This Swedish surname of OSTLUND was a topographic name for someone who lived in the eastern part of a town or settlement, or outside it to the east; it was also a regional name for one who had migrated westwards (and hence was regarded as coming from the east). The name may also have been applied to someone who had some connection with the festival of Easter, such as being born or baptised at that time, or perhaps from the name of a pagan festival connected with the dawn. The name has many variant spellings which include OHST, OEST, VAN DE OSTEN, OSTING, and OSTBERG. In the 17th century, so-called 'soldiers' names are found as the earliest kind of hereditary surnames in Sweden. These names were derived from vocabulary words, usually martial-sounding monosyllables such as Rapp (prompt) Rask (bold), or occasionally names of animals and birds. The names were bestowed on soldiers for administrative purposes, and no doubt in some cases derived from pre-existing nicknames. It was not until the 10th century that modern hereditary surnames first developed, and the use of fixed names spread, first to France, and then England, then to Germany and all of Europe. In these parts of Europe, the individual man was becoming more important, commerce was increasing and the exact identification of each man was becoming a necessity. Even today however, the Church does not recognise surnames. Baptisms and marriages are performed through use of the Christian name alone. Thus hereditary names as we know them today developed gradually during the 11th to the 15th century in the various European countries. Most Swedes did not adopt hereditary surnames until a century or more later, and the patronymic system was still in use in rural areas until late in the 19th century. In the absence of evidence to the contrary it is thought that people may have adopted their surname from the area in which they lived.
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