A variant of the name LITZ is the name LOTZE which has been Anglicized to Lewis. It was a baptismal name 'the son of Louis or Lewis', an ancient and still popular font name. This was the name of the founder of the Frankish dynasty, recorded in Latin chronicles as Ludovicus. The name was popular throughout France in the Middle Ages, and was introduced into England by the Normans. On the continent it was a hereditary name borne by many French kings. The name is also spelt LOUIS, LUDOVICO, LUISI, LUISO, LOUIST, LUDE, LOHDE and LOSSMAN to name but a few. The earliest French hereditary surnames are found in the 12th century, at more or less the same time as they arose in England, but they are by no means common before the 13th century, and it was not until the 15th century that they stabilized to any great extent; before then a surname might be handed down for two or three generations, but then abandoned in favour of another. In the south, many French surnames have come in from Italy over the centuries, and in Northern France, Germanic influence can often be detected. The first hereditary surnames on German soil are found in the second half of the 12th century, slightly later than in England and France. However, it was not until the 16th century that they became stabilized. The practice of adopting hereditary surnames began in the southern areas of Germany, and gradually spread northwards during the Middle Ages. A notable of the name was Rudolf Hermann LOTZE (1817-81) German philosopher, born in Bautzen, Saxony. He studied medicine and philosophy at Leipzig and went on to become professor of philosophy at Leipzig (1842-44), Gottingen (1844-80) and Berlin (1880-81). He first became known as a physiologist, in opposing the then popular doctrine of 'vitalism'. He also helped to found the science of physiological psychology, but he is best known for his religious philosophy, called ' Theistic Idealism', which is most fully expounded in ' Mikrokosmos' (3 vols, 1856-58).
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