The surname of KELLAND was a French occupational name for a person in charge of the wine-cellars in a great house or castle. The name was entered in medieval documents in the Latin form CELLARIUM. The name is also spelt KELLNER, KELLERT, KELLART, KELLERMAN, KELLER, KELERMAN and KELER. Many of the modern family names throughout Europe reflect the profession or occupation of their forbears in the Middle Ages and derive from the position held by their ancestors in the village, noble household or religious community in which they lived and worked. The addition of their profession to their birth name made it easier to identify individual tradesmen and craftsmen. As generations passed and families moved around, so the original identifying names developed into the corrupted but simpler versions that we recognise today. A notable member of the name was Francois Etienne Christopher KELLERMAN, Duke of Valmy (1735-1820) the French soldier born in Wolfsbuchweiler in Alsace. He entered the army in 1752 and served in the Seven Year's War (1756-63). In the French Revolution he was a major-general. In 1809 and 1812 he commanded the reserves on the Rhine. His son, Francois Etienne KELLERMANN (1770-1825) led the charge at the battle of Marengo in 1800. French, or rather Norman French, was the language of the aristocracy and the upper classes in England at the time fixed surnames were being developed, it is therefore not surprising that many of our well-known family names are derived from French words. Originally only Christian or personal names were used, and although a few came into being during the 10th century, surnames were not widely used until much later, when people began to realize the prestige of having a second name. In the Middle Ages the Herald (old French herault) was an officer whose duty it was to proclaim war or peace, carry challenges to battle and messages between sovereigns; nowadays war or peace is still proclaimed by the heralds, but their chief duty as court functionaries is to superintend state ceremonies, such as coronations, installations, and to grant arms. Edward III (1327-1377) appointed two heraldic kings-at-arms for south and north, England in 1340. The English College of Heralds was incorporated by Richard III in 1483-84.
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