This surname of NORWOOD was a locational name meaning 'one who came from NORWOOD' parishes in counties Middlesex and Surrey. There is also a place of the name in London, north of Croydon, not entirely cut down of trees, until the nineteenth century. The name was originally rendered in the Old English form NORWUDE, and the earliest of the name on record appears to be NORTHWUDE, which was recorded in the year 1176. Later instances of the name include Tillot de NORTHWODE of Yorkshire, who was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379, and Johannes NORWODE appears in the same document. It was not until the 10th century that modern hereditary surnames first developed, and the use of fixed names spread, first to France, and then England, then to Germany and all of Europe. In these parts of Europe, the individual man was becoming more important, commerce was increasing and the exact identification of each man was becoming a necessity. Even today however, the Church does not recognise surnames. Baptisms and marriages are performed through use of the Christian name alone. Thus hereditary names as we know them today developed gradually during the 11th to the 15th century in the various European countries. Later instances include Edmund NORTHWOODE, who registered at Oxford University in the year 1592, and William NORWOOD and Elizabeth Higgins were married at St. George's, Hanover Square, London in the year 1789. Sir Cyril NORWOOD (1875-1956) was the English educationist, born in Whalley, Lancashire, the son of a headmaster. He taught at Leeds Grammar School, and became headmaster of Bristol Grammar School (1906-16). He was master at Marlborough College, and headmaster at Harrow from 1926 until 1934, and president of St. John's College, Oxford from 1934 until 1946. In the Middle Ages the Herald (old French herault) was an officer whose duty it was to proclaim war or peace, carry challenges to battle and messages between sovereigns; nowadays war or peace is still proclaimed by the heralds, but their chief duty as court functionaries is to superintend state ceremonies, such as coronations, installations, and to grant arms. Edward III (1327-1377) appointed two heraldic kings-at-arms for south and north, England in 1340. The English College of Heralds was incorporated by Richard III in 1483-84.
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