This surname of NEUWIRTH is a German status name for a landlord or the master of the house. The name is also spelt NEURATH, NEWRATH, NEUWIRTH, NEWWIRTHE, and NEWWORTH. Surnames which were derived from ancient Germanic personal names have the same meaning in many languages. The court of Charlemagne (Charles the Great, king of the Franks (742-814) was Christian and Latin speaking). The vernacular was the Frankish dialect of Old High German, and the personal names in use were Germanic and vernacular. These names were adopted in many parts of northwest Europe, particularly among the noble ruling classes. Hereditary surnames were found in Germany in the second half of the 12th century - a little later than in England and France. It was about the 16th century that they became stabilized. Because of the close relationship between the English and German languages, some Germans are able to transform their names to the English form just by dropping a single letter. Many Germans have re-spelt their names in America. A great number of immigrants from Germany settled in Pennsylvania. After the start of the first World War, Germans in great numbers Anglicized their names in an effort to remove all doubt as to their patriotism. Afterwards some changed back, and then during World War II the problem became acute once more, and the changing started all over again, although not with as much intensity. Baron Konstantin von NEURATH (1873-1956) was the German administrator and Nazi 'Protector of Bohemia and Moravia'. From 1939 to 1943 he was the Reich protector of the Czech territories. Otto NEURATH (1882-1945) was the Austrian philosopher and social theorist, born in Vienna. He was the founding editor of the 'International Encyclopaedia of Unified Science'. German or Teutonic heraldry extended its sphere of influence over central Europe and spread into Scandinavia. It is most notable for its design and treatment of crests, most of which reflect the arms in the charge or tinctures (colours) or both, which is unknown in British heraldry. Teutonic Europe assembled many arms on a single shield, each bearing its corresponding crest on a helmet.
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