The surname of REED was a nickname derived from the Old English word 'rede' a nickname for one with red-hair. The name was taken to Scotland by settlers, where in early documents the name is recorded as Reid. Early records of the name mention Leofwine si Reade, documented in 1016 in County Kent. William atte Reade was recorded in 1285, County Chester. Gilbert le Rede of Coul was committed to prison in Scotland, and died there in 1296. Godwin le Rede, 1300, was recorded in County Nottingham and James Reed was the bailie of the burgh of Stirling in the year 1364. William Rede, of Yorkshire, was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. Most of the European surnames in countries such as England, Scotland and France were formed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The process had started somewhat earlier and had continued in some places into the 19th century, but the norm is that in the tenth and eleventh centuries people did not have surnames, whereas by the fifteenth century most of the population had acquired a second name. George Warde and Denys Read, were married at St. Michael, Cornhill, London in the year 1568. Richard Reed of County Bedfordshire, registered at the University of Oxford in the year 1592. Edward Reed and Elizabeth Mellon were married at St. George's, Hanover Square, London in 1788 Joseph Reid (1843-1917) born in Ayrshire was the inventor of the Reid oil burner which did so much to advance the oil industry in the United States. At first the coat of arms was a practical matter which served a function on the battlefield or in tournaments. With his helmet covering his face, and armour encasing the knight from head to foot, the only means of identification for his followers, was the insignia painted on his shield, and embroidered on his surcoat, the flowing and draped garment worn over the armour. The associated arms are recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Ulster King of Arms in 1884. Troughend, County of Northumberland, Prestwick Lodge, Newcastle-upon Tyne, and Chipchase Castle, same County.