survey Results.” R. Colby Perkins. August 1993. NO. 5 - “Evaluation of Postcensal County Estimates for the 1980s.” Sam T. Davis. March 1994. NO. 6 - “Metropolitan Growth and Expansion in the 1980s.” Richard L. Forstall and James D. Fitzsimmons. April 1993. NO. 7 - “Geographic Coding of Administrative Records — Current Research in ZIP/Sector-to- County Coding Process.” Douglas K. Sater. June 1994. NO. 8 - “Illustrative Ranges of the Distribution of Undocumented Immigrants by State.” Edward W. Fernandez & J. Gregory Robinson. October 1994. NO. 9 - “Estimates of Emigration of the Foreign-Born Population: 1980-1990.” Bashir Ahmed and J. Gregory Robinson. December 1994. NO. 10 - “Estimation of the Annual Emigration of U.S. Born Persons by Using Foreign Censuses and Selected Administrative Data: Circa 1980.” Edward W. Fernandez. January 1995. NO. 11 - “Using Analytic Techniques to Evaluate the 1990 Census Coverage of Young Hispanics.” Edward W. Fernandez. May 1995. NO. 12 - “Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas: New Approaches to Geographical Definition.” Donald C. Dahmann and James D. Fitzsimmons. October 1995. NO. 13 - “Building a Spanish Surname List for the 1990’s—A New Approach to An Old Problem.” David L. Word and R. Colby Perkins, Jr. February 1996. For copies of these Working Papers, please contact author at: Population Division, Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC 20233.

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