This surname of SCHOENEMAN was a German and Ashkenazic occupational name for a shoemaker or cobbler. The name was derived from the Middle German word SCHOUCH (shoe). The name is also spelt SCAUMANN, SCHUHMANN, SCHUCKERT, SCHAUMAKER, SCHOENMANN, SCHUBART and SHOEMAKER. This was an important occupation in the life of medieval Europe, and in the cities the craftsmen were restricted by guild laws. Shoemakers who made shoes, were often forbidden to mend them. This deliberate policy of protection for their members allowed only those members to fulfill their craft. The name may also have applied to someone who shod horses, the practice of nailing iron plates or rim shoes to the hooves of horses was in regular use during the Middle Ages. Robert Alexander SCHUMANN (1810-56) was the German composer, born in Zwickau. He spent his boyhood browsing in his father's bookshop, and began at 21, a course of legal studies at Leipzig and Heidelberg. After hearing operas performed in Italy and Germany, he persuaded his parents to allow him to change over to the pianoforte. He produced a large number of compositions, until 1840, almost all for the piano. He then married Clara, the daughter of his piano teacher Friedrich Wieck, after much opposition from her father, and under her influence began to write orchestral works, notably his A minor piano concerto (1845) and four symphonies. He also wrote chamber music and a large number of songs. In 1843 he was appointed professor at the new Leipzig Conservatory, but mental illness caused him soon to leave. He spent the last two years of his life in an asylum. German or Teutonic heraldry extended its sphere of influence over central Europe and spread into Scandinavia. It is most notable for its design and treatment of crests, most of which reflect the arms in the charge or tinctures (colours) or both, which is unknown in British heraldry. Teutonic Europe assembled many arms on a single shield, each bearing its corresponding crest on a helmet.
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