The surname of LONGBOTTOM was a locational name 'the dweller at the long-hollow' one who dwelt in the valley. Local names usually denoted where the original bearer of the name held his land, and indicated where he actually lived. The bulk of European surnames in countries such as England and France were formed in the 13th and 14th centuries. The process started earlier and continued in some places into the 19th century, but the norm is that in the 11th century people did not have surnames, whereas by the 15th century they did. Early records of the name mention LANGEBOTHAM (without surname) who was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. In 1066 Duke William of Normandy conquered England. He was crowned King, and most of the lands of the English nobility were soon granted to his followers. Domesday Book was compiled 20 years later. The Saxon Chronicle records that in 1085 'at Gloucester at midwinter, the King had deep speech with his counsellors, and sent men all over England to each shire to find out, what or how much each landowner held in land and livestock, and what it was worth. The returns were brought to him'. William was thorough. One of his Counsellors reports that he also sent a second set of Commissioners 'to shires they did not know and where they were themselves unknown, to check their predecessors' survey, and report culprits to the King'. The information was collected at Winchester, corrected, abridged, and copied by one single writer into a single volume. Norfolk, Suffolk and Essex were copied, by several writers into a second volume. The whole undertaking was completed at speed, in less than 12 months. Other records of the name mention Thomas Langebotem who was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379. Thomas Longbottem was the rector or Ashwell Thorpe, County Norfolk in 1557.Richard Longbothom of County York, registered at Oxford University in the year 1603. Anne, daughter of Samuel Longbotham was baptised at St. Jame's, Clerkenwell, London in the year 1685. John Langbotham and Margaret Newman married at St. Mary Aldermary, London in 1705. The name is also spelt Longbottam and Longbotham. The lion depicted in the arms is the noblest of all wild beasts which is made to be the emblem of strength and valour, and is on that account the most frequently borne in Coat-Armour.
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