The surname of SCRIVER was derived from the Old French word 'escrivain' a writer, a scribe, one who copied books and manuscripts. The name was brought into England in the wake of the Norman Invasion of 1066. Occupational surnames refer directly to the particular trade or occupation followed by the first bearer of the name. These occupations can be divided into classes such as agricultural, manufacturing, retailing and so on. In the Middle Ages, at least among the Christian population, people did not pursue specialized occupations exclusively to the extent that we do today. Smiths, millers and wrights were indeed specialists, but even they would normally have their own smallholdings for growing crops and keeping a few animals. Others were simply designated as the servant of some person of a higher social status, as a maid or parson. Early records of the name mention Richard le Scriven who was recorded in the year 1208 in the County of Oxford. Gervase le Escriuein appears in 1278 in County Somerset and Johannes Schyuenn of Yorkshire was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. The name was also locational from a place so called, a township in the parish of Knaresborough in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Local names usually denoted where a man held his land, and indicated where the original bearers of the name lived. The Scribner family who founded the American publishing house were established in America by one Benjamin Scrivener, who settled in Norwalk, Connecticut in 1680. The present form of the name was adopted after 1742. The firm was established in 1846 by Charles Scribner (1821-71) who was born in New York, where his father was established as a prosperous merchant. The lion depicted in the arms is the noblest of all wild beasts which is made to be the emblem of strength and valour, and is on that account the most frequently borne in Coat-Armour.
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