The surname of PHILLIPS was originally a Greek personal name 'Phillippos', which has the meaning of 'fond of horses'. In old records the name is usually spelt as Philp. Following the crusades in Europe in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, a need was felt for a family name in addition to the one given at birth. This was recognised early by those of noble blood, and it added prestige and practical advantage to their status. Early records in Scotland mention Walter, son of Philip the chamberlain, who had a grant of lands in Fife in the year 1166. Rauf Phelipe was documented in 1296. Robert Philloppe was sheriff-clerk of Dumfries in the year 1629. Alba, the country which became Scotland, was once shared by four races; the Picts who controlled most of the land north of the Central Belt; the Britons, who had their capital at Dumbarton and held sway over the south west, including modern Cumbria; the Angles, who were Germanic in origin and annexed much of the Eastern Borders in the seventh century, and the Scots. The latter came to Alba from the north of Ireland late in the 5th century to establish a colony in present day Argyll, which they named Dalriada, after their homeland. The Latin name SCOTTI simply means a Gaelic speaker. An eminent member of the name was John Phillips (1817-67) the Scottish painter born in Aberdeen, a soldier's son. He was apprenticed to a decorator and glazier, and sent to London for art studies. Most of his early subjects were Scottish, but after a visit to Spain in 1851, for health reasons, his main triumphs were in Spanish themes, and earned him the nickname of Phillip of Spain. The associated arms are recorded in Sir Bernard Burkes General Armory. Registered in Fife in 1672. Most of the European surnames in countries such as England, Scotland and France were formed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The process had started somewhat earlier and had continued in some places into the 19th century, but the norm is that in the tenth and eleventh centuries people did not have surnames, whereas by the fifteenth century most of the population had acquired a second name.
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